To elucidate cellular concepts for protection against ultraviolet (UV) light we investigated the effect of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) overexpression on cell viability and on the secretion of UV-inducible immunological cytokines. Transfected murine fibrosarcoma cells (WEHI-S), overexpressing hsp70 or a sham transfected control were used. Overexpression of hsp70 was sufficient to markedly increase cell viability upon treatment with UVB (290-320 nm). Since long wave UV (UVA, 320-400 nm) as well as UVB turned out to stimulate the release of O2- radicals we studied the cell viability upon oxidative stress. Hsp70 overexpression increased viability upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide or menadione, but had no influence on UV-induced O2- release. UV-light is known to upregulate immunologic and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and IL-6. Oxidative stress appeared to exert a similar effect. Hsp70 overexpression markedly decreased the release of IL-6 induced by UVA, UVB and oxidative stress. To test whether the hsp70 mediated suppression is confined to events caused by UV-light we determined IL-1-mediated effects. IL-1-induced IL-6 release was reduced by hsp70 overexpression, whereas the IL-1 mediated activation of nuclear factor kappa B was not affected. Our data suggests that hsp70 plays a central role not only in cell protection against UV-light, but also in the regulation of proinflammatory cytokine release induced by UV-exposure.
Synovial fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses to the 60-kD human heat shock protein (HSP60) were studied in 23 patients with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) and 7 non-JCA control patients. All patients showed active arthritis at the time of study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (group A) or absence (group B) of T lymphocyte reactivity to human HSP60. We show that reactivity to human HSP60 is primarily, though not exclusively, occurring in patients with a remitting course of disease, i.e., the subgroup of HLA-B27 negative JCA patients with an oligoarticular onset. Immunohistochemical analysis of HSP expression in synovial membranes showed a significantly higher intensity of staining in JCA patients than in non-JCA controls. The results suggest that, in accordance with the earlier observation made in experimental models, T lymphocyte reactivity to human HSP60 in this subgroup of JCA patients may be part of T cell regulatory mechanisms that control the development of arthritis.
The T235 allele of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) has been associated with hypertension. Blood pressure increases faster over time in black children than in white children, and in adults hypertension is more prevalent in blacks. We sought evidence for a role for angiotensinogen to contribute to racial differences in blood pressure in a study of 148 white and 62 black normotensive children (mean age, 14.8 yr). The frequency of the T235 allele was 0.81 in blacks and 0.42 in whites (chi 2 = 77.3, P = 0.0001). The mean angiotensinogen level was 19% higher in blacks than in whites (P = 0.0001 for males, P = 0.004 for females). Genotype was positively related to serum angiotensinogen in white children (P = 0.0001 for males, P = 0.004 for females), but a similar relationship was absent in blacks where the frequency of M235 may have been too low to discern an association. Longitudinal blood pressure (measured twice yearly) adjusted for body mass index showed a marginally significant relationship to the angiotensinogen level (P = 0.07). An independent relationship of serum angiotensinogen with body mass index (P = 0.0001) and race (P = 0.0003) was also observed. In summary, T235 was more frequent, and the level of angiotensinogen was higher in blacks than in whites. Such a racial difference in the renin-angiotensin system may contribute to the disparity in blood pressure levels of white and black young people.
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-keta acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. The multienzyme complex comprises five enzyme components, including the E1 decarboxylase with a heterotetrameric (alpha 2 beta 2) structure. Four unrelated Hispanic-Mexican MSUD patients with the intermediate clinical phenotype were diagnosed 7 to 22 mo after birth during evaluation for developmental delay. Three of the four patients were found homozygous for G to A transition at base 895 (exon 7) of the E1 alpha locus, which changes Gly-245 to Arg (G245R) in that subunit. The remaining patient was homozygous for T to G transversion at base 1,253 in the E1 alpha gene, which converts Phe-364 to Cys (F364C) in the gene product. Transfection studies in E1 alpha-deficient lymphoblasts indicate that both G245R and F364C mutant E1 alpha subunits were unable to significantly reconstitute BCKAD activity. Western blotting showed that both mutant E1 alpha subunits in transfected cells failed to efficiently rescue the normal E1 beta through assembly. The putative assembly defect was confirmed by pulse-chase labeling of E1 subunits in a chaperone-augmented bacterial overexpression system. The kinetics of initial assembly of the G245R E1 alpha subunit with the normal E1 beta was shown to be slower than the normal E1 alpha. No detectable assembly of the F364C E1 alpha with normal E1 beta was observed during the 2 h chase. Small amounts of recombinant mutant E1 proteins were produced after 15 h induction with isopropyl thiogalactoside and exhibited very low or no E1 activity. Our study establishes that G245R and F364C mutations in the E1 alpha subunit disrupt both the E1 heterotetrameric assembly and function of the BCKAD complex. Moreover, the results suggest that the G245R mutant E1 alpha allele may be important in the Hispanic-Mexican population.
Because it has been difficult to identify and separate malignant cells in human lymphoid malignancies, we have developed a flow cytometry-based fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain variable region (VH) gene probes. After obtaining the specific VH gene sequence expressed by the multiple myeloma IM-9 cell line and the malignant cells in five multiple myeloma patients, sense and antisense biotinylated single-stranded RNA probes were prepared by transcription from the malignant clone's VH DNA sequences. The cells from the IM-9 cell line and from the mononuclear bone marrow cells of multiple myeloma patients were fixed, hybridized with the above biotinylated RNA probes, incubated with streptavidin-phycoerythrin, and analyzed by FACS analysis. The myeloma cells stained positive with their own specific antisense VH biotinylated RNa probes, whereas sense and irrelevant antisense biotinylated probes demonstrated only background staining. Dilutional concentrations of the IM-9 cell line with normal bone marrow cells were also accurately quantitated by this procedure. The application of this technique will allow a more accurate assessment of tumor burden in patients with multiple myeloma and should permit an accurate method of tumor cell purification for clinical as well as biological studies. Furthermore, this technological advance should be equally effective at identifying specific VH gene-expressing cells in other lymphoid malignancies, as well as in nonmalignant B cell disorders.
p21WAF/CIP1/SDI1 is a recently identified gene expressed in cells harboring wild-type but not mutant p53 gene. It encodes a nuclear protein of 21 kD which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Constitutive p21WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 mRNA expression was detected in neoplastic cells from patients with various hematological malignancies as well as in normal bone marrow mononuclear cells and in myeloid and lymphoid cell lines independent of their p53 status. Induced differentiation of the p53-deficient promyelocytic HL-60 cells along the monocytic lineage by phorbol ester or 1a,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in a marked increase of both p21WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 mRNA and protein expression due to enhanced mRNA stability. Differentiation towards the granulocytic lineage by all-trans retinoic acid or dimethylsulfoxide failed to produce this effect. p21WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 is an immediate early gene since its upregulation occurred independently of de novo protein synthesis. The induction of p21WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 expression and its regulation in p53-deficient differentiating leukemic cells support the idea of an additional, p53-independent role of p21WAF1/CIP1/SDI1 in human hematopoiesis.
This prospective study was designed to identify abnormalities of energy expenditure and fuel utilization which distinguish post-obese women from never-obese controls. 24 moderately obese, postmenopausal, nondiabetic women with a familial predisposition to obesity underwent assessments of body composition, fasting and postprandial energy expenditure, and fuel utilization in the obese state and after weight loss (mean 12.9 kg) to a post-obese, normal-weight state. The post-obese women were compared with 24 never-obese women of comparable age and body composition. Four years later, without intervention, body weight was reassessed in both groups. Results indicated that all parameters measured in the post-obese women were similar to the never-obese controls: mean resting energy expenditure, thermic effect of food, and fasting and postprandial substrate oxidation and insulin-glucose patterns. Four years later, post-obese women regained a mean of 10.9 kg while control subjects remained lean (mean gain 1.7 kg) (P < 0.001 between groups). Neither energy expenditure nor fuel oxidation correlated with 4-yr weight changes, whereas self-reported physical inactivity was associated with greater weight regain. The data suggest that weight gain in obesity-prone women may be due to maladaptive responses to the environment, such as physical inactivity or excess energy intake, rather than to reduced energy requirements.
Skin fibroblasts from two cases of autosomal recessive cutis laxa (CL), having insignificant elastin production and mRNA levels, were challenged with transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1). Elastin production was brought from undetectable values to amounts typical of normal human skin fibroblasts in a dose-dependent fashion. Basic fibroblast growth factor (100 ng/ml) alone or in combination with TGF-beta 1 reduced elastin production and mRNA expression in CL skin fibroblasts more extensively than in normal cells. In situ hybridization showed that these effects were at the transcript level. One of the CL strains was examined in detail. Transcription rates for elastin were similar in normal and CL and unchanged by TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2 (10 ng/ml), while in CL elastin mRNA half-life was increased > 10-fold by TGF-beta 2 and reduced 6-fold after TGF-beta 2 withdrawal, as compared with a control strain. Cycloheximide partially reversed elastin mRNA instability. These data are consistent with a defect in elastin mRNA stability that requires synthesis of labile factors or intact translational machinery, resulting in an extremely low steady state level of mRNA present in this strain of CL. Furthermore, TGF-beta can relieve elastin mRNA instability in at least one CL strain and elastin production defects in both CL strains.
