Mucus retention in the lungs is an important feature of several respiratory diseases (Regnis, J.A., M. Robinson, D.L. Bailey, P. Cook, P. Hooper, H.K. Chan, I. Gonda, G. Bautovich, and P.T.P. Bye. 1994. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 150:66-71 and Currie, D.C., D. Pavia, J.E. Agnew, M.T. Lopez-Vidriero, P.D. Diamond, P.J. Cole, and S.W. Clarke. 1987. Thorax. 42:126-130). On the mucus-depleted bovine trachea, the ciliary transport rate of sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis of other causes was slow, but the rate was doubled by increasing the sodium chloride content by 90 mM. Increasing the sputum osmolality by inspissation or by the addition of nonelectrolytes had a similar effect. The viscoelasticity of sputum, but not the bovine ciliary beat frequency, was markedly saline dependent over the pathophysiological range. This suggests that low mucus salinity, not (as is generally assumed) its under-hydration, contributes to its retention in bronchiectasis due to cystic fibrosis and other causes, probably by affecting its theology. It also indicates how the genetic defect in cystic fibrosis might lead to impaired mucus clearance. Therapies that increase the osmolality of lung mucus might benefit patients with mucus retention.
The peripheral production of leptin by adipose tissue and its putative effect as a signal of satiety in the central nervous system suggest that leptin gains access to the regions of the brain regulating energy balance by crossing the brain capillary endothelium, which constitutes the blood-brain barrier in vivo. The present experiments characterize the binding and internalization of mouse recombinant leptin in isolated human brain capillaries, an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier. Incubation of 125I-leptin with isolated human brain capillaries resulted in temperature-dependent binding: at 37 degrees C, approximately 65% of radiolabeled leptin was bound per milligram of capillary protein. Two-thirds of the bound radioactivity was resistant to removal by acid wash, demonstrating endocytosis of 125I-leptin into capillary cells. At 4 degrees C, binding to isolated capillaries was reduced to approximately 23%/mg of protein, the majority of which was acid wash resistant. Binding of 125I-leptin to brain capillary endothelial plasma membranes was saturable, described by a two-site binding model with a high-affinity dissociation constant of 5.1+/-2.8 nM and maximal binding capacity of 0.34+/-0.16 pmol/mg of membrane protein. Addition of porcine insulin or insulin-like growth factor at a final concentration of 100 nM had a negligible effect on leptin binding. These results provide evidence for a leptin receptor that mediates saturable, specific, temperature-dependent binding and endocytosis of leptin at the human blood-brain barrier.
Mutations in 11 of the more than 20 keratin intermediate filaments cause several epidermal and oral associated diseases. No disease-associated mutations have been described in keratin 8 or 18 (K8/18) which are the major keratin pair in simple-type epithelia, as found in the liver, pancreas, and intestine. However, transgenic mice that express mutant keratin 18 develop chronic hepatitis, and have an increased susceptibility to drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Also, ectopic expression of epidermal K14 in mouse liver results in chronic hepatitis, and disruption of mouse K8 leads to embryo lethality with extensive liver hemorrhage. We tested if patients with liver disease of unknown cause may harbor mutations in K18. We describe a his127-->leu (H127L) K18 mutation in a patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis that is germline transmitted. The K18 H127L isolated from the liver explant, or after expression in bacteria, showed an altered migration on two-dimensional gel analysis as compared with normal human liver or bacterially expressed K18. Electron microscopy of in vitro assembled K18 H127L and wild type K8 showed an assembly defect as compared with normal K8/18 assembly. Our results suggest that mutations in K18 may be predispose to, or result in cryptogenic cirrhosis in humans.
Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) is associated with an adaptive increase in the bicarbonate absorptive capacity of the rat medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL). To specify whether NHE-3, the apical MTAL Na/H exchanger, is involved in this adaptation, NHE-3 mRNA was quantified by a competitive RT-PCR using an internal standard which differed from the wild-type NHE-3 mRNA by an 80-bp deletion. CMA increased NHE-3 mRNA from 0.025+/-0.003 to 0.042+/-0.009 amol/ng total RNA (P < 0.005). NHE-3 transport activity was measured as the initial proton flux rate calculated from the Na-dependent cell pH recovery of Na-depleted acidified MTAL cells in the presence of 50 microM HOE694 which specifically blocks NHE-1, the basolateral MTAL NHE isoform. CMA caused a 68% increase in NHE-3 transport activity (P < 0.001). In addition, CMA was associated with a 71% increase in NHE-3 protein abundance (P < 0.05) as determined by Western blot analysis on MTAL membranes using a polyclonal antiserum directed against a cytoplasmic epitope of rat NHE-3. Thus, NHE-3 adapts to CMA in the rat MTAL via an increase in the mRNA transcript that enhances NHE-3 protein abundance and transport activity.
