Oxidation of LDL may be of pivotal importance in atherogenesis, but the mechanisms that promote oxidation in vivo remain poorly understood. We have explored the possibility that one pathway involves myeloperoxidase, a heme protein secreted by phagocytes. Myeloperoxidase is the only human enzyme known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent oxidizing agent, at physiological halide concentrations. LDL exposed to the complete myeloperoxidase-H2O2-Cl- system underwent chlorination of its protein tyrosyl residues. Treatment of LDL with reagent HOCl resulted in 3-chlorotyrosine formation, implicating HOCl as an intermediate in the enzymatic reaction pathway. In contrast, 3-chlorotyrosine was undetectable in LDL oxidized by hydroxyl radical, copper, iron, hemin, glucose, peroxynitrite, horseradish peroxidase, lactoperoxidase, or lipoxygenase. These results indicate that 3-chlorotyrosine is a specific marker for LDL oxidation by myeloperoxidase. To address the role of myeloperoxidase in promoting LDL oxidation in vivo, we used stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify 3-chlorotyrosine in human aortic tissue and in LDL isolated from atherosclerotic lesions. The level of 3-chlorotyrosine in atherosclerotic tissue obtained during vascular surgery was sixfold higher than that of normal aortic intima. Moreover, the level of 3-chlorotyrosine was 30-fold higher in LDL isolated from atherosclerotic intima compared with circulating LDL. The detection of 3-chlorotyrosine in human atherosclerotic lesions indicates that halogenation reactions catalyzed by the myeloperoxidase system of phagocytes constitute one pathway for protein oxidation in vivo. These findings raise the possibility that the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-Cl- system plays a critical role in converting LDL into an atherogenic form.
Using a cell line (termed BCBL-1) derived from a peripheral effusion (body cavity-based) lymphoma latently infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), we recently reported the successful induction of KSHV replication in culture (Renne, R., W. Zhong, B. Herndier, M. McGrath, N. Abbey, D. Kedes, and D. Ganem. 1996. Nat. Med. 2:342-346). Here we report the first use of this system for establishing the susceptibility of KSHV to available antiviral drugs. Latently infected BCBL-1 cells were induced to lytic replication with phorbol esters; such cells secrete large numbers of KSHV virions into the culture medium. We assayed the ability of the antivirals to block KSHV production, as measured by the release of encapsidated viral DNA. The results show that KSHV replication is insensitive to acyclovir (9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)-methyl]guanine) (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 60-80 microM), but sensitive to ganciclovir (9-[1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl]guanine) (IC50 = 2.7-4 microM), foscarnet (trisodium phosphonoformate hexahydrate) (IC50 = 80-100 microM), and cidofovir (1-[(S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine) (IC50 = 0.5-1 microM).
Impaired vascular beta-adrenergic responsiveness may play an important role in the development and/or maintenance of hypertension. This defect has been associated with an alteration in receptor/guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (G-protein) interactions. However, the locus of this defect remains unclear. G-Protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate serine/threonine residues on G-protein-linked receptors in an agonist-dependent manner. GRK activation mediates reduced receptor responsiveness and impaired receptor/G-protein coupling. To determine whether the impairment in beta-adrenergic response in human hypertension might be associated with altered GRK activity, we studied lymphocytes from younger hypertensive subjects as compared with older and younger normotensive subjects. We assessed GRK activity by rhodopsin phosphorylation and GRK expression by immunoblot. GRK activity was significantly increased in lymphocytes from younger hypertensive subjects and paralleled an increase in GRK-2 (beta ARK-1) protein expression. In contrast, no alterations in cAMP-dependent kinase (A-kinase) activity or GRK-5/6 expression were noted. GRK activity was not increased in lymphocytes from older normotensive subjects who demonstrated a similar impairment in beta-adrenergic-mediated adenylyl cyclase activation. These studies indicate that GRK activity is selectively increased in lymphocytes from hypertensive subjects. The increase in GRK activity may underlie the reduction in beta-adrenergic responsiveness characteristic of the hypertensive state.
Because the immunosuppressant rapamycin (sirolimus) blocks T cell proliferation in G1 phase, it has been proposed as a potential treatment for psoriasis, a skin disease characterized by T cell activation and keratinocyte stem cell hyperproliferation. To determine another potentially important mechanism through which rapamycin can act as an antipsoriatic agent, we tested its direct effect on keratinocyte stem cell proliferation in vitro as well as in vivo. In vivo cell cycle quiescent (G0 phase) stem cell keratinocytes in primary culture sequentially express de novo cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), prior to S phase entry, and upregulate beta1 integrin. Rapamycin inhibited the growth of keratinocytes that were leaving quiescence as well as those already in cell cycle without affecting cell viability. Although beta1 integrin(bright) expression was not affected, the number of beta1 integrin(bright) cells entering S/G2/M was significantly lowered by rapamycin. Cells treated with rapamycin exhibited decreased PCNA expression while cyclin D1 expression, which precedes PCNA expression in the cell cycle, was not affected. We found similar effects on stem cell keratinocytes in patients with psoriasis treated systemically with rapamycin. Because PCNA is required for cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase, our data indicate that inhibition of PCNA protein synthesis may be an important regulatory element in the ability of rapamycin to exert a G1 block.