Plasminogen activator-inhibitor C-1 (PAI-1) plays a critical role in the regulation of fibrinolysis, serving as the primary inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator. Elevated levels of PAI-1 are a risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction, and locally increased PAI-1 expression has been described in atherosclerotic human arteries. Recent studies have shown that the administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors reduces the risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in selected patients. Since angiotensin II (Ang II) has been reported to induce PAI-1 production in cultured astrocytes, we have hypothesized that one mechanism that may contribute to the beneficial effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors is an effect on fibrinolytic balance. In the present study, we examined the interaction of Ang II with cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and the effects of this peptide on the production of PAI-1. 125I-Ang II was found to bind to BAECs in a saturable and specific manner, with an apparent Kd of 1.4 nM and Bmax of 74 fmol per mg of protein. Exposure of BAECs to Ang II induced dose-dependent increases in PAI-1 antigen in the media and in PAI-1 mRNA levels. Induction of PAI-1 mRNA expression by Ang II was not inhibited by pretreating BAECs with either Dup 753 or [Sar1, Ile8]-Ang II, agents that are known to compete effectively for binding to the two major angiotensin receptor subtypes. These data indicate that Ang II regulates the expression of PAI-1 in cultured endothelial cells and that this response is mediated via a pharmacologically distinct form of the angiotensin receptor.
We studied the defect responsible for deficiency of the b subunit for factor XIII in the first known case of this condition. The patient is a compound heterozygote of two genetic defects: deletion of A-4161 at the acceptor splice junction of intron A, resulting in a loss of the obligatory AG splicing sequence; and, replacement of G-11499 by T in exon VIII, resulting in an amino acid substitution of Cys430 by Phe. To determine how the latter mutation impaired b subunit synthesis, recombinant b subunit bearing the mutation was expressed in BHK cells. The mutant as well as wild-type b subunit was synthesized by the cells. However, the apparent molecular weight of the mutant was slightly higher than those of the wild-type and plasma b subunits under nonreducing conditions, probably because of destruction of a disulfide bond. The mutant b subunit was secreted from the cells much less effectively than the wild type and remained susceptible to endoglycosidase H, indicating that it was not transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus where the processing of oligosaccharides occurs. Immunofluorescence study suggested that the mutant protein was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. These studies demonstrate that a Cys430-Phe mutation does not prevent the de novo synthesis of the b subunit, but alters the conformation of the mutant protein sufficiently to impair its intracellular transport, resulting in its deficiency in this patient.
The role of the chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), during anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody (Ab) glomerulonephritis (GN) was studied. Rat MIP-2 cDNA had been cloned previously. Recombinant rat MIP-2 (rMIP-2) from Escherichia coli exhibited neutrophil chemotactic activity and produced neutrophil influx when injected into the rat bladder wall. By using a riboprobe derived from the cDNA and an anti-rMIP-2 polyclonal Ab, MIP-2 was found to be induced in glomeruli with anti-GBM Ab GN as mRNA by 30 min and protein by 4 h, with both disappearing by 24 h. The expression of MIP-2 correlated with glomerular neutrophil influx. A single dose of the anti-MIP-2 Ab 30 min before anti-GBM Ab was effective in reducing neutrophil influx (40% at 4 h, P < 0.01) and periodic acid-Schiff deposits containing fibrin (54% at 24 h, P < 0.01). The anti-rMIP-2 Ab had no effect on anti-GBM Ab binding (paired-label isotope study). Functional improvement in the glomerular damage was evidenced by a reduction of abnormal proteinuria (P < 0.05). These results suggest that MIP-2 is a major neutrophil chemoattractant contributing to influx of neutrophils in Ab-induced glomerular inflammation in the rat.
The ability of alpha-tocopherol to reduce restenosis after angioplasty was tested in a rabbit model in which angioplasty was performed on established atherosclerotic lesions. Lesions induced by 4 wk of cholesterol feeding after focal desiccation of femoral arteries were balloon dilated. 3 wk after angioplasty, angiographically determined minimum luminal diameters were less in the untreated group (0.80 +/- 0.51 mm) than in the group treated with oral alpha-tocopherol beginning 19 d before angioplasty (1.38 +/- 0.29 mm; P < 0.01). The cross-sectional area of the intima-media was greater in the untreated group (1.18 +/- 0.48 mm2) than in the alpha-tocopherol group (0.62 +/- 0.25 mm2, P < 0.0001). These differences were not due to vasoconstriction or altered plasma cholesterol. Alpha-tocopherol thus reduced restenosis after angioplasty in this model. In rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells, oxidized low density lipoprotein stimulated DNA synthesis. Alpha-tocopherol treatment inhibited DNA synthesis stimulated by oxidized low density lipoprotein, but not by serum. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that oxidized lipids can stimulate hyperplasia and that antioxidants may limit hyperplasia by inhibiting either the oxidation or the proliferative effects of oxidants on cells.
Enterotoxin A is one of the major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile, and the causative agent of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. In cell culture (NIH-3T3, rat basophilic leukemia cells) toxin A inhibits Clostridium botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 (C3)-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of the low molecular mass GTP-binding Rho proteins. Rho participates in the regulation of the microfilament cytoskeleton. Decrease in ADP-ribosylation of Rho occurs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and precedes the toxin A-induced destruction of the actin cytoskeleton. Action of toxin A is not due to proteolytical degradation of Rho or to an inherent ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of toxin A. Toxin A-induced decrease in ADP-ribosylation is observed also in cell lysates and with recombinant RhoA protein. A heat stable low molecular mass cytosolic factor is essential for the toxin effect on Rho. Thus, the enterotoxin (toxin A) resembles the effects of the C. difficile cytotoxin (toxin B) on Rho proteins (Just, I., G. Fritz, K. Aktories, M. Giry, M. R. Popoff, P. Boquet, S. Hegenbath, and C. Von Eichel-Streiber. 1994. J. Biol. Chem. 269:10706-10712). The data indicate that despite different in vivo effects, toxin A and toxin B act on the same cellular target protein Rho to elicit their toxic effects.
Hyperproinsulinemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is due to an increased release of proinsulin from pancreatic beta cells. This could reside in increased secretory demand placed on the beta cell by hyperglycemia or in the proinsulin conversion mechanism. In this study, biosynthesis of the proinsulin conversion enzymes (PC2, PC3, and carboxypeptidase-H [CP-H]) and proinsulin, were examined in islets isolated from 48-h infused rats with 50% (wt/vol) glucose (hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and increased pancreatic proinsulin to insulin ratio), 20% (wt/vol) glucose (normoglycemic but hyperinsulinemic), and 0.45% (wt/vol) saline (controls). A decrease in the islet content of PC2, PC3, and CP-H from hyperglycemic rats was observed. This reduction did not correlate with any deficiency in mRNA levels or biosynthesis of PC2, PC3, CP-H, or proinsulin. Furthermore, proinsulin conversion rate was comparable in islets from hyperglycemic and control rats. However, in islets from hyperglycemic rats an abnormal increased proportion of proinsulin was secreted, that was accompanied by an augmented release of PC2, PC3 and CP-H. Stimulation of the beta cell's secretory pathway by hyperglycemia, resulted in proinsulin being prematurely secreted from islets before its conversion could be completed. Thus, hyperproinsulinemia induced by chronic hyperglycemia likely results from increased beta cell secretory demand, rather than a defect in the proinsulin processing enzymes per se.
CD36 deficiency is divided into two subgroups: neither platelets nor monocytes express CD36 (type I deficiency), and monocytes express CD36 in spite of the lack of platelet CD36 (type II deficiency). We have already demonstrated that a 478C-->T substitution (proline90-->serine) in platelet CD36 cDNA predominates in type II deficiency (Kashiwagi, H., S. Honda, Y. Tomiyama, H. Mizutani, H. Take, Y. Honda, S. Kosugi, Y. Kanayama, Y. Kurata, and Y. Matsuzawa. 1993. Thromb. Haemostasis. 69:481-484). In this study, we revealed that monocyte CD36 cDNA from two type II deficient subjects was heterozygous for C478 and T478 form, while platelet CD36 cDNA of these subjects consisted of only T478 form. In a type I deficient subject, both platelet and monocyte CD36 cDNA showed only T478 form. Expression assay using C478 or T478 form of CD36 cDNA transfected cells revealed that there was an 81-kD precursor form of CD36, and that the maturation of the 81-kD precursor form to the 88-kD mature form of CD36 was markedly impaired by the substitution. The mutated precursor form of CD36 was subsequently degraded in the cytoplasm. These results indicate that the 478C-->T substitution directly leads to CD36 deficiency via defects in posttranslational modification, and that this substitution is the major defects underlying CD36 deficiency.