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a cutaneous autoimmune disease characterized by blister formation in the suprabasilar layers of skin and mucosae and anti-desmoglein-3 (Dsg3) autoantibodies bound to the surface of lesional keratinocytes and circulating in the serum of patients. This disease can be reproduced in neonatal mice by passive transfer of patients' IgG, indicating that humoral immunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PV. Currently, the role of T lymphocytes in the development of PV is not clear. Here, we report that three immunoreactive segments of the ectodomain of Dsg3 specifically induced proliferation of T cells from PV patients. We found that T lymphocytes from 13 out of 14 patients responded to at least one of three Dsg3 peptides. T cells from controls and other patient groups did not respond to these Dsg3 peptides. The major T cell population stimulated by these Dsg3 peptides was CD4 positive. Dsg3-specific T cell lines and clones were developed and were shown to express a CD4 positive memory T cell phenotype. Upon stimulation, these cell lines and clones secreted a Th2-like cytokine profile. The Dsg3 responses of these T cells were restricted to HLA-DR, and not -DQ and -DP, of the major histocompatibility complex. This information will help to elucidate the cellular immune abnormalities leading to production of pathogenic IgG autoantibodies in patients with PV.
In hypercholesterolemia, impaired nitric oxide activity has been associated with increased nitric oxide degradation by oxygen radicals. Deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase, causes both impaired nitric oxide activity and increased oxygen radical formation. In this study we tested whether tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency contributes to the decreased nitric oxide activity observed in hypercholesterolemic patients. Therefore, L-mono-methyl-arginine to inhibit basal nitric oxide activity, serotonin to stimulate nitric oxide activity, and nitroprusside as endothelium-independent vasodilator were infused in the brachial artery of 13 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 13 matched controls. The infusions were repeated during coinfusion of L-arginine (200 microg/kg/min), tetrahydrobiopterin (500 microg/min), or the combination of both compounds. Forearm vasomotion was assessed using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography and expressed as ratio of blood flow between measurement and control arm (M/C ratio). Tetrahydrobiopterin infusion alone did not alter M/C ratio. Both the attenuated L-mono-methyl-arginine-induced vasoconstriction as well as the impaired serotonin-induced vasodilation were restored in patients during tetrahydrobiopterin infusion. Tetrahydrobiopterin had no effect in controls. In conclusion, this study demonstrates restoration of endothelial dysfunction by tetrahydrobiopterin suppletion in hypercholesterolemic patients.
Sepsis and its complications, hypotension, shock, and multiorgan failure continue to represent a significant cause of mortality among hospitalized patients, affecting approximately 200,000 patients per year in the US and 100,000 in Europe (Dal Nogare, A.R. 1991. Am. J. Med. Sci. 302:50-65.). Incidence rates appear to be increasing, probably due to an increase in the population with risk factors such as diabetes or invasive procedures. Activation of cytokines by endotoxins and subsequent formation of nitric oxide is of central pathogeneic importance in sepsis. In this study we show that polymerized bovine hemoglobin (Biopure 2) restores both cardiovascular and renal functions in an endotoxin-induced shock model in rats. These effects are compared to those of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, and hydroxyethyl starch, the latter currently in clinical use for intravenous volume replacement. Our results clearly indicate that polymerized hemoglobin but not nitric oxide synthase inhibition or volume replacement normalize cardiovascular and kidney function in acute septic shock. This new therapeutic approach is readily applicable to controlled clinical trials because polymerized hemoglobin has been tested in humans and is therefore available for such studies.