Induction of islet neogenesis by cellophane wrapping (CW) reverses streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetes. Administration of Ilotropin, a protein extract isolated from CW pancreata, causes recapitulation of normal islet ontogeny and reverses STZ diabetes, reducing mortality by 50%. We investigated the hypothesis that a novel gene encoding a constituent of Ilotropin was expressed in the hamster pancreas undergoing islet neogenesis. Islet neogenesis associated protein (INGAP) is a product of a novel gene expressed in regenerating hamster pancreas. Northern blot analysis showed a strong single transcript of 850 bp at 1 and 2 d after CW that disappeared by the 6th day and was absent from untreated control pancreata. INGAP gene is expressed in acinar cells, but not in islets. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of INGAP in Ilotropin but not in extracts from control pancreata. A synthetic pentadecapeptide, corresponding to a region unique to INGAP, stimulated a 2.4-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation into hamster duct epithelium in primary culture and a rat pancreatic duct cell line but had no effect on a hamster insulinoma tumor cell line. A portion of human INGAP gene was cloned and appears to be highly homologous to the hamster gene. This data suggests that the INGAP gene is a novel pancreatic gene expressed during islet neogenesis whose protein product is a constituent of Ilotropin and is capable of initiating duct cell proliferation, a prerequisite for islet neogenesis.
Although studies indicate that alveolar macrophages participate in host defense against Pneumocystis carinii, their role in organism degradation and clearance from the lung has not yet been established. We, therefore, quantified the uptake and degradation of 35S-labeled P. carinii by cultured macrophages, demonstrating significant degradation of P. carinii over 6 h. We further evaluated the role of macrophages in elimination of P. carinii from the living host. Rats received either intratracheal PBS, liposomal PBS (L-PBS), or liposomal dichloromethylene diphosphonate (L-Cl2MDP), a preparation which leads to selective depletion of macrophages. Over 72 h, L-Cl2MDP-treated animals had loss of > 85% of their alveolar macrophages. In contrast, L-PBS-treated rats had cellular differentials identical to rats receiving PBS. Macrophage-depleted rats and controls were next inoculated with P. carinii and organism clearance was determined after 24 h. P. carinii elimination was evaluated with both cyst counts and an ELISA directed against glycoprotein A (gpA), the major antigen of P. carinii. Both assays indicated that macrophage-depleted rats had substantial inpairment of P. carinii clearance compared to L-PBS- or PBS-treated rats. These data provide the first direct evidence that macrophages mediate elimination of P. carinii from the living host.
Microparticles are released during platelet activation in vitro and have been detected in vivo in syndromes of platelet activation. They have been reported to express both pro- and anticoagulant activities. Nevertheless, their functional significance has remained unresolved. To address the mechanism(s) of cellular activation by platelet microparticles, we examined their effects on platelets and endothelial cells. Activation of human platelets by diverse stimuli (thrombin, 0.1 U/ml; collagen, 4 microg/ml; and the calcium ionophore A23187, 1 microM) results in shedding of microparticles. Pretreatment of these particles, but not membrane fractions from resting platelets, with (s)PLA2 evokes a dose-dependent increase in platelet aggregation, intracellular [Ca2+] movement, and inositol phosphate formation. These effects localize to the arachidonic acid fraction of the microparticles and are mimicked by arachidonic acid isolated from them. However, platelet activation requires prior metabolism of microparticle arachidonic acid to thromboxane A2. Thus, pretreatment of platelets with the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin (20 microM), the thromboxane antagonist SQ29,548 (1 microM), or the protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X (5 microM) prevents platelet activation by microparticles. However, platelet microparticles fail to evoke an inositol phosphate response directly, via either of the cloned thromboxane receptor isoforms stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Prelabeling platelets with [2H(8)] arachidonate was used to demonstrate platelet metabolism of the microparticle-derived substrate to thromboxane. Platelet microparticles can also induce expression of COX-2 and prostacyclin (PGI2) production, but not expression of COX-1, in human endothelial cells. These effects are prevented by pretreatment with actinomycin D (12 microM) or cycloheximide (5 microg/ml). Expression of COX-2 is again induced by the microparticle arachidonate fraction, which it may then use to synthesize PGI2. Both PGE2 and iloprost, a stable PGI2 analog, evoke human umbilical vein endothelial cell COX-2 expression, albeit with kinetics that differ from the response to platelet microparticles. These studies indicate a novel mechanism of transcellular lipid metabolism whereby platelet activation may be amplified or modulated by concentrated delivery of arachidonic acid to adjacent platelets and endothelial cells.