We have recently described hereditary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II in the pig. All affected animals had excessive complement activation, revealed as low plasma C3, elevated plasma terminal complement complex, and massive deposits of complement in the renal glomeruli, and eventually died of renal failure within 11 wk of birth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cause of complement activation in this disease. Transfusion of normal porcine plasma to affected piglets inhibited complement activation and increased survival. Plasma was successively fractionated and the complement inhibitory effect of each fraction tested in vivo. A single chain 150-kD protein which showed the same complement inhibitory effect as whole plasma was finally isolated. Immunologic cross-reactivity, functional properties, and NH2-terminal sequence identified the protein as factor H. By Western blotting and enzyme immunoassay, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis-affected piglets were demonstrated to be subtotally deficient in factor H. At 1 wk of age, median (range) factor H concentration was 1.6 mg/liter (1.1-2.3) in deficient animals (n = 13) and 51 mg/liter (26-98) in healthy littermates (n = 52). Our data show that hereditary porcine membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis type II is caused by factor H deficiency.
Although eicosanoid production contributes to physiological and pathophysiological consequences of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced eicosanoid production have not been defined. Plasma phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha), and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) levels were measured at various times during cardiac surgery. Plasma PLA2 activity increased after systemic heparinization, before CPB. This was highly correlated with concurrent increases in plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, TXB2 concentrations did not increase with heparin administration but did increase significantly after initiation of CPB. High plasma PLA2 activity, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and TXB2 concentrations were measured throughout the CPB period. Protamine, administered to neutralize the heparin, caused an acute reduction of both plasma PLA2 activity and plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, but no change in plasma TXB2 concentrations. Thus the ratio of TXB2 to 6-keto-PGF1 alpha increased significantly after protamine administration. Enhanced plasma PLA2 activity was also measured in patients with lower doses of heparin used clinically for nonsurgical applications. Human plasma PLA2 was identified as group II PLA2 by its sensitivity to deoxycholate and dithiothreitol, its substrate specificity, and its elution characteristics on heparin affinity chromatography. Heparin addition to PMNs in vitro resulted in dose-dependent increases in cellular PLA2 activity and release of PLA2. The PLA2 released from the PMN had characteristics similar to those of post-heparin plasma PLA2. In conclusion, plasma PLA2 activity and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha concentrations are markedly enhanced with systemic heparinization. Part of the anticoagulant and vasodilating effects of heparin may be due to increased plasma prostacyclin (PGI2) levels. In addition the pulmonary vasoconstriction sometimes associated with protamine infusion during cardiac surgery might be due to decreased plasma PLA2 activity, with an associated increased TXB2/6-keto-PGF1 alpha ratio.
Serum concentrations of specific cartilage and bone molecules reflecting tissue turnover were measured in two well-defined patient groups with early rheumatoid arthritis with distinctly different disease outcome to see if early differences in their levels are prognostic of the rate of joint destruction. Compared with a matched normal population, increased concentrations of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were found in all patients who developed rapid hip joint destruction. In contrast, levels of a putative marker of cartilage aggrecan synthesis, the chondroitin sulfate epitope 846, were increased only in patients with slow joint destruction. Levels of bone sialoprotein (BSP) were increased in both groups, as were levels of the C-propeptide of type II procollagen (CPII), a marker of collagen II synthesis. The increased concentrations of the 846 epitope in patients with slow joint destruction suggest increased aggrecan synthesis. The low levels of the 846 epitope in patients with rapid joint destruction, concomitant with elevated levels of CPII, suggest a selective increase in collagen synthesis. The elevated BSP levels indicate an increased bone turnover in both groups. Thus elevated serum levels of COMP may indicate an unfavorable prognosis for rapid joint destruction, whereas elevated 846 epitope indicates a more favorable prognosis.
Factor X (factor ten) of the coagulation cascade binds to the integrin CD11b/CD18 during inflammation, initiating procoagulant activity on the surface of leukocytes (Altieri, D.C., O.R. Etingin, D.S. Fair, T.K. Brunk, J.E. Geltosky, D.P. Hajjar, and T. S. Edgington. 1991. Science [Wash.DC]. 254:1200-1202). Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), an adhesin of Bordetella pertussis also binds to the CD11b/CD18 integrin (Relman D., E. Tuomanen, S. Falkow, D.T. Golenbock, K. Saukkonen, and S.D. Wright. 1990. Cell. 61:1375-1382). FHA and the CD11b/CD18 binding loops of Factor X share amino acid sequence similarity. FHA peptides similar to Factor X binding loops inhibited 125I-Factor X binding to human neutrophils and prolonged clotting time. In addition, ETKEVDG and its Factor X analogue prevented transendothelial migration of leukocytes in vitro and reduced leukocytosis and blood brain barrier disruption in vivo. Interference with leukocyte migration by a coagulation-based peptide suggests a novel strategy for antiinflammatory therapy.
Among the important pathophysiologic alterations in the brain in bacterial meningitis are abnormalities of cerebral circulation and metabolism; however, the precise mechanisms by which these disturbances occur are not completely delineated. It has been recently recognized that cytokines are produced by tissues in the central nervous system in meningitis and play a critical role in the host inflammatory response. Because these mediators are involved in circulatory and metabolic disturbances in other tissues in sepsis, we investigated the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the central nervous system in a rabbit model. We found that injection of recombinant human TNF into the cisterna magna in the rabbit led to an acute reduction in cerebral oxygen uptake and a more prolonged reduction in cerebral blood flow. This was accompanied by an increase in intracranial pressure and an increase in cerebrospinal fluid lactate. Reduction in oxygen uptake and increases in intracranial pressure and CSF lactate were blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. Reduction in cerebral blood flow was not affected by L-NAME treatment and was due to increased cerebrovascular resistance and reduced oxygen demand. These results suggest that TNF may be a critical mediator of changes in cerebral circulation and metabolism and that some of these changes occur via the nitric oxide pathway.
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that energy metabolism is impaired in residual intact myocardium of chronically infarcted rat heart, contributing to contractile dysfunction. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in rats by coronary artery ligation. Hearts were isolated 8 wk later and buffer-perfused isovolumically. MI hearts showed reduced left ventricular developed pressure, but oxygen consumption was unchanged. High-energy phosphate contents were measured chemically and by 31P-NMR spectroscopy. In residual intact left ventricular tissue, ATP was unchanged after MI, while creatine phosphate was reduced by 31%. Total creatine kinase (CK) activity was reduced by 17%, the fetal CK isoenzymes BB and MB increased, while the "adult" mitochondrial CK isoenzyme activity decreased by 44%. Total creatine content decreased by 35%. Phosphoryl exchange between ATP and creatine phosphate, measured by 31P-NMR magnetization transfer, fell by 50% in MI hearts. Thus, energy reserve is substantially impaired in residual intact myocardium of chronically infarcted rats. Because phosphoryl exchange was still five times higher than ATP synthesis rates calculated from oxygen consumption, phosphoryl transfer via CK may not limit baseline contractile performance 2 mo after MI. In contrast, when MI hearts were subjected to acute stress (hypoxia), mechanical recovery during reoxygenation was impaired, suggesting that reduced energy reserve contributes to increased susceptibility of MI hearts to acute metabolic stress.
Asymptomatic or early left ventricular dysfunction in humans is characterized by increases in circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) without activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). We previously reported a canine model of early left ventricular dysfunction (ELVD) produced by rapid ventricular pacing and characterized by an identical neurohumoral profile and maintenance of the natriuretic response to volume expansion (VE). To test the hypothesis that elevated endogenous ANP suppresses the RAAS and maintains sodium excretion in ELVD, we assessed the effects of antagonism of ANP on cardiorenal and neurohumoral function in ELVD. Chronic ANP suppression was produced by bilateral atrial appendectomies before the production of ELVD by rapid ventricular pacing (ELVD-APPX, n = 5). This group was compared with a separate group with ELVD and intact atrial appendages (ELVD-INTACT, n = 8). ELVD-APPX was characterized by lower circulating ANP (50 +/- 11 vs. 158 +/- 37 pg/ml, P < 0.05), activation of plasma renin activity (PRA) (9.4 +/- 2.4 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.4 ng/ml per h, P < 0.05) and aldosterone (36.4 +/- 12.5 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.0 ng/dl, P < 0.05) when compared to ELVD-INTACT. In comparison to the ELVD-INTACT group, sodium excretion was decreased before and during VE in the ELVD-APPX group. Acute ANP antagonism was produced by administration of the particulate guanylate cyclase coupled natriuretic peptide receptor antagonist, HS-142-1, to seven conscious dogs with ELVD and intact atrial appendages (ELVD-INTACT). HS-142-1 decreased plasma concentrations and renal generation of the ANP second messenger, cGMP, and was associated with activation of PRA and sodium retention with enhanced tubular sodium reabsorption. These data support a significant role for elevated endogenous ANP in the maintenance of sodium excretion and regulation of the RAAS in experimental ELVD.