Cardiac myocytes coexpress multiple protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms which likely play distinct roles in signaling pathways leading to changes in contractility, hypertrophy, and ischemic preconditioning. Although PKC has been reported to be activated during myocardial ischemia, the effect of ischemia/hypoxia on individual PKC isoforms has not been determined. This study examines the effect of hypoxia on the subcellular distribution of individual PKC isoforms in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Hypoxia induces the redistribution of PKC alpha and PKC epsilon from the soluble to the particulate compartment. This effect (which is presumed to represent activation of PKC alpha and PKC epsilon) is detectable by 1 h, sustained for up to 24 h, and reversible within 1 h of reoxygenation. Inhibition of phospholipase C with tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) prevents the hypoxia-induced redistribution of PKC alpha and PKC epsilon, whereas chelation of intracellular calcium with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) blocks the redistribution of PKC alpha, but not PKC epsilon; D609 and BAPTA do not influence the partitioning of PKC alpha and PKC epsilon in normoxic myocytes. Hypoxia, in contrast, decreases the membrane association of PKC delta via a mechanism that is distinct from the hypoxia-induced translocation/activation of PKC alpha/PKC epsilon, since the response is slower in onset, slowly reversible upon reoxygenation, and not blocked by D609 or BAPTA. The hypoxia-induced shift of PKC delta to the soluble compartment does not prevent subsequent 4-beta phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-dependent translocation/activation of PKC delta. Hypoxia does not alter the abundance of any PKC isoform nor does it alter the subcellular distribution of PKC lambda. The selective hypoxia-induced activation of PKC isoforms through a pathway involving phospholipase C (PKC alpha/PKC epsilon) and intracellular calcium (PKC alpha) may critically influence cardiac myocyte contractility, gene expression, and/or tolerance to ischemia.
Paraoxonase was identified as a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in recent studies focusing on a polymorphism affecting position 191. A second polymorphism of the paraoxonase gene affects position 54 and involves a methionine (M allele) to leucine (L allele) change. It was investigated in diabetic patients (n = 408) with and without vascular disease. There were highly significant differences in plasma concentrations and activities of paraoxonase between genotypes defined by the 54 polymorphism: MMAA, MLAA, LLAA; protein, 65.3+/-18.0, 77.9+/-18.0, 93.5+/-26.0 microg/ml; P < 0.0001: activity (phenylacetate), 48.6+/-13.5, 64.1+/-14.5, 68.1+/-13.0 U/ml; P < 0.0001. The 191 variant had little impact on paraoxonase concentrations. Homozygosity for the L allele was an independent risk factor for CVD (odds ratio 1.98 (1.07-3.83); P = 0.031). A linkage disequilibrium (P < 0.0001) was apparent between the mutations giving rise to leucine and arginine at positions 54 and 191, respectively. The study underlines that susceptibility to CVD correlates with high activity paraoxonase alleles. The 54 polymorphism would appear to be of central importance to paraoxonase function by virtue of its association with modulated concentrations. The latter could explain the association between both the 54 and 191 polymorphisms and CVD.
The manner in which growth factors acting at the cell surface regulate activity of myogenic basic-helix-loop-helix proteins in the nucleus and thus control the fate of committed skeletal myoblasts remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that immunoreactive Gs protein alpha-subunits (Gs alpha) localize to nuclei of proliferating C2C12 myoblasts but not to nuclei of differentiated postmitotic C2C12 myotubes. To explore the biological significance of this observation, we placed a cDNA encoding Gs alpha in an expression vector under the control of a steroid-inducible promoter and isolated colonies of stably transfected C2C12 myoblasts. Dexamethasone-induced expression of activated Gs alpha markedly delayed differentiation in comparison with uninduced stably transfected cells, which differentiated normally in mitogen-depleted media. Northern blot analysis showed that impaired differentiation was associated with delayed up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin and delayed down-regulation of Id, a dominant negative inhibitor of differentiation. Similar impairment of differentiation could not be reproduced in wild-type C2C12 cells by increasing intracellular cAMP either with forskolin or treatment with a cell-permeable cAMP analog. However, treatment of myoblasts with cholera toxin markedly inhibited myogenic differentiation. Taken together, these findings suggest a novel role for Gs alpha in modulating myogenic differentiation.