We have recently reported that heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) mRNA is induced in the rat kidney after acute ischemic injury. The present studies were designed to investigate whether bioactive HB-EGF protein is also produced in response to renal injury induced by either ischemia/reperfusion or aminoglycosides. Heparin-binding proteins were purified from kidney homogenates by heparin affinity column chromatography using elution with a 0.2-2.0 M gradient of NaCl. A single peak of proteins that eluted at 1.0-1.2 M NaCl was detected in the postischemic kidney within 6 h of injury. This eluate fraction stimulated DNA synthesis in quiescent Balb/c3T3, RIE, and NRK-52E cell lines, all of which are responsive to the epidermal growth factor family of mitogenic proteins. The EGF receptor of A431 cells was also tyrosine phosphorylated by this eluate peak. Furthermore, immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against rat HB-EGF indicated that the eluate peak contained immunoreactive proteins of 22 and 29 kD mol wt, consistent with the reported sizes of the secreted form and membrane anchored form of HB-EGF, respectively. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that HB-EGF was produced predominantly in distal tubules in kidneys injured either by ischemia/reperfusion or aminoglycoside administration. We also found that during metanephric development immunoreactive HB-EGF was detected in the ureteric bud as early as E14.5 and persisted in structures arising from the ureteric bud throughout embryogenesis. These results suggest that in response to acute injury, HB-EGF is produced predominantly in distal tubules and that endogenous HB-EGF may be an important growth factor involved in renal epithelial cell repair, proliferation, and regeneration in the early stages of recovery after acute renal injury, as well as in nephrogenesis.
Establishment of the human placenta requires that fetal cytotrophoblast stem cells in anchoring chorionic villi become invasive. These cytotrophoblasts aggregate into cell columns and invade both the uterine interstitium and vasculature, anchoring the fetus to the mother and establishing blood flow to the placenta. Cytotrophoblasts colonizing spiral arterioles replace maternal endothelium as far as the first third of the myometrium. We show here that differentiating cytotrophoblasts transform their adhesion receptor phenotype so as to resemble the endothelial cells they replace. Cytotrophoblasts in cell columns show reduced E-cadherin staining and express VE-(endothelial) cadherin, platelet-endothelial adhesion molecule-1, vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1, and alpha-4-integrins. Cytotrophoblasts in the uterine interstitium and maternal vasculature continue to express these receptors, and, like endothelial cells during angiogenesis, also stain for alphaVbeta3. In functional studies, alphaVbeta3 and VE-cadherin enhance, while E-cadherin restrains, cytotrophoblast invasiveness. Cytotrophoblasts expressing alpha4 integrins bound immobilized VCAM-1 in vitro, suggesting that this receptor-pair could mediate cytotrophoblast-endothelium or cytotrophoblast-cytotrophoblast interactions in vivo, during endovascular invasion. In the pregnancy disorder preeclampsia, in which endovascular invasion remains superficial, cytotrophoblasts fail to express most of these endothelial markers (Zhou et al., 1997. J. Clin. Invest. 99:2152-2164.), suggesting that this adhesion phenotype switch is required for successful endovascular invasion and normal placentation.
In human pregnancy, placental cytotrophoblasts that invade the uterus downregulate the expression of adhesion receptors that are characteristic of their epithelial origin, and upregulate the expression of adhesion receptors that are expressed by vascular cells. We suggest that this transformation could be critical to endovascular invasion, the process whereby cytotrophoblasts invade the uterine spiral arterioles and line their walls (Zhou et al. J. Clin. Invest. 1997. 99: 2139-2151.). To better understand the in vivo significance of these findings, we tested the hypothesis that in preeclampsia, an important disease of pregnancy in which endovascular invasion is abrogated, cytotrophoblasts fail to adopt a vascular adhesion phenotype. In experiments described here we stained placental bed biopsy specimens from age-matched control pregnancies and from those complicated by preeclampsia with antibodies that recognize adhesion molecules that are normally modulated during this transformation. In preeclampsia, differentiating/invading cytotrophoblasts fail to express properly many of these molecules, including integrin, cadherin, and Ig superfamily members. These results suggest that preeclampsia is associated with failure of cytotrophoblasts to mimic a vascular adhesion phenotype. The functional consequences of this abnormality are unknown, but are likely to affect negatively cytotrophoblast endovascular invasion and uterine arteriole remodeling, thereby compromising blood flow to the maternal-fetal interface.