We studied telomeric DNA in leukemic cells as well as in normal T cells, B cells, monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells. No marked differences were observed in the sizes of the telomeric repeats in the various populations of normal blood cells obtained from donors in their twenties to sixties, and the telomere length ranged between 8.5 and 9.0 kb. The leukemic cells of 12 patients with acute leukemia (seven with myeloid and five with lymphoid leukemia) showed a variable reduction in the length of telomeric DNA, ranging from 2.7 to 6.4 kb. The average telomere length was 4.8 and 4.7 kb in myeloid and lymphoid leukemia, respectively, while the telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from the same patients during complete remission was 8.5 and 7.9 kb, respectively. When the same Southern blots were hybridized with Alu or alphoid sequences, no marked changes in the sizes of the repetitive DNA sequences were observed, indicating that the DNA abnormality in the leukemic cells was specific to the telomere region. Investigation of telomeric DNA changes may be helpful in determining the biological properties of leukemic cells.
These studies were undertaken to quantify cholesterol balance across the plasma space and the individual organs of the mouse, and to determine the role of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in these two processes. In the normal mouse (129 Sv), sterol was synthesized at the rate of 153 mg/d per kg body weight of which 78% occurred in the extrahepatic tissues while only 22% took place in the liver. These animals metabolized 7.1 pools of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) per day, and 79% of this degradation took place in the liver. Of this total turnover, the LDLR accounted for 88% while the remaining 12% was receptor independent. 91% of the receptor-dependent transport identified in these animals was located in the liver while only 38% of the receptor-independent uptake wsa found in this organ. When the LDLR was deleted, the LDL-C production rate increased 1.7-fold, LDL-C turnover decreased from 7.1 to 0.88 pools/d, and the plasma LDL-C level increased 14-fold, from 7 to 101 mg/dl. Despite these major changes in the circulating levels of LDL-C, however, there was no change in the rate of cholesterol synthesis in any extrahepatic organ or in the whole animal, and, further, there was no change in the steady-state cholesterol concentration in any organ. Thus, most extrahepatic tissues synthesize their daily sterol requirements while most LDL-C is returned directly to the liver. Changes in LDLR activity, therefore, profoundly alter the plasma LDL-C concentration but have virtually no affect on cholesterol balance across any extrahepatic organ, including the brain.
Vascular medial smooth muscle cells migrate, proliferate and transform to foam cells in the process of atherosclerosis. We have reported that the intimal smooth muscle cells express proto-oncogene c-fms, a characteristic gene of monocyte-macrophages, which is not normally expressed in medial smooth muscle cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that combinations of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and either epidermal growth factor (EGF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF) induced high expression of c-fms in normal human medial smooth muscle cells to the level of intimal smooth muscle cells or monocyte-derived macrophages, whereas c-fms expression by PDGF-BB alone was 1/10 and both EGF and FGF had no independent effect on c-fms expression. By contrast, interferon (IFN)-gamma and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) suppressed the induction of c-fms expression. These results indicate that multiple growth factors and cytokines may play a role in the phenotypic transformation of medial smooth muscle cells to intimal smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic lesions by altering c-fms expression.
To clarify the role of PDGF A-chain in hypertensive vascular hypertrophy of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), we studied levels of PDGF A-chain gene expression and transcription factors related to the gene in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of SHRs in vivo. RNase protection assay and in situ hybridization showed that PDGF A-chain mRNA levels in VSMCs of SHRs were twofold higher than in those of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Gel retardation assays showed that levels of Sp1 and AP-2 in VSMCs of SHRs were twofold more abundant than in those of Wistar-Kyoto rats. Treatment with four pharmacologically different species of antihypertensive drugs for 2 wk decreased the levels of both PDGF A-chain mRNA and Sp1, but not AP-2 level in VSMCs of SHRs with regression of aortic hypertrophy, indicating that increases in levels of both PDGF A-chain mRNA and Sp1 in VSMCs of SHRs were associated with high blood pressure. These results suggest that high blood pressure is a stimulus which upregulates PDGF A-chain gene expression in VSMCs of SHRs, resulting in an autocrine enhancement in hypertensive vascular hypertrophy, and that the activation of the gene may be mediated through increases in Sp1 in these cells.
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a member of the natriuretic peptide family which is produced in vascular endothelial cells and may play an important paracrine role in the vasaculature. We sought to determine the regulation of CNP production by other vasoactive peptides from cultured aortic endothelial cells. The vasoconstrictors endothelin-1 and angiotensin II had little effect on the basal secretion of CNP. In contrast, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) strongly stimulated the secretion of CNP. BNP caused as much as a 400-fold enhancement above the basal accumulated secretion of CNP over 24 h at a concentration of 1 microM; this was 20 times greater than the stimulatory effect of ANP, BNP and ANP also significantly enhanced the production of new CNP protein (translation) and mRNA expressed in the BAEC. In contrast, C-ANP-4-23, a truncated form of ANP which selectively binds to the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor, did not stimulate CNP secretion. The enhanced production and secretion of CNP, caused by either ANP or BNP, was significantly prevented by LY 83583, an inhibitor of cGMP generation, and was also attenuated by KT 5823, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Our results indicate that ANP and BNP can stimulate CNP production through a guanylate cyclase receptor on endothelial cells. BNP is a much more potent stimulator of CNP secretion, compared to ANP. Our findings suggest that the vasodilatory, and anti-mitogenic effects of ANP and BNP in the vasculature could occur in part through CNP production and subsequent action if these interactions occur in vivo.
The migration of smooth muscle cells is a critical event in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. We have investigated the role of hyaluronan (HA) and the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM in the migration of adult bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMC). Cultured BASMC migrated from the leading edge of a single scratch wound with increased velocity between 1 and 24 h. Polyclonal anti-RHAMM antisera that block HA binding with this receptor abolished smooth muscle cell migration following injury. HA stimulated the random locomotion of BASMC and its association with the cell monolayer increased following wounding injury. Immunoblot analysis of wounded monolayers demonstrated a novel RHAMM protein isoform that appeared within one hour after injury. At the time of increased cell motility after wounding, FACS analysis demonstrated an increase in the membrane localization in approximately 25% of the cell population. Confocal microscopy of injured monolayers confirmed that membrane expression of this receptor was limited to cells at the wound edge. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RHAMM is necessary for the migration of smooth muscle cells and that expression and distribution of this receptor is tightly regulated following wounding of BASMC monolayers.
Clinical and immunologic features of a recently recognized X-linked combined immunodeficiency disease (XCID) suggested that XCID and X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) might arise from different genetic defects. The recent discovery of mutations in the common gamma chain (gamma c) gene, a constituent of several cytokine receptors, in XSCID provided an opportunity to test directly whether a previously unrecognized mutation in this same gene was responsible for XCID. The status of X chromosome inactivation in blood leukocytes from obligate carriers of XCID was determined from the polymorphic, short tandem repeats (CAG), in the androgen receptor gene, which also contains a methylation-sensitive HpaII site. As in XSCID, X-chromosome inactivation in obligate carriers of XCID was nonrandom in T and B lymphocytes. In addition, X chromosome inactivation in PMNs was variable. Findings from this analysis prompted sequencing of the gamma c gene in this pedigree. A missense mutation in the region coding for the cytoplasmic portion of the gamma c gene was found in three affected males but not in a normal brother. Therefore, this point mutation in the gamma c gene leads to a less severe degree of deficiency in cellular and humoral immunity than that seen in XSCID.
GM-CSF induces three effects potentially beneficial in visceral leishmaniasis: blood monocyte mobilization, macrophage activation, and amelioration of granulocytopenia. To determine the experimental role and effect of GM-CSF in this intracellular infection, livers from Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice were tested for GM-CSF mRNA expression and mice were treated with anti-GM-CSF antiserum or GM-CSF. L. donovani infection upregulated hepatic GM-CSF mRNA expression by 10-fold, and anti-GM-CSF treatment exacerbated visceral infection and tripled liver parasite burdens 4 wk after challenge. In euthymic mice with established infection, treatment with 1-5 micrograms/d murine GM-CSF induced three dose-related effects: peripheral blood leukocytosis, preferential accumulation of myelomonocytic cells at visceral foci of infection, and leishmanicidal activity comparable to that achieved by IFN-gamma. These effects were either largely or entirely T cell dependent. Treatment with human GM-CSF also induced anti-leishmanial activity but with little effect on peripheral leukocyte number or tissue myelomonocytic cell influx; human G-CSF stimulated marked peripheral granulocytosis and neutrophil tissue accumulation but induced little antileishmanial effect. These results identify a role for endogenous GM-CSF in the initial host defense response to L. donovani, reemphasize the influxing monocyte as an effector cell, and indicate that GM-CSF can be used as an antileishmanial treatment.