Chlamydia species infect epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces, and are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. Infection is characterized by inflammation which is exacerbated upon reinfection, ultimately leading to tissue damage and scarring. Although central for the development of disease manifestations, little is known about the mechanisms that initiate and sustain the inflammatory response to Chlamydia. Infection of cervical and colonic epithelial cells with Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci is shown in the present studies to upregulate mRNA expression and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8, GRO alpha, GM-CSF, and IL-6. In contrast to the rapid, but transient, cytokine induction following infection with other invasive bacteria, the epithelial cytokine response to Chlamydia was delayed until 20-24 h after infection, persisted throughout the chlamydial growth cycle (2-4 d), and required bacterial protein synthesis. Moreover, epithelial cell lines and primary endocervical epithelial cells released IL-1alpha after Chlamydia infection, and increased secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines could be inhibited by anti-IL-1alpha. This suggests that IL-1alpha, released following lysis of infected epithelial cells, may amplify the inflammatory response by stimulating additional cytokine production by noninfected neighboring cells. These findings suggest a novel pathophysiologic concept wherein the acute host response to Chlamydia at mucosal surfaces is primarily initiated and sustained by epithelial cells, the first and major targets of chlamydial infection.
We characterized the in vivo, cellular and molecular pathophysiology of a case of neonatal hyperparathyroidism (NHPT) resulting from a de novo, heterozygous missense mutation in the gene for the extracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+(o))-sensing receptor (CaR). The female neonate presented with moderately severe hypercalcemia, markedly undermineralized bones, and multiple metaphyseal fractures. Subtotal parathyroidectomy was performed at 6 wk; hypercalcemia recurred rapidly but the bone disease improved gradually with reversion to an asymptomatic state resembling familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FBHH). Dispersed parathyroid cells from the resected tissue showed a set-point (the level of Ca2+(o) half maximally inhibiting PTH secretion) substantially higher than for normal human parathyroid cells (approximately 1.8 vs. approximately 1.0 mM, respectively); a similar increase in set-point was observed in vivo. The proband's CaR gene showed a missense mutation (R185Q) at codon 185, while her normocalcemic parents were homozygous for wild type (WT) CaR sequence. Transient expression of the mutant R185Q CaR in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells revealed a substantially attenuated Ca2+(o)-evoked accumulation of total inositol phosphates (IP), while cotransfection of normal and mutant receptors showed an EC50 (the level of Ca2+(o) eliciting a half-maximal increase in IPs) 37% higher than for WT CaR alone (6.3+/-0.4 vs. 4.6+/-0.3 mM Ca2+(o), respectively). Thus this de novo, heterozygous CaR mutation may exert a dominant negative action on the normal CaR, producing NHPT and more severe hypercalcemia than typically seen with FBHH. Moreover, normal maternal calcium homeostasis promoted additional secondary hyperparathyroidism in the fetus, contributing to the severity of the NHPT in this case with FBHH.
To assess the effect of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on muscle protein metabolism in uremic patients with malnutrition, forearm [3H]phenylalanine kinetics were evaluated in six chronically wasted (body weight 79% of ideal weight) hemodialysis (HD) patients in a self-controlled, crossover study. Forearm protein dynamics were evaluated before, after a 6-wk course of rhGH (5 mg thrice weekly) and after a 6-wk washout period. After rhGH: (a) forearm phenylalanine net balance--the difference between phenylalanine incorporation into and phenylalanine release from muscle proteins--decreased by 46% (-8+/-2 vs. -15+/-2 nmol/min x 100 ml at the baseline and -11+/-2 after washout, P < 0.02); (b) phenylalanine rate of disposal, an index of protein synthesis, increased by 25% (25+/-5 vs. 20+/-5 at the baseline and 20+/-4 after washout, P < 0.03); (c) phenylalanine rate of appearance, an index of protein degradation, was unchanged (33+/-5 vs. 35+/-5 at the baseline and 31+/-4 after washout); (d) forearm potassium release declined (0.24+/-0.13 vs. 0.60+/-0.15 microeq/min at the baseline, and 0.42+/-0.20 microeq/min after washout P < 0.03); (e) changes in the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 levels and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/IGFBP-3 ratios accounted for 15.1% and 47.1% of the percent variations in forearm net phenylalanine balance, respectively. Together, these two factors accounted for 62.2% of variations in forearm net phenylalanine balance during and after rhGH administration. These data indicate: (a) that rhGH administration in malnourished hemodialysis patients is followed by an increase in muscle protein synthesis and by a decrease in the negative muscle protein balance observed in the postabsorptive state; and (b) that the reduction in net protein catabolism obtained with rhGH can be accounted for by the associated changes in circulating free, but not total, IGF-I levels.