Inflammation and infection of the gut can be followed by reactive arthritis at a distant joint. Leukocyte recruitment into synovium is essential for this process, but nothing is known about the endothelial adhesion molecules in synovial membrane which direct the homing of activated, gut-derived leukocytes to joints. Here we analyzed the expression of the known endothelial adhesion molecules in inflamed synovium and their function in binding of mucosal leukocytes. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1/CD54) and vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) were most prominently expressed in synovial vessels. All other adhesion molecules were found at lower levels in inflamed synovia, except mucosal addressin which was absent. Binding of macrophages isolated from lamina propria of the gut to synovial endothelium was almost entirely P-selectin-dependent. In contrast, small intestinal lymphocytes and immunoblasts both relied mainly on VAP-1 in recognition of synovial vessels. Thus, endothelial P-selectin and VAP-1 mediate binding of mucosal effector cells to synovium in a leukocyte subtype-selective manner. Antiadhesive therapy against these inducible molecules should ablate the pathogenetic cascade leading to inappropriate homing of leukocytes to joints in arthritis.
To examine whether the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway might play a role in fat-induced insulin resistance, we monitored the effects of prolonged elevations in FFA availability both on skeletal muscle levels of UDP-N-acetyl-hexosamines and on peripheral glucose disposal during 7-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (approximately 500 microU/ml) clamp studies. When the insulin-induced decrease in the plasma FFA levels (to approximately 0.3 mM) was prevented by infusion of a lipid emulsion in 15 conscious rats (plasma FFA approximately 1.4 mM), glucose uptake (5-7 h = 32.5+/-1.7 vs 0-2 h = 45.2+/-2.8 mg/kg per min; P < 0.01) and glycogen synthesis (P < 0.01) were markedly decreased. During lipid infusion, muscle UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) increased by twofold (to 53.4+/-1.1 at 3 h and to 55.5+/-1.1 nmol/gram at 7 h vs 20.4+/-1.7 at 0 h, P < 0.01) while glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6-P) levels were increased at 3 h (475+/-49 nmol/gram) and decreased at 7 h (133+/-7 vs 337+/-28 nmol/gram at 0 h, P < 0.01). To discern whether such an increase in the skeletal muscle UDP-GlcNAc concentration could account for the development of insulin resistance, we generated similar increases in muscle UDP-GlcNAc using three alternate experimental approaches. Euglycemic clamps were performed after prolonged hyperglycemia (18 mM, n = 10), or increased availability of either glucosamine (3 micromol/kg per min; n = 10) or uridine (30 micromol/kg per min; n = 4). These conditions all resulted in very similar increases in the skeletal muscle UDP-GlcNAc (to approximately 55 nmol/gram) and markedly impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. Thus, fat-induced insulin resistance is associated with: (a) decreased skeletal muscle Glc-6-P levels indicating defective transport/phosphorylation of glucose; (b) marked accumulation of the endproducts of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway preceding the onset of insulin resistance. Most important, the same degree of insulin resistance can be reproduced in the absence of increased FFA availability by a similar increase in skeletal muscle UDP-N-acetyl-hexosamines. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that increased FFA availability induces skeletal muscle insulin resistance by increasing the flux of fructose-6-phosphate into the hexosamine pathway.
Manipulation of the cytokine microenvironment at the time of vaccination can influence immune responses to remote challenge, providing a strategy to study the molecular pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine-enhanced disease in the mouse model. Although treatment with antibody against IL-4 or recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) at the time of formalin-inactivated RSV vaccination induced a similar shift in the pattern of cytokine mRNA expression upon live virus challenge, anti-IL-4 treated mice had increased CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and reduced illness compared with rIL-12-treated mice. To define effector mechanisms responsible for these patterns, CD4+ and/or CD8+ T lymphocytes were selectively depleted in vivo at the time of RSV challenge. In rIL-12-treated mice, CD4+ lymphocytes made the largest contribution to IFN-gamma mRNA, RSV clearance, and illness, while in anti-IL-4 treated mice, CD8+ lymphocytes were the major effector. The effector responsible for virus clearance also mediated illness, suggesting that efficiency of virus clearance determined disease expression. These results demonstrate that the phenotype of effector cells involved in the immune response to virus challenge may be a more important determinant of disease than patterns of cytokine expression classically assigned to Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes.