Cross-resistance between cisplatin (DDP) and metalloid salts in human cells was sought on the basis that mechanisms that mediate metalloid salt cross-resistance in prokaryotes are evolutionarily conserved. Two ovarian and two head and neck carcinoma cell lines selected for DDP resistance were found to be cross-resistant to antimony potassium tartrate, which contains trivalent antimony. The DDP-resistant variant 2008/A was also cross-resistant to arsenite but not to stibogluconate, which contains pentavalent antimony. A variant selected for resistance to antimony potassium tartrate was cross-resistant to DDP and arsenite. Resistance to antimony potassium tartrate and arsenite was of a similar magnitude (3-7-fold), whereas the level of resistance to DDP was greater (17-fold), irrespective of whether the cells were selected by exposure to DDP or to antimony potassium tartrate. In the resistant sublines, uptake of [3H]-dichloro(ethylenediamine) platinum(II) was reduced to 41-52% of control, and a similar deficit was observed in the accumulation of arsenite. We conclude that DDP, antimony potassium tartrate, and arsenite all share a common mechanism of resistance in human cells and that this is due in part to an accumulation defect.
In liver injury, perisinusoidal cells known as lipocytes (Ito cells) undergo "activation," acquiring smooth muscle-like features and a contractile phenotype. To assess whether contraction of these cells is regulated by nitric oxide (NO), we examined the production of NO by lipocytes and the effect of NO on lipocyte contractility. Cultured lipocytes were exposed to cytokines and/or LPS. Single agents had little or no effect on the level of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA. However, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or LPS in combination with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) stimulated iNOS mRNA, which was present within 4 h after exposure. iNOS mRNA levels were paralleled by changes in nitrite (a metabolic product of NO). Intraperitoneal administration of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and LPS led to rapid induction of iNOS mRNA in lipocytes, confirming in vivo the culture findings. Ligation of the common hepatic bile duct, which induces periportal-based liver injury, stimulated iNOS mRNA in lipocytes. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 decreased IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha--stimulated iNOS mRNA and nitrite. Finally, the effect of NO on lipocyte contractility was examined. In cells incubated with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, the contractile response to either serum or endothelin-1 was blocked. Contraction was restored entirely by an inhibitor of NO synthase, NG-monomethylarginine. Furthermore, 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate and sodium nitroprusside inhibited lipocyte contractility, consistent with the effect of NO induced by cytokines. We conclude that NO is a potent modulator of lipocyte contractility and may regulate this function by autocrine (or intracrine) mechanisms. Moreover, NO may play an important role in liver injury, countering the effect of contractile agonists on lipocytes.
We have investigated responses of human monocyte/macrophage cells to extracellular ATP (ATPe). Freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytes showed responses linked to P2Y but not P2Z purinergic receptors; however, during in vitro macrophage differentiation, these cells also exhibited responses suggestive of the presence of the membrane-permeabilizing P2Z receptor. In fact, in human macrophages a brief (15-min) exposure to ATPe, but not other nucleotides, caused (1) a rapid and long-lasting plasma membrane depolarization; (2) a large increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration followed by efflux of the Ca2+ indicator; (3) uptake of low molecular weight hydrophilic molecules such as Lucifer yellow and ethidium bromide; and (4) cell rounding, swelling, and eventual release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. rIFN-gamma enhanced both membrane-permeabilizing and cytotoxic ATPe effects. Membrane permeabilization and cytotoxicity were fully blocked by pretreatment of the cells with oxidized ATP, a compound recently shown to block P2Z receptors covalently in macrophages. Blocking of the P2Z receptor by oxidized ATP also inhibited multinucleated giant cell generation stimulated by concanavalin A or rIFN-gamma without decreasing monocyte migration or membrane adhesion molecule expression. These data suggest that human macrophages express rIFN-gamma-modulated purinergic P2Z receptors in vitro and hint at a role for these plasma membrane molecules in the generation of macrophage polykarions.
We investigated the effects of stress on central and peripheral sympatho-adrenal and sympatho-neural functions in healthy, intact young (3-4 mo) and aged (24 mo) male Fischer 344/N rats. Extracellular fluid (ECF) levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE), dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were obtained by microdialysis in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus at baseline and during immobilization (IMMO). The baseline levels of these substances were similar in both age groups, and their concentrations increased significantly in response to IMMO. The IMMO-induced increases of NE and MHPG, however, were significantly smaller in old than in young rats. Plasma levels of the catecholamines NE, DHPG, MHPG, DOPAC, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), epinephrine (EPI), dopamine (DA), and HVA were also determined in young and old rats during IMMO. Basal levels of these substances were significantly higher in old than in young rats. The magnitude of the IMMO-induced increases in the majority of these compounds however, was significantly smaller in old than in young rats. We conclude that, at the basal state, aging in the Fischer rat is associated with normal PVN ECF, but high plasma catecholamine levels; at stress state, however, old rats have substantially lesser activation of their central and peripheral catecholaminergic systems than young rats.
Detection of new ligand-defective mutations of apolipoprotein B (apoB) will enable identification of sequences involved in binding to the LDL receptor. Genomic DNA from patients attending a lipid clinic was screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for novel mutations in the putative LDL receptor-binding domain of apoB-100. A 46-yr-old woman of Celtic and Native American ancestry with primary hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol [TC] 343 mg/dl; LDL cholesterol [LDL-C] 241 mg/dl) and pronounced peripheral vascular disease was found to be heterozygous for a novel Arg3531-->Cys mutation, caused by a C-->T transition at nucleotide 10800. One unrelated 59-yr-old man of Italian ancestry was found with the same mutation after screening 1,560 individuals. He had coronary heart disease, a TC of 310 mg/dl, and an LDL-C of 212 mg/dl. A total of eight individuals were found with the defect in the families of the two patients. They had an age- and sex-adjusted TC of 240 +/- 14 mg/dl and LDL-C of 169 +/- 10 mg/dl. This compares with eight unaffected family members with age- and sex-adjusted TC of 185 +/- 12 mg/dl and LDL-C of 124 +/- 12 mg/dl. In a dual-label fibroblast binding assay, LDL from the eight subjects with the mutation had an affinity for the LDL receptor that was 63% that of control LDL. LDL from eight unaffected family members had an affinity of 91%. By way of comparison, LDL from six patients heterozygous for the Arg3500-->Gln mutation had an affinity of 36%. The percentage mass ratio of the defective Cys3531 LDL to normal LDL was 59:41, as determined using the mAb MB19 and dynamic laser light scattering. Thus, the defective LDL had accumulated in the plasma of these patients. Using this mass ratio, it was calculated that the defective Cys3531 LDL particles bound with 27% of normal affinity. Deduced haplotypes using 10 apoB gene markers showed the Arg3531-->Cys alleles to be different in the two kindreds and indicates that the mutations arose independently. The Arg3531-->Cys mutation is the second reported cause of familial ligand-defective apoB.
We investigated the lobular localization and molecular level of expression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase, two key enzymes in bile acid synthesis, in isolated periportal and pericentral hepatocytes and by in situ hybridization of rat liver. Enzyme activity, mRNA, and gene transcription of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase were predominant in pericentral hepatocytes of control rats, being 7.9-, 9.9-, and 4.4-fold higher than in periportal hepatocytes, respectively. Similar localization was found for sterol 27-hydroxylase: 2.9-, 2.5-, and 1.7-fold higher enzyme activity, mRNA, and gene transcription, respectively, was found in pericentral hepatocytes. Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation with colestid resulted in upregulation of these parameters for both enzymes, as a consequence of stimulated gene expression mainly in the periportal zone. In contrast, mRNA levels and gene transcription of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase showed opposite lobular distribution. Selective periportal expression for the latter was enhanced, but remained local, after colestid treatment. In situ hybridization showed unambiguously that cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA is localized exclusively in the pericentral zone and that sterol 27-hydroxylase mRNA is expressed preferentially in the pericentral region, though less pronounced. Administration of colestid led to expression of both genes within a larger area of the liver lobulus. In conclusion, we suggest that cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase are coordinately regulated by the bile acid gradient over the lobulus, resulting in predominant expression in the pericentral zone. Opposite lobular localization of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis provides an alternative view to interregulation of these metabolic pathways.
The metalion vanadate has insulin-like effects and has been advocated for use in humans as a therapeutic modality for diabetes mellitus. However, since vanadate is a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, it may result in undesirable activation of target cells. We studied the effect of vanadate on human mesangial cells, an important target in diabetic nephropathy. Vanadate stimulated DNA synthesis and PDGF B chain gene expression. Vanadate also inhibited total tyrosine phosphatase activity and stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of a set of cellular proteins. Two chemically and mechanistically dissimilar tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and herbimycin A, blocked DNA synthesis induced by vanadate. Vanadate also stimulated phospholipase C and protein kinase C. Downregulation of protein kinase C abolished vanadate-induced DNA synthesis. Thus, vanadate-induced mitogenesis is dependent on tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C activation. The most likely mechanism for the effect of vanadate on these diverse processes involves the inhibition of cellular phosphotyrosine phosphatases. These studies demonstrating that vanadate activates mesangial cells may have major implications for the therapeutic potential of vanadate administration in diabetes. Although vanadate exerts beneficial insulin-like effects and potentiates the effect of insulin in sensitive tissue, it may result in undesirable activation of other target cells, such as mesangial cells.