Several epidemiological studies have identified obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a risk factor for systemic hypertension, but a direct etiologic link between the two disorders has not been established definitively. Furthermore, the specific physiological mechanisms underlying the association between OSA and systemic hypertension have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the effects of OSA on daytime and nighttime blood pressure (BP). We induced OSA in four dogs by intermittent airway occlusion during nocturnal sleep. Daytime and nighttime BP were measured before, during, and after a 1-3-mo long period of OSA. OSA resulted in acute transient increases in nighttime BP to a maximum of 13.0+/-2.0 mmHg (mean+/-SEM), and eventually produced sustained daytime hypertension to a maximum of 15.7+/-4.3 mmHg. In a subsequent protocol, recurrent arousal from sleep without airway occlusion did not result in daytime hypertension. The demonstration that OSA can lead to the development of sustained hypertension has considerable importance, given the high prevalence of both disorders in the population.
The identification of human inflammatory cells that express inducible nitric oxide synthase and the clarification of the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human infectious or inflammatory processes have been elusive. In neutrophil-enriched fractions from urine, we demonstrate a 43-fold increase in nitric oxide synthase activity in patients with urinary tract infections compared with that in neutrophil-enriched fractions from noninfected controls. Partially purified inducible nitric oxide synthase is primarily membrane associated, calcium independent, and inhibited by arginine analogues with a rank order consistent with that of purified human inducible nitric oxide synthase. Molecular, biochemical, and immunocytochemical evidence unequivocally identifies inducible nitric oxide synthase as the major nitric oxide synthase isoform found in neutrophils isolated from urine during urinary tract infections. Elevated inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and elevated nitric oxide synthase protein measured in patients with urinary tract infections and treated with antibiotics does not decrease until 6-10 d of antibiotic treatment. The extended elevation of neutrophil inducible nitric oxide synthase during urinary tract infections may have both antimicrobial and proinflammatory functions.
The role of IL-1beta in regulating altered airway responsiveness in the atopic/asthmatic sensitized state was examined in isolated rabbit tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) tissue and cultured cells passively sensitized with sera from atopic asthmatic patients or nonatopic/nonasthmatic (control) subjects. During half-maximal isometric contraction of the tissues with acetylcholine, relative to control TSM, the atopic sensitized TSM exhibited significant attenuation of both their maximal relaxation (P < 0.001) and sensitivity (i.e., -log dose producing 50% maximal relaxation) to isoproterenol and PGE2 (P < 0.05), whereas the relaxation responses to direct stimulation of adenylate cyclase with forskolin were similar in both tissue groups. The impaired relaxation responses to isoproterenol and PGE2 were ablated in sensitized TSM that were pretreated with either the IL-1 recombinant human receptor antagonist or an IL-1beta-neutralizing antibody. Moreover, extended studies demonstrated that, in contrast to their respective controls, both passively sensitized rabbit TSM tissue and cultured cells exhibited markedly induced expression of IL-1beta mRNA at 6 h after exposure to the sensitizing serum, a finding similar to that also obtained in passively sensitized human bronchial smooth muscle tissue. Finally, unlike their respective controls, passively sensitized TSM tissue and cultured cells also displayed progressively enhanced release of IL-1beta protein into the culture media for up to 24 h after exposure to atopic/asthmatic serum. Collectively, these observations provide new evidence demonstrating that the altered responsiveness of atopic/asthmatic sensitized airway smooth muscle is largely attributed to its autologously induced expression and autocrine action of IL-1beta.