The purpose of these experiments was to investigate a potential role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mediating vascular dysfunction induced by increased glucose flux via the sorbitol pathway. Skin chambers were mounted on the backs of Sprague-Dawley rats and 1 wk later, granulation tissue in the chamber was exposed twice daily for 7 d to 5 mM glucose, 30 mM glucose, or 1 mM sorbitol in the presence and absence of neutralizing VEGF antibodies. Albumin permeation and blood flow were increased two- to three-fold by 30 mM glucose and 1 mM sorbitol; these increases were prevented by coadministration of neutralizing VEGF antibodies. Blood flow and albumin permeation were increased approximately 2.5-fold 1 h after topical application of recombinant human VEGF and these effects were prevented by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors (aminoguanidine and N(G)-monomethyl L-arginine). Topical application of a superoxide generating system increased albumin permeation and blood flow and these changes were markedly attenuated by VEGF antibody and NOS inhibitors. Application of sodium nitroprusside for 7 d or the single application of a calcium ionophore, A23187, mimicked effects of glucose, sorbitol, and VEGF on vascular dysfunction and the ionophore effect was prevented by coadministration of aminoguanidine. These observations suggest a potentially important role for VEGF in mediating vascular dysfunction induced by "hypoxia-like" cytosolic metabolic imbalances (reductive stress, increased superoxide, and nitric oxide production) linked to increased flux of glucose via the sorbitol pathway.
We examined if endogenous endothelins mediate the decreased HCO3 secretion and increased H+ secretion in in vivo-perfused distal tubules of rats fed dietary acid as (NH4)2SO4. Animals given (NH4)2SO4 drinking solution had higher endothelin-1 addition to renal interstitial fluid than those given distilled H2O (480+/-51 vs. 293+/-32 fmol g kidney wt(-1) min(-1), respectively, P < 0.03). (NH4)2SO4-ingesting animals infused with bosentan (10 mg/kg) to inhibit A- and B-type endothelin receptors had higher HCO3 secretion than baseline (NH4)2SO4 animals (-4.7+/-0.4 vs. -2.4+/-0.3 pmol mm(-1) min(-1), P < 0.01), but (NH4)2SO4 animals given a specific inhibitor of A-type endothelin receptors (BQ-123) did not (-2.0+/-0.2 pmol mm(-1) min(-1), P = NS vs. baseline). H+ secretion was lower in bosentan-infused compared with baseline (NH4)2SO4 animals (27.7+/-2.5 vs. 43.9+/-4.0 pmol mm(-1) min(-1), P < 0.03), but that for BQ-123-infused (NH4)2SO4 animals was not (42.9+/-4.2 pmol mm(-1) min(-1), P = NS vs. baseline). Bosentan had no effect on distal tubule HCO3 or H+ secretion in control animals. The data show that dietary acid increases endothelin-1 addition to renal interstitial fluid and that inhibition of B- but not A-type endothelin receptors blunts the decreased HCO3 secretion and increased H+ secretion in the distal tubule of animals given dietary acid. The data are consistent with endogenous endothelins as mediators of increased distal tubule acidification induced by dietary acid.
In the kidney, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) of the neuronal isoform (nNOS) is predominantly located in the macula densa cells. Unspecific chronic NOS inhibition in rats leads to elevated blood pressure (P(A)), associated with increased renal vascular resistance. This study was designed to examine the effect of chronic selective inhibition of nNOS with 7-nitro indazole (7-NI) on P(A), GFR, and the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) system. P(A) was repeatedly measured by a noninvasive tail-cuff technique for 4 wk in rats treated orally with 7-NI, and in control rats. After treatment, the animals were anesthetized and renal excretion rates, GFR, and TGF activity were determined. After 1 wk of 7-NI treatment P(A) was increased from 129+/-4 to 143 2 mmHg. GFR (1.85+/-0.1 vs. 1.97+/-0.2 ml/min in controls) was unchanged, but micropuncture studies revealed a more sensitive TGF than in controls. After 4 wk of 7-NI treatment P(A) was 152+/-4 mmHg, but no change in GFR (1.90+/-0.5 ml/min) or TGF sensitivity was detected. Acute administration of 7-NI to nontreated rats did not affect P(A), but decreased GFR (1.49+/-0.1 ml/min) and increased TGF sensitivity. In conclusion, chronic nNOS inhibition leads to increased P(A). Our results suggest that the elevated P(A) could be caused by an initially increased TGF sensitivity, leading to decreased GFR and an increased body fluid volume.