To evaluate the possible role of posttranscriptional mechanisms in the acute phase response, we determined the kinetics of transcription (by nuclear run-on assay) and mRNA accumulation of five human acute phase genes in Hep 3B cells incubated with conditioned medium from LPS-stimulated monocytes. Increase in mRNA accumulation was comparable to increase in transcription rate for fibrinogen-alpha and alpha-1 protease inhibitor, suggesting largely transcriptional regulation. In contrast, mRNA accumulation was about 10-20-fold greater than transcriptional increase for serum amyloid A, C3, and factor B, suggesting participation of posttranscriptional mechanisms. Since finding a disparity between the magnitudes of increase in mRNA and transcription does not definitively establish involvement of posttranscriptional mechanisms, we subjected our data to modeling studies and dynamic mathematical analysis to evaluate this possibility more rigorously. In modeling studies, accumulation curves resembling those observed for these three mRNAs could be generated from the nuclear run-on results only if posttranscriptional regulation was assumed. Dynamic mathematical analysis of relative transcription rates and relative mRNA abundance also strongly supported participation of posttranscriptional mechanisms. These observations suggest that posttranscriptional regulation plays a substantial role in induction of some, but not all acute phase proteins.
Early features in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis include accumulation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and endothelial expression of the vascular adhesion molecule VCAM-1. Because antioxidants inhibit endothelial VCAM-1 expression, we tested the hypothesis that oxLDL functions as a prooxidant signal in atherogenesis to augment VCAM-1 activation by inflammatory signals. Cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with unmodified LDL, oxLDL, or glycated LDL for 48 h. No change in VCAM-1, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), or E-selectin expression from control was observed by ELISA. However, dose-response and time course studies demonstrated that oxLDL enhanced VCAM-1 expression induced by the cytokin tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) 63% in HAECs and 45% in HUVECs over unmodified LDL or control. Using flow cytometry analysis, oxLDL augmented TNF alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression in a uniform HAEC population. oxLDL had no effect on E-selection induction. oxLDL augmented TNF alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression 44% in HAECs but not in HUVECs. Glycated LDL augmented TNF alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression 35% in HAECs but not HUVECs. Similar results were obtained with 13-HPODE or lysophosphatidylcholine, significant components of oxLDL. 13-HPODE augmented TNF alpha-induced mRNA accumulation and transcriptional activation of VCAM-1 in HAECs. These results suggest that as long-term regulatory signals, specific oxidized fatty acid and phospholipid components of oxLDL augment the ability of vascular endothelial cells to express cytokine-mediated VCAM-1. These studies link oxidant signals conferred by oxLDL to oxidation-sensitive regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules involved in early atherosclerosis.
To determine whether beta-adrenergic receptor agonist activation influences guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein (G-protein) expression and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase activity in the heart, we examined the effects of chronic beta 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist treatment (bisoprolol, 0.2 mg/kg per d i.v., 35 d) on components of the myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor-G-protein-adenylyl cyclase pathway in porcine myocardium. Three novel alterations in cardiac adrenergic signaling associated with chronic reduction in beta-adrenergic receptor agonist activation were found. First, there was coordinate downregulation of Gi alpha 2 and Gs alpha mRNA and protein expression in the left ventricle; reduced G-protein content was also found in the right atrium. Second, in the left ventricle, there was a twofold increase in beta-adrenergic receptor-dependent stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and a persistent high affinity state of the beta-adrenergic receptor. Finally, there was a reduction in left ventricular beta-adrenergic receptor kinase activity, suggesting a previously unrecognized association between the degree of adrenergic activation and myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor kinase expression. The heart appears to adapt in response to chronic beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist administration in a manner that would be expected to offset reduced agonist stimulation. The mechanisms for achieving this extend beyond beta-adrenergic receptor upregulation and include alterations in G-protein expression, beta-adrenergic receptor-Gs interaction, and myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor kinase activity.
The intestinal fatty acid binding protein locus (FABP2) was investigated as a possible genetic factor in determining insulin action in the Pima Indian population. A polymorphism at codon 54 of FABP2 was identified that results in an alanine-encoding allele (frequency 0.71) and a threonine-encoding allele (frequency 0.29). Pimas who were homozygous or heterozygous for the threonine-encoding allele were found to have a higher mean fasting plasma insulin concentration, a lower mean insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate, a higher mean insulin response to oral glucose and a mixed meal, and a higher mean fat oxidation rate compared with Pimas who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele. Since the FABP2 threonine-encoding allele was found to be associated with insulin resistance and increased fat oxidation in vivo, we further analyzed the FABP2 gene products for potential functional differences. Titration microcalorimetry studies with purified recombinant protein showed that the threonine-containing protein had a twofold greater affinity for long-chain fatty acids than the alanine-containing protein. We conclude that the threonine-containing protein may increase absorption and/or processing of dietary fatty acids by the intestine and thereby increase fat oxidation, which has been shown to reduce insulin action.
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene expression was detected in human fetal pituitary tissue by expression of LIF mRNA transcripts, protein immunocytochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Fetal LIF immunoreactivity colocalized with 30% of ACTH-expressing cells, approximately 20% of somatotrophs, and approximately 15% of non-hormone-expressing cells. LIF was also strongly expressed in normal adult pituitary and in four growth hormone-producing and two ACTH-producing adenomas, but not in eight nonfunctioning pituitary tumors. Culture of fetal cells expressing surface LIF-binding sites demonstrated predominance of in vitro ACTH secretion as compared with other pituitary hormones. In AtT-20 murine cells, LIF (ED50 10 pM) stimulated basal proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels by 40% and corticotropin-releasing hormone-induced ACTH secretion (two- to threefold), as did oncostatin M (ED50 30 pM), a related peptide. ACTH responses were not further enhanced by both cytokines together, which is consistent with their shared receptor. Anti-LIF antiserum neutralized basal and LIF-induced ACTH secretion, suggesting autocrine regulation of ACTH by LIF. The results show that human pituitary cells express the LIF gene and LIF-binding sites, predominantly in corticotrophs. Pituitary LIF expression and LIF regulation of proopiomelanocortin and ACTH reflect an intrapituitary role for LIF in modulating early embryonic determination of specific human pituitary cells and as a paracrine or autocrine regulator of mature ACTH.
We have determined the cause of an unusual C1 inhibitor abnormality in a large kindred. We previously found that half of serum C1 inhibitor molecules in affected kindred members are normal. The other half complexed with C1s but showed little complex formation with C1r. These molecules also appeared to be relatively resistant to digestion by trypsin. Taken together, the findings suggested that members of this kindred are heterozygous for an unusual C1 inhibitor mutation. Sequencing of genomic DNA from the kindred revealed that thymine has replaced cytosine in the codon for Ala443 (P2 residue) in one C1 inhibitor allele, resulting in substitution with a Val residue. To test the effect of this substitution, a mutant C1 inhibitor containing Ala443-->Val was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in COS-1 cells. Both the Ala443-->Val mutant and the wild-type C1 inhibitor complexed completely with C1s, kallikrein, and coagulation Factor XIIa after incubation at 37 degrees C for 60 min. In contrast, the mutant inhibitor failed to complex completely with C1r under the same conditions. Time course analysis showed that the ability of the mutant to complex with C1s is also impaired: although it complexed completely in 60 min, the rate of complex formation during a 0-60-min incubation was decreased compared with wild-type C1 inhibitor. The mutant inhibitor also formed a complex with trypsin, a serine protease that cleaves, and is not inhibited by, wild-type C1 inhibitor. The Ala443-->Val mutation therefore converts C1 inhibitor from a substrate to an inhibitor of trypsin. These studies emphasize the role of the P2 residue in the determination of target protease specificity.
In previous studies of infectious mononucleosis, we found IgM autoantibodies which react with hematopoietic cell antigens. Many of these were inhibited by synthetic glycine/alanine peptides representing the glycine/alanine repeat of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1. We have cloned and expressed fragments of genes encoding two of these autoantigens. One gene (p542) encodes a protein containing a glycine-rich 28-mer, which is its chief autoantigenic epitope and which represents a newly identified class of evolutionarily conserved autoepitopes. The other gene (p554) encodes a protein that is not demonstrably cross-reactive with Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 or with any other EBV protein, but forms complexes with other proteins. Immunoaffinity-purified anti-p542 and anti-p554 have relatively high binding affinities, as evidenced by inhibition at 10(6)-10(8) M-1, and neither autoantibody showed polyreactivity with other common antigens. The data thus suggest that neither autoantibody is simply an expression of polyclonal B cell activation. We conclude that the two autoantigens stimulate autoantibody synthesis by different mechanisms. One autoantigen shares homology to a viral protein which generates cross-reacting antibodies to the autoantigenic epitope. The other has no recognizable cross-reaction with the infecting pathogen and may become immunogenic through complexing with other proteins.