We compared the effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on intracellular pH, intracellular [Ca2+]i, and cell contraction in hypertrophied adult ventricular myocytes from ascending aortic banded rats and age-matched controls. Intracellular pH (pH(i)) was measured in individual myocytes with SNARF-1, and [Ca2+]i was measured with indo-1, simultaneous with cell motion. Experiments were performed at 36 degrees C in myocytes paced at 0.5 Hz in Hepes-buffered solution (pH(o) 7.40) containing 1.2 mM CaCl2. At baseline, calibrated pH(i), diastolic and systolic [Ca2+]i values, and the amplitude of cell contraction were similar in hypertrophied and control myocytes. Exposure of the control myocytes to 10 nM ET-1 caused an increase in the amplitude of cell contraction to 163+/-22% of baseline (P < 0.05), associated with intracellular alkalinization (pH(i) + 0.08+/-0.02 U, P < 0.05) and a slight increase in peak systolic [Ca2+]i (104+/-11% of baseline, P < 0.05). In contrast, in the hypertrophied myocytes, exposure to ET-1 did not increase the amplitude of cell contraction or cause intracellular alkalinization (-0.01+/-0.02 U, NS). Similar effects were observed in the hypertrophied and control myocytes in response to exposure to 10 nM angiotensin II. ET-1 also increased the rate of recovery from intracellular acidosis induced by the washout of NH4Cl in the control cells, but did not do so in the hypertrophied cells. In the presence of 10 microM 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride, which inhibits Na+-H+ exchange, ET-1 did not cause a positive inotropic effect or intracellular alkalinization in control cells. The activation of protein kinase C by exposure to phorbol ester caused intracellular alkalinization and it increased the rate of recovery from intracellular acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse in control cells but not in hypertrophied cells. ET-1, as well as angiotensin II, and phorbol ester, fail to stimulate forward Na+-H+ exchange in adult hypertrophied myocytes. These data suggest a defect in the coupling of protein kinase C signaling with Na+-H+ exchange in adult hypertrophied myocytes.
Heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) is a transcriptional factor that binds to heat shock elements located on the promoter region of heat shock protein genes. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the regulation of the expression of the heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) gene. The HSF1 gene was inserted into pCDNA3 plasmid and then transfected into human epidermoid A431 cells using the CaOP3 method. Control cells were transfected with vector alone. Expression of HSP-70, HSF1, and HSF2 genes and protein were determined. We found a significant increase in the expression of the HSF1 gene, but not HSP-70 and HSF2 genes, in the HSF1 gene-transfected cells. The amount of HSF1-heat shock element complex was significantly increased in both the nucleus and cytosol in HSF1 gene-transfected cells, indicating increased synthesis of HSF1. The amount of HSP-72 in these cells did not change. Therefore, overexpression of HSF1 protein failed to initiate transcription of the HSP-70 gene. Subsequently, we treated the cells with 1 microM PMA (a protein kinase C stimulator), and HSP-70 mRNA and protein were measured at 1 or 4 h of the treatment, respectively. The levels of both HSP-70 mRNA and HSP-72 protein were significantly increased in nontransfected and transfected cells; the levels of HSP-72 in HSF1 gene-transfected cells were greater than that found in the vector-transfected cells. The PMA-induced increase in HSP-72 protein peaked 8 h after treatment with PMA and returned to baseline levels at 72 h. This increase was blocked by a PKC inhibitor, staurosporine. After treatment with PMA, HSF1 translocated quickly from cytosol to nucleus. The results suggest that phosphorylation of newly synthesized HSF1 and possibly of other factors are necessary for the induction of HSP-72. Activation of PKC can cause phosphorylation of HSF1, which leads to an enhanced but transient increase in HSP-70 production.
Prolonged poor glycemic control in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients often leads to a decline in insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, accompanied by a decrease in the insulin content of the cells. As a step toward elucidating the pathophysiological background of the so-called glucose toxicity to pancreatic beta cells, we induced glycation in HIT-T15 cells using a sugar with strong deoxidizing activity, D-ribose, and examined the effects on insulin gene transcription. The results of reporter gene analyses revealed that the insulin gene promoter is more sensitive to glycation than the control beta-actin gene promoter; approximately 50 and 80% of the insulin gene promoter activity was lost when the cells were kept for 3 d in the presence of 40 and 60 mM D-ribose, respectively. In agreement with this, decrease in the insulin mRNA and insulin content was observed in the glycation-induced cells. Also, gel mobility shift analyses using specific antiserum revealed decrease in the DNA-binding activity of an insulin gene transcription factor, PDX-1/IPF1/STF-1. These effects of D-ribose seemed almost irreversible but could be prevented by addition of 1 mM aminoguanidine or 10 mM N-acetylcysteine, thus suggesting that glycation and reactive oxygen species, generated through the glycation reaction, serve as mediators of the phenomena. These observations suggest that protein glycation in pancreatic beta cells, which occurs in vivo under chronic hyperglycemia, suppresses insulin gene transcription and thus can explain part of the beta cell glucose toxicity.
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