To determine the mechanism of impaired insulin-stimulated muscle glycogen metabolism in patients with poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), we used 13C-NMR spectroscopy to monitor the peak intensity of the C1 resonance of the glucosyl units in muscle glycogen during a 6-h hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp using [1-(13)C]glucose-enriched infusate followed by nonenriched glucose. Under similar steady state (t = 3-6 h) plasma glucose (approximately 9.0 mM) and insulin concentrations (approximately 400 pM), nonoxidative glucose metabolism was significantly less in the IDDM subjects compared with age-weight-matched control subjects (37+/-6 vs. 73+/-11 micromol/kg of body wt per minute, P < 0.05), which could be attributed to an approximately 45% reduction in the net rate of muscle glycogen synthesis in the IDDM subjects compared with the control subjects (108+/-16 vs. 195+/-6 micromol/liter of muscle per minute, P < 0.001). Muscle glycogen turnover in the IDDM subjects was significantly less than that of the controls (16+/-4 vs. 33+/-5%, P < 0.05), indicating that a marked reduction in flux through glycogen synthase was responsible for the reduced rate of net glycogen synthesis in the IDDM subjects. 31P-NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the intramuscular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) under the same hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic conditions. Basal G-6-P concentration was similar between the two groups (approximately 0.10 mmol/kg of muscle) but the increment in G-6-P concentration in response to the glucose-insulin infusion was approximately 50% less in the IDDM subjects compared with the control subjects (0.07+/-0.02 vs. 0.13+/-0.02 mmol/kg of muscle, P < 0.05). When nonoxidative glucose metabolic rates in the control subjects were matched to the IDDM subjects, the increment in the G-6-P concentration (0.06+/-0.02 mmol/kg of muscle) was no different than that in the IDDM subjects. Together, these data indicate that defective glucose transport/phosphorylation is the major factor responsible for the lower rate of muscle glycogen synthesis in the poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.
CD4(pos) TH1 T cells are considered to play a central role in a number of human autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis. Experimental treatment protocols aimed at selectively eliminating CD4(pos) T cells thus far have yielded disappointing clinical results. Here we analyzed phenotype and function of circulating T cells in multiple sclerosis patients treated with the chimeric CD4 mAb cM-T412 in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, magnetic resonance imaging-monitored phase II trial. Treatment resulted in a long-lasting depletion of CD4(pos) T cells but did not affect CD8(pos) T cell numbers. Analysis of CD4(pos) subpopulations showed that unprimed, CD45RA(pos)/R0(neg) lymphocytes were approximately three times more sensitive to the mAb than primed, CD45RA(neg)/R0(pos) T cells. Notably, within the CD45RA(pos) subset, T cells with phenotypic evidence of prior activation, i.e., expressing Fas, were relatively insensitive to cM-T412, compared with Fas(neg) cells. Remarkably, while a decrease in the number of IL-4-producing T helper 2 (TH2)-type cells in the anti-CD4 treated group was observed, numbers of IFN-gamma-producing T helper 1 (TH1)-type cells remained stable, resulting in a significant increase in the TH1/TH2 ratio. Our data show that treatment with depleting CD4 mAb does not eliminate the cells most strongly involved in the disease process, i.e., primed, IFN-gamma-producing TH1-type cells, and may therefore give an explanation for the lack of beneficial clinical effects of depleting CD4 mAb in human chronic autoimmune disease.
Phospholipid (PL) scramblase is a plasma membrane protein that mediates accelerated transbilayer migration of PLs upon binding Ca2+, facilitating rapid mobilization of phosphatidylserine to the cell surface upon elevation of internal Ca2+. In patients with Scott syndrome, a congenital bleeding disorder related to defective expression of membrane coagulant activity, circulating blood cells show decreased cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine at elevated cytosolic [Ca2+], implying an underlying defect or deficiency of PL scramblase. To gain insight into the molecular basis of this disorder, we compared PL scramblase in Scott erythrocyte membranes to those of normal controls. Whereas membranes of Scott cells were unresponsive to Ca2+-induced activation of PL scramblase at neutral pH, apparently normal PL scramblase activity was induced at pH < 6.0. After extraction with octylglucoside, a membrane protein was isolated from the Scott cells which exhibited normal PL scramblase activity when reconstituted in vesicles with exogenous PLs. Like PL scramblase from normal erythrocytes, PL scramblase from Scott erythrocytes was maximally activated either by addition of Ca2+ (at pH 7.4) or by acidification to pH < 6.0, and similar apparent affinities for Ca2+ and rates of transbilayer transfer of PLs were observed. This suggests that the defect in Scott syndrome is related to an altered interaction of Ca2+ with PL scramblase on the endofacial surface of the cell membrane, due either to an intrinsic constraint upon the protein preventing interaction with Ca2+ in situ, or due to an unidentified inhibitor or cofactor in the Scott cell that is dissociated by detergent.