During infectious mononucleosis, IgM autoantibodies are generated to a protein, p542, which contains a glycine-rich 28-mer epitope cross-reactive with the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 through Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1's glycine/alanine repeat. In normal individuals it is uncommon to find IgG anti-p542, but among patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ulcerative colitis high IgG anti-p542 (> 3 SD above the mean of normal 20-50 yr controls) occurred frequently. Lesser elevations occurred in Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease, but none with chronic hepatitis B infection. The reactive epitopes on p542 were mapped with deletion mutants, which indicated that the glycine-rich 28-mer was the major antigenic determinant, with lesser antibody responses to other epitopes. We conclude that normally there is an inability to generate IgG autoantibodies to the cross-reactive (mimicking) epitope of the p542 host protein, but that this inability is overcome in a proportion of patients with autoimmune disease. We conclude also that non-cross-reactive autoepitopes exist on p542 protein, to which IgG autoantibodies can commonly be formed in autoimmune disorders. The mechanisms responsible for the latter must involve different mechanisms than those responsible for autoantibodies to the mimicking epitope.
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of heritable mechano-bullous skin diseases classified into three major categories on the basis of the level of tissue separation within the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone. In the most severe, dystrophic (scarring) forms of EB, blisters form below the cutaneous basement membrane at the level of the anchoring fibrils, which are composed of type VII collagen. Ultrastructural observations of altered anchoring fibrils and genetic linkage to the type VII collagen locus (COL7A1) have implicated COL7A1 as the candidate gene in the dystrophic forms of EB. We have recently cloned the entire cDNA and the gene for human COL7A1. In this study, we describe distinct mutations in both COL7A1 alleles in three brothers with severe, mutilating recessive dystrophic EB (the Hallopeau-Siemens type, HS-RDEB). The patients are compound heterozygotes for two different mutations, both of which result in a premature termination codon in COL7A1, and the parents were shown to be clinically heterozygous carries of the respective mutations. Premature termination codons in both alleles of COL7A1 appear to be the underlying cause of severe, recessive dystrophic EB in this family.
To develop a system for overexpressing genes in the vascular wall, we created transgenic mice using the reporter gene luciferase and the murine preproendothelin-1 promoter. In vitro analysis suggested that the murine 5'-flanking region contained endothelial-specific elements in a 5.9-kb fragment. Five transgenic mice colonies established from independent founders all exhibited the highest level of luciferase activity in the aorta with up to 8,540 light units per microgram of protein. Immunohistochemistry with anti-luciferase antisera revealed high levels of expression in the endothelial cells of both large and small arteries and lower levels of expression in veins and capillaries. Significant expression was also seen in arterial smooth muscle cells and in select epithelial surfaces which is consistent with the known distribution of endothelin-1 in mammals. The further demonstrate the targeting capability of this system, we overexpressed the lipid-peroxidating enzyme, human 15-lipoxygenase, in the vessel wall of transgenic mice. As with luciferase, expression of active enzyme and immunohistochemical localization in vascular cells were documented in transgenic animals. Hence, this new system can be used to direct expression of molecules to the vascular wall for the purpose of examining the biological significance of either overexpression or inhibition of select proteins.
Generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa (GABEB) is a form of nonlethal junctional epidermolysis bullosa characterized by universal alopecia and atrophy of the skin. We report a deficiency of the 180-kD bullous pemphigoid antigen in three patients with GABEB from unrelated families. We screened specimens of clinically normal skin from nine junctional epidermolysis bullosa patients (3 GABEB, 4 lethal, 1 cicatricial, 1 pretibial) by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies to the 180-kD and 230-kD bullous pemphigoid antigens (BP180 and BP230). In the skin of the three GABEB patients there was no reactivity with antibodies to BP180, whereas staining for BP230 was normal. In the skin of the other six, non-GABEB patients, included in this study the expression of BP180 and BP230 was normal. Immunoblot analysis of cultured keratinocytes from one of the GABEB patients also failed to detect BP180 antigen, whereas BP230 was present in normal amounts. The deficient expression of BP180 is reflected in the RNA message, as in Northern blot analysis a reduced amount of BP180 transcripts, although of normal length, were detected. Interestingly, in another GABEB patient there were not-involved areas of skin, in which blistering could not be induced by rubbing. Biopsy material from these areas showed interrupted staining for BP180. There was no staining for BP180 in areas of clinically normal but involved skin of this patient. In conclusion, this study reveals that the BP180 antigen is deficient and the BP180 mRNA is reduced in generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa.
Angiotensin II (AII)- and Arg8-vasopressin (AVP)-regulated gene expression in vascular cells has been reported to contribute to vascular homeostasis and hypertrophy. In this report, AVP-induced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-2 mRNA in rat microvessel endothelial (RME) cells was identified using differential mRNA display. Further characterization of vasoactive peptide effects on PAI expression revealed that AII stimulated a 44.8 +/- 25.2-fold and a 12.4 +/- 3.2-fold increase in PAI-2 mRNA in RME cells and rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC), respectively. AII also stimulated a 10- and 48-fold increase in PAI-1 mRNA in RME cells and RASMC, respectively. These AII effects were inhibited by either Sar1, Ile8-angiotensin or the AT1 antagonist DuP 735, but were not significantly altered in the presence of the AT2 antagonist PD123319. AII stimulation of RASMC and RME cells also significantly increased both PAI-1 protein and PAI activity released to the culture medium. Inhibition of protein kinase C completely blocked PMA-stimulated induction of PAI-2 mRNA in both cell types and inhibited the AII-stimulated increase in RASMC by 98.6 +/- 2.8%. In contrast, protein kinase C inhibition only partially decreased the AII-stimulated PAI-2 expression in RME cells by 68.8 +/- 11.1%, suggesting that a protein kinase C-independent mechanism contributes to a 6.9 +/- 1.5-fold AII induction of PAI-2 expression in endothelial cells. AII and PMA also stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation in RME cells, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein partially blocked their induction of PAI-2 mRNA. These findings suggest that AII may regulate plasminogen activation in the vasculature by inducing both PAI-1 and PAI-2 expression.
The endothelium has the capacity to modulate vascular structure in response to hemodynamic stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of the endothelium to increased laminar shear stress induces the expression of TGF beta 1 via a signal transduction pathway modulated by K+ channel currents. Although TGF beta 1 is normally secreted in a latent, inactive form, exposure of cultured endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress (20 dynes/cm2) induced increased generation of biologically active TGF beta 1. This increase in active TGF beta 1 was associated with a sustained increase in TGF beta 1 mRNA expression within 2 h of stimulation. TGF beta 1 mRNA levels increased in direct proportion to the intensity of the shear stress within the physiologic range. The effect of shear stress on TGF beta 1 mRNA expression was regulated at the transcriptional level as defined by nuclear run-off studies and transient transfection of a TGF beta 1 promoter-reporter gene construct. Blockade of endothelial K+ channels with tetraethylammonium significantly inhibited: activation of TGF beta 1 gene transcription; increase in steady state mRNA levels; and generation of active TGF beta 1 in response to shear stress. These data suggest that endothelial K+ channels and autocrine-paracrine TGF beta 1 may be involved in the mechanotransduction mechanisms mediating flow-induced vascular remodeling.
Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, -2, and -3 all have been shown to induce monocyte/macrophage migration in vitro and MCP-1, also known as MCAF, chemoattracts basophils and mast cells. We report here that natural MCP-1 as well as synthetic preparations of MCP-2 and MCP-3 stimulate significant in vitro chemotaxis of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. This MCP-induced migration was dose-dependent and directional, but not chemokinetic. Phenotypic analysis of the T cell population responsive to MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 demonstrates that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells migrated in response to these chemokines. Similar results were observed using human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones. Neutralizing antisera to MCAF or MCP-2 abrogated T cell migration in response to MCP-1 and MCP-2, respectively, but not to RANTES. Subcutaneous administration of purified MCP-1 into the hind flanks of SCID mice engrafted with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) induced significant human CD3+ T cell infiltration into the site of injection at 4 h. These results demonstrate that MCP-1, MCP-2, and MCP-3 are inflammatory mediators that specifically stimulate the directional migration of T cells as well as monocytes and may play an important role in immune cell recruitment into sites of antigenic challenge.
Cystic fibrosis airway epithelia exhibit a spectrum of ion transport properties that differ from normal, including not only defective cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion, but also increased Na+ absorption and increased Ca(2+)-mediated Cl- secretion. In the present study, we examined whether adenovirus-mediated (Ad5) transduction of CFTR can correct all of these CF ion transport abnormalities. Polarized primary cultures of human CF and normal nasal epithelial cells were infected with Ad5-CBCFTR at an moi (10(4)) which transduced virtually all cells or Ad5-CMV lacZ as a control. Consistent with previous reports, Ad5-CBCFTR, but not Ad5-CMV lacZ, corrected defective CF cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion. Basal Na+ transport rates (basal Ieq) in CF airway epithelial sheets (-78.5 +/- 9.8 microA/cm2) were reduced to levels measured in normal epithelial sheets (-30.0 +/- 2.0 microA/cm2) by Ad5-CBCFTR (-36.9 +/- 4.8 microA/cm2), but not Ad5-CMV lacZ (-65.8 +/- 6.1 microA/cm2). Surprisingly, a significant reduction in delta Ieq in response to ionomycin, a measure of Ca(2+)-mediated Cl- secretion, was observed in CFTR-expressing (corrected) CF epithelial sheets (-6.9 +/- 11.8 microA/cm2) when compared to uninfected CF epithelial sheets (-76.2 +/- 15.1 microA/cm2). Dose response effects of Ad5-CBCFTR on basal Na+ transport rates and Ca(2+)-mediated Cl- secretion suggest that the mechanism of regulation of these two ion transport functions by CFTR may be different. In conclusion, efficient transduction of CFTR corrects hyperabsorption of Na+ in primary CF airway epithelial cells and restores Ca(2+)-mediated Cl- secretion to levels observed in normal airway epithelial cells. Moreover, assessment of these ion transport abnormalities may represent important endpoints for testing the efficacy of gene therapy for cystic fibrosis.
Screening subtraction libraries from normal and type II diabetic human skeletal muscle, we identified four different mitochondrially encoded genes which were increased in expression in diabetes. The genes were cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome oxidase III, NADH dehydrogenase IV, and 12s rRNA, all of which are located on the heavy strand of the mitochondrial genome. There was a 1.5- to 2.2-fold increase in the expression of these mRNA molecules relative to total RNA in both type I and type II diabetes as assessed by Northern blot analyses. Since there was approximately 50% decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number as estimated by Southern blot analyses, mitochondrial gene expression increased approximately 2.5-fold when expressed relative to mitochondrial DNA copy number. For cytochrome oxidase I similar changes in mitochondrial gene expression were observed in muscle of nonobese diabetic and ob/ob mice, models of type I and type II diabetes, respectively. By contrast there was no change or a slight decrease in expression of cytochrome oxidase 7a, a nuclear-encoded subunit of cytochrome oxidase, and the expression of mitochondrial transcription factor 1 in human skeletal muscle did not change with type I or type II diabetes. The increased mitochondrial gene expression may contribute to the increase in mitochondrial respiration observed in uncontrolled diabetes.
Somatic mutation of Ig variable regions occurs prominently in germinal centers, but it has been debated whether the mutation process initiates in germinal centers or is activated before germinal center entry of B cells. We have analyzed for the presence of somatic mutation in Ig gene rearrangements of the nonpolymorphic human VH6 gene in the X-linked HyperIgM syndrome, which is associated with defective CD40 ligand expression and absence of germinal centers and generation of memory B lymphocytes. IgM and rare IgG VH6 productive rearrangements were isolated from PBL of patients with X-linked HyperIgM syndrome. Although the majority of both the IgM and IgG VH6 rearrangements had a germline VH6 sequence, 7 of 102 VH6 IgM and 1 of 6 IgG rearrangements had a mutated VH6 gene. The mutation frequency (mutations/bp) was 1.4% with a range of 2-9 mutations per clone, a mutation frequency lower, however, than that observed in IgM (3.2%) and IgG (5.4%) VH6 rearrangements of normal individuals. These results suggest that somatic mutation may be initiated in a CD40 ligand-independent pathway before entry of B cells into germinal centers, but fails to achieve the high mutation frequency observed in the presence of germinal centers.
Angiotensin II recognizes two receptor subtypes, AT1 and AT2, both of them having been recently cloned. Although AT2 receptors represent 5-10% of angiotensin II receptors in the kidneys of adult rats, their function remains unknown. In the present work, we examined the possible contribution of AT2 receptors to the regulation of pressure-natriuresis in anesthetized rats infused either with the specific AT2 antagonist PD 123319, or with CGP 42112B, an AT2 ligand with agonistic properties. The effects of PD 123319 were examined in a preparation with stable levels of angiotensin II, and in which AT1 receptors were blocked by the specific antagonist losartan. The effects of CGP 42112B were studied in rats deprived of endogenous angiotensin II. AT2 receptor blockade with PD 123319 did not change the renal blood flow while it increased the diuresis and natriuresis. These effects persisted even after full AT1 receptor blockade with losarfan. CGP 42112B did not modify the renal blood flow, but dose-dependently decreased urine flow and natriuresis. These results show that, contrary to AT1 receptors, renal AT2 receptors have no effect on total renal blood flow, but blunt the pressure-natriuresis, thus demonstrating that this receptor subtype is involved in a function of importance for body fluid and blood pressure regulation.
To investigate the role of antigen drive in anti-double-stranded (ds) DNA production, the antibody response induced in lupus-prone NZB/NZW mice by E. coli (EC) dsDNA was evaluated. Preautoimmune NZB/NZW female mice were immunized with complexes of EC dsDNA with methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) in complete Freund's adjuvant; control mice received either mBSA complexes with calf thymus (CT) dsDNA or mBSA alone in adjuvant. IgG antibody responses were assessed by ELISA. Similar to normal mice, immunized NZB/NZW mice produced significant levels of anti-dsDNA when measured with EC dsDNA as antigen. Whereas normal mice produce antibodies which are specific for the immunizing bacterial DNA, NZB/NZW mice produced antibodies that bound crossreactively to CT dsDNA by ELISA. Furthermore, the induced antibodies resembled lupus anti-DNA in their fine specificity for polynucleotide antigens and reactivity with Crithidia luciliae DNA. Despite their response to EC dsDNA, NZB/NZW mice immunized with CT dsDNA failed to generate significant anti-dsDNA responses. These results provide further evidence for the enhanced immunogenicity of bacterial DNA and suggest that immune cell abnormalities in NZB/NZW mice promote the generation of crossreactive autoantibody responses when confronted with a foreign DNA.
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an atherogenic lipoprotein which is similar in structure to low density lipoproteins (LDL). The role of the LDL receptor in the catabolism of Lp(a) has been controversial. We therefore investigated the in vivo catabolism of Lp(a) and LDL in five unrelated patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) who have little or no LDL receptor activity. Purified 125I-Lp(a) and 131I-LDL were simultaneously injected into the homozygous FH patients, their heterozygous FH parents when available, and control subjects. The disappearance of plasma radioactivity was followed over time. As expected, the fractional catabolic rates (FCR) of 131I-LDL were markedly decreased in the homozygous FH patients (mean LDL FCR 0.190 d-1) and somewhat decreased in the heterozygous FH parents (mean LDL FCR 0.294 d-1) compared with controls (mean LDL FCR 0.401 d-1). In contrast, the catabolism of 125I-Lp(a) was not significantly different in the homozygous FH patients (mean FCR 0.251 d-1), heterozygous FH parents (mean FCR 0.254 d-1), and control subjects (mean FCR 0.287 d-1). In summary, absence of a functional LDL receptor does not result in delayed catabolism of Lp(a), indicating that the LDL receptor is not a physiologically important route of Lp(a) catabolism in humans.
Missense mutations in the beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) gene cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). As normal and mutant beta-MHCs are expressed in slow-twitch skeletal muscle of HCM patients, we compared the contractile properties of single slow-twitch muscle fibers from patients with three distinct beta-MHC gene mutations and normal controls. Fibers with the 741Gly-->Arg mutation (near the binding site of essential light chain) demonstrated decreased maximum velocity of shortening (39% of normal) and decreased isometric force generation (42% of normal). Fibers with the 403Arg-->Gln mutation (at the actin interface of myosin) showed lowered force/stiffness ratio (56% of normal) and depressed velocity of shortening (50% of normal). Both the 741Gly-->Arg and 403Arg-->Gln mutation-containing fibers displayed abnormal force-velocity relationships and reduced power output. Fibers with the 256Gly-->Glu mutation (end of ATP-binding pocket) had contractile properties that were indistinguishable from normal. Thus there is variability in the nature and extent of functional impairments in skeletal fibers containing different beta-MHC gene mutations, which may correlate with the severity and penetrance of the disease that results from each mutation. These functional alterations likely constitute the primary stimulus for the cardiac hypertrophy that is characteristic of this disease.
Alveolar macrophages, resident phagocytic cells in the lung that derive from peripheral blood monocytes, are paradoxically ineffective in presenting antigen to T cells. We found that antigen presentation by alveolar macrophages could be restored by the addition of anti-CD28 mAb to cultures of T cells and macrophages, indicating that costimulation by alveolar macrophages via the CD28 pathway was defective. In addition, we found that alveolar macrophages activated with IFN-gamma failed to express B7-1 or B7-2 antigens, which normally ligate CD28 on T cells and provide a costimulatory signal required for the activation of T cells. These observations are the first to demonstrate the inability of a "professional" antigen-presenting cell type to effectively express the costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2. Inasmuch as immune reactions within the lung are inevitably associated with inflammatory injury to pulmonary tissue, these observations suggest that reduced expression of B7-1 and B7-2 by alveolar macrophages may be advantageous, as a critical mechanism involved in the induction of peripheral tolerance to the abundance of antigens to which mucosal tissues are continuously exposed.
Copyright © 2014 American Society for Clinical Investigation