Growth hormone (GH) has an important role in the regulation of hepatic LDL receptor expression and plasma lipoprotein levels. This investigation was undertaken to characterize the effects of GH on hepatic cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the rat. In hypophysectomized (Hx) rats, the activities of the rate-limiting enzymes in cholesterol and bile acid biosynthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (C7alphaOH), were reduced by 71 and 64%, respectively. HMG CoA reductase mRNA levels were reduced by 37%, whereas C7alphaOH mRNA was increased by 81%. LDL receptor expression was reduced by 18% in Hx rats, without any change in the LDL receptor mRNA levels. Although the normal diurnal variation of C7alphaOH activity was preserved in Hx rats, the activity of C7alphaOH was much reduced both at midday and midnight. Total hepatic cholesterol was increased by 14% in Hx animals whereas microsomal cholesterol was unchanged. The rate of cholesterol esterification was enhanced (by 38%) in liver microsomes from Hx rats. Stepwise hormonal substitution of Hx rats showed that GH, but not thyroid hormone or cortisone, was essential to normalize the enzymatic activity of C7alphaOH. GH also normalized the altered plasma lipoprotein pattern in Hx rats, and increased the fecal output of bile acids. The latter effect was particularly evident when GH was combined with cortisone and thyroid hormone. Also in normal rats, GH stimulated C7alphaOH activity. In conclusion, GH has an essential role to maintain a normal enzymatic activity of C7alphaOH, and this, at least in part, explains the effects of GH on hepatic cholesterol metabolism. GH is also of critical importance to normalize the altered plasma lipoprotein pattern in Hx rats.
Interaction of circulating leukocytes with tumor microvasculature is a critical event in the recruitment of effector cells into the tumor stroma. We have examined the ability of lymphotoxin (TNF-beta), to stimulate rolling, adhesion, and transmigration of leukocytes in angiogenic blood vessels induced by tumor spheroids of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) implanted in dorsal skinfold chambers of nude mice. In the absence of cytokine stimulation, circulating leukocytes failed to appreciably interact with tumor microvessels (TMV), although significant rolling and adhesion was observed in normal vessels. However, stimulation with lymphotoxin (LT) resulted in a rapid increase in the number of fast and slow rolling leukocytes in TMV. Treatment with anti-P-selectin mAb 5H1 resulted in inhibition of fast rollers alone, while combination treatment with anti-P-selectin and anti-E-selectin (9A9) mAbs effectively blocked slow rolling of leukocytes. Superfusion of the lymphotoxin-stimulated neovasculature with leukotriene B4 (LTB4) resulted in stable cell adhesion followed by emigration of leukocytes into the tumor stroma. LTB4-mediated adhesion and transmigration was significantly inhibited by treatment with anti-beta2 mAb 2E6. These studies delineate a multistep cascade of leukocyte adhesion in TMV and demonstrate that stimulation of the neovasculature with cytokines and chemoattractants can result in P- and E-selectin-dependent rolling and beta2-dependent stable adhesion followed by transmigration into the tumor stroma.
A considerable amount of evidence collected from several different experimental systems indicates that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) may play a role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Large epidemiologic studies have shown a 40-50% reduction in mortality from colorectal cancer in persons taking aspirin or other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on a regular basis. One property shared by all of these drugs is their ability to inhibit COX, a key enzyme in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Two isoforms of COX have been characterized, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 is expressed at high levels in intestinal tumors in humans and rodents. In this study, we selected two transformed human colon cancer cell lines for studies on the role of COX-2 in intestinal tumorigenesis. We evaluated HCA-7 cells which express high levels of COX-2 protein constitutively and HCT-116 cells which lack COX-2 protein. Treatment of nude mice implanted with HCA-7 cells with a selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-58125), reduced tumor formation by 85-90%. SC-58125 also inhibited colony formation of cultured HCA-7 cells. Conversely, SC-58125 had no effect on HCT-116 implants in nude mice or colony formation in culture. Here we provide evidence that there may be a direct link between inhibition of intestinal cancer growth and selective inhibition of the COX-2 pathway.
beta2-Glycoprotein I (beta2GPI), a plasma glycoprotein with phospholipid-binding property, is known to be the actual target antigen for autoimmune type anticardiolipin antibodies (aCLs). Certain groups of aCLs (anti-beta2GPI antibodies) exert lupus anticoagulant (LA) activity and perturb the function of vascular endothelial cells. This investigation aimed at highlighting some insights into the molecular basis by which aCLs exert their biological effects by using anti-beta2GPI mAbs with well-characterized epitopes from mice and from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Anti-beta2GPI mAbs directed against the third domain (Cof-20 and Cof-22) and fourth domain (Cof-21, EY1C8, and EY2C9) of beta2GPI inhibited the thrombin generation induced by Russell's viper venom in diluted plasma and that induced by the prothrombinase complex reconstituted with purified clotting factors. This anticoagulant activity was abrogated in the presence of an excess amount of phospholipids, thus resembling the LA activity. In stark contrast, anti-beta2GPI mAbs directed against the fifth domain and the carboxy-terminal region of the fourth domain showed no LA-like activity. These findings suggest that the LA activity of anti-beta2GPI antibodies depends on their epitope specificity. Experiments carried out to clarify the mechanism of the LA activity showed that anti-beta2GPI mAbs with LA-like activity, but not those without this effect, enhance the beta2GPI binding to phospholipids. In addition, the F(ab')2 fragment, but not the Fab' fragment, of the anti-beta2GPI mAbs was found to enhance the LA activity and the beta2GPI binding to phospholipids, suggesting that anti-beta2GPI antibodies induce formation of multiple complexes of beta2GPI on the surface of phospholipids because of their bivalent property. This clustering of beta2GPI molecules induced by anti-beta2GPI antibodies, probably because of their multivalent property and epitope specificity, might hinder the lateral mobility and activation of clotting factors on the surface of phospholipids and thus exert LA activity. Clustering of beta2GPI molecules may also explain the molecular mechanism by which anti-beta2GPI antibodies alter the function of leukocytes and endothelial cells. The well-documented heterogeneous LA activity of aCLs (anti-beta2GPI antibodies) may also be explained by their epitope specificity.
Whether or not Lp(a) plasma levels are affected by the apoB R3500Q mutation, which causes Familial Defective apoB (FDB), is still a matter of debate. We have analyzed 300 family members of 13 unrelated Dutch index patients for the apoB mutation and the apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] genotype. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations were determined in 85 FDB heterozygotes and 106 non-FDB relatives. Mean LDL levels were significantly elevated in FDB subjects compared to non-FDB relatives (P < 0.001). Median Lp(a) levels were not different between FDB subjects and their non-FDB relatives. In contrast, sib-pair analysis demonstrated a significant effect of the FDB status on Lp(a) levels. In sib pairs identical by descent for apo(a) alleles but discordant for the FDB mutation (n = 11) each sib with FDB had a higher Lp(a) level than the corresponding non-FDB sib. Further, all possible sib pairs (n = 105) were grouped into three categories according to the absence/presence of the apoB R3500Q mutation in one or both subjects of a sib pair. The variability of differences in Lp(a) levels within the sib pairs increased with the number (0, 1, and 2) of FDB subjects present in the sib pair. This suggests that the FDB status increases Lp(a) level and variability, and that apoB may be a variability gene for Lp(a) levels in plasma.
This study characterizes the rat ovary as a site of hormonally dependent glucose transporter (Glut) expression, and explores the potential role of interleukin (IL)-1, a putative intermediary in the ovulatory process, in this regard. Molecular probing throughout a simulated estrous cycle revealed a significant surge in ovarian Glut3 (but not Glut1) expression at the time of ovulation. Treatment of cultured whole ovarian dispersates from immature rats with IL-1beta resulted in upregulation of the relative abundance of the Glut1 (4.5-fold) and Glut3 (3.5-fold) proteins as determined by Western blot analysis. Other members of the Glut family (i.e., Gluts 2, 4, and 5) remained undetectable. The ability of IL-1 to upregulate Glut1 and Glut3 transcripts proved time-, dose-, nitric oxide-, and protein biosynthesis-dependent but glucose independent. Other ovarian agonists (i.e., TNF alpha, IGF-I, interferon-gamma, and insulin) were without effect. Taken together, our findings establish the mammalian ovary as a site of cyclically determined Glut1 and Glut3 expression, and disclose the ability of IL-1 to induce the ovarian expression as well as translation of Glut1 and Glut3 (but not of Gluts 2, 4, or 5). Our observations also establish IL-1 as the first known regulator of Glut3, the most efficient Glut known to date. In so doing, IL-1, a putative component of the ovulatory process, may be acting to meet the increased metabolic demands imposed on the growing follicle and the ovulated cumulus-enclosed oocyte.
Osteoclastic bone degradation requires intimacy between the matrix and the resorptive cell. While the precise role the integrin alpha(v)beta3 plays in the process is not yet understood, occupancy of the heterodimer by soluble ligand or by blocking antibody effectively inhibits bone resorption in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that alpha(v)beta3 blockade may prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. Thus, we identified a synthetic chemical peptide mimetic, beta-[2-[[5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-1-oxopentyl]amino]-1-+ ++oxoethyl]amino-3-pyridinepropanoic acid, bistrifluoroacetate (SC56631) based upon the alpha(v)beta3 ligand, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), which recognizes the isolated integrin, and its relative, alpha(v)beta5, as effectively as does the natural peptide. The mimetic dampens osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Most importantly, intravenous administration of the mimetic prevents the 55% loss of trabecular bone sustained by rats within 6 wk of oophorectomy. Histological examination of bones taken from SC56631-treated, oophorectomized animals also demonstrates the compound's bone sparing properties and its capacity to decrease osteoclast number. Thus, an RGD mimetic prevents the rapid bone loss that accompanies estrogen withdrawal.
Copyright © 2014 American Society for Clinical Investigation