To gain information about the nature of disturbances in sympathetic nervous system control in congestive heart failure, serum dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) activity was measured in 30 patients with heart failure of diverse etiologies and 29 healthy normotensive controls. The heart failure patients had been symptomatic for at least 6 wk and had elevated filling pressures, low cardiac indices, low ejection fractions, and wide arteriovenous oxygen differences. DBH activity was 47.1±4.7 (mean±SE) for the controls and 14.4±2.7 IU for the heart failure patients (P < 0.001). Sera from some patients with heart failure had potent inhibitory effects on DBH activity of normal sera. The inhibitor was heat stable and dialyzable and could be demonstrated despite presence of N-ethylmaleimide or Cu++ in the reaction mixture. However, some inhibitory activity was also present in sera of normal patients; this inhibitory property was not demonstrable in unheated normal serum, but was unmasked when DBH was heat inactivated. It is proposed that although the inhibitor may have been a factor in low serum DBH activity in some patients with heart failure, the major cause of the low activity in the heart failure group was a reduced rate of synthesis or release of the enzyme by sympathetic nerves. This may reflect a dissociation between rates of neural release of norepinephrine and release of DBH in chronic, severe heart failure. The observation of low serum DBH levels in patients with heart failure suggests that measurement of DBH levels may serve as a useful indicator of cardiac dysfunction.
An inherited and complete deficiency of diphosphoglycerate mutase was discovered in the erythrocytes of a 42-yr-old man of French origin whose blood hemoglobin concentration was 19.0 g/dl. Upon physical examination he was normal with the exception of a ruddy cyanosis. The morphology of his erythrocytes was also normal and there was no evidence of hemolysis. The erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate level was below 3% of normal values and, as a consequence, the affinity of the cells for oxygen was increased. Diphosphoglycerate mutase activity was undetectable in erythrocytes as was that of diphosphoglycerate phosphatase. The activities of all the other erythrocyte enzymes that were tested were normal except for nomophosphoglycerate mutase which was diminished to 50% of the normal value. The levels of reduced glutathione, ATP, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and of triose phosphates were elevated, whereas those of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were decreased. This report sheds new light on the role of diphosphoglycerate mutase in the metabolism of erythrocytes.
We previously showed that collagen, α-chains, and collagen-derived peptide fragments induce chemotactic migration of human fibroblasts in vitro. We now describe biochemical and immunological evidence showing there are binding sites for collagen peptides on fibroblast membranes.
Prostacyclin (PGI2) is an unstable prostaglandin which inhibits platelet aggregation and serotonin release and causes vasodilation. The PGI2 activity produced by monolayers of cultured human endothelial cells and fibroblasts was measured by the ability of their supernates to inhibit platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma, or to inhibit thrombin-induced [14C]serotonin release from aspirin-treated, washed platelet suspensions. Monolayers of cultured human endothelial cells, stimulated with sodium arachidonate, thrombin, the ionophore A 23187, or trypsin, secreted PGI2 into the supernatant medium. Monolayers of fibroblasts produced PGI2 activity only when stimulated by arachidonate. “Resting,” intact monolayers did not produce detectable PGI2, nor did monolayers treated with ADP or epinephrine. Production of PGI2 activity was abolished by treatment of the monolayers with indomethacin, tranylcypromine, or 15-hydroperoxy arachidonic acid. The PGI2 activity of the supernates was destroyed by boiling or acidification. Inhibition of thrombin with diisopropylfluoro-phosphate, and of trypsin with soybean trypsin inhibitor, abolished the stimulation of PGI2 production by these enzymes. Production of thrombin at a site of vascular injury could, by stimulating PGI2 synthesis by endothelial cells adjacent to the injured area, limit the number of platelets involved in the primary hemostatic response and help to localize thrombus formation.
We measured propionyl coenzyme A carboxylase (PCC) activity in extracts of skin fibroblasts and peripheral blood leukocytes from controls and obligate heterozygotes for PCC deficiency. 6 heterozygotes were from the pcc A complementation group; 12 were from the other major complementation group, designated pcc C. Mean PCC activity in fibroblast extracts from pcc A heterozygotes was 52% of that in controls, whereas mean PCC activity in pcc C heterozygotes was indistinguishable from that of controls. Similar results were obtained with extracts of peripheral blood leukocytes. In none of eight families (three pcc A and five pcc C) in which PCC activity was studied in both parents of an affected child were significant intrafamilial differences observed. The activities of two other mitochondrial enzymes (β-methyl-crotonyl CoA carboxylase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were comparable in controls and both groups of heterozygotes. Whereas the data from pcc A heterozygotes are consistent with expected gene dosage effects, those from pcc C heterozygotes are not. Inasmuch as mammalian PCC is a large molecular weight tetramer, each protomer of which is probably composed of two nonidentical subunits, the latter results are most consistent with unbalanced rates of synthesis and(or) degradation of the two subunits in normal cells with compensatory balancing in pcc C heterozygotes.
Receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) are present on mouse pituitary thyrotropic tumor cells. Incubation of thyrotropes with 100 nM TRH or 4 nM L-triiodothyronine (T3) for 48 h decreased the number of TRH receptors to approximately equal to 50 and 20% of control, respectively. There was no effect on the equilibrium dissociation constant which was 3-5 nM. The depletion in the number of available TRH receptors was time- and dose-dependent. TRH, 100 nM, decreased the receptor number to 70% after 24 h, 50% after 48 h, and 45% of control after 72 h. T3, 4 nM, decreased the receptor number to 52% after 24 h, 20% after 48 h, and 17% of control after 72 h. After 48 h, half-maximal depletion occurred with 1-2 nM TRH and approximately equal to 0.15 nM T3. Incubation with 100 nM TRH and 4 nM T3 caused a significantly greater reduction in the receptor level than either hormone alone. The decrease in the receptor level was reversible within 72 h after removal of TRH, 100 nM, but was only partially reversed, from 20 to 40% of control, after removal of T3, 4 nM, after 120 h. By regulating the number of available TRH receptors on the thyrotrope. TRH and T3 interact to control thyrotropin release.
Fast and slow rat transferrins were isolated by isoelectric focusing and prepared in their di- and monoferric forms. A comparison of the rates of iron release between fast and slow monoferric transferrins when incubated with reticulocytes or injected in vivo showed no significant difference in the behavior of the two isotransferrin species. Reticulocyte uptake of diferric transferrin resulted in the removal of both iron atoms from the transferrin molecule. A twofold greater iron uptake was observed from diferric as compared with monoferric iron, provided reticulocyte receptors were saturated. It is concluded that the two species of transferrin and their individual sites function similarly in their release of iron to tissue receptors.
We have studied the intracellular binding of radioactive cobalamin by normal cultured human fibroblasts grown in medium containing [57Co]-cobalamin. We have also assessed the significance of defects in this binding activity exhibited by two classes of human mutants (cbl C and cbl D) each characterized by pleiotropic deficiencies in the accumulation and retention of cobalamin, in the synthesis of cobalamin coenzymes, and accordingly, in the holoenzyme activities of both cobalamin-dependent enzymes, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate:homocysteine methyltransferase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Based on the coincidence of [57Co]cobalamin binding and cobalamin-dependent enzyme activities after Sephadex G-150 chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we conclude that, as in rat liver, the intracellular binding of labeled cobalamin by normal fibroblasts reflects the attachment of the vitamin to the cobalamin-dependent methyltransferase and mutase. Whereas cbl C cells are completely deficient in the binding of [57Co]cobalamin to either enzyme, fibroblasts which bear the phenotypically similar but genetically distinct cbl D mutation retain some binding activity, and accordingly, have higher holomethyltransferase and holomutase activities than do cbl C cells. The defect in [57Co]-cobalamin binding exhibited by both cbl C and cbl D fibroblasts is almost certainly not a result of mutations which affect the methyltransferase or mutase apoenzymes, since the electrophoretic mobilities and the affinities of these enzymes for their respective cobalamin coenzymes are indistinguishable from those in control cell extracts. These results suggest that both the cbl C and cbl D mutations affect some enzymatic step(s) which converts newly taken up cobalamin to a form capable of being bound by the two cobalamin-dependent enzymes.
The role of the renin-angiotensin system in mediating the circulatory and metabolic responses to hypoxia was studied in three groups of conscious dogs that were infused continuously with normal saline, teprotide (10 μg/kg per min), and saralasin (1 μg/kg per min), respectively. Hypoxia was produced by switching from breathing room air to 5 or 8% oxygen-nitrogen mixture. Plasma renin activity increased from 2.3±0.4 to 4.9±0.8 ng/ml per h during 8% oxygen breathing, and from 2.8±0.4 to 8.4±1.8 ng/ml per h during 5% oxygen breathing. As expected, cardiac output, heart rate, mean aortic blood pressure, and left ventricular dP/dt and dP/dt/P increased during both 5 and 8% oxygen breathing in the saline-treated dogs; greater increases occurred during the more severe hypoxia. Teprotide and saralasin infusion diminished the hemodynamic responses to 5% oxygen breathing, but did not affect the responses to 8% oxygen breathing significantly. In addition, the increased blood flows to the myocardium, kidneys, adrenals, brain, intercostal muscle, and diaphragm that usually occur during 5% oxygen breathing were reduced by both agents. These agents also reduced the increases in plasma norepinephrine concentration during 5% oxygen breathing, but had no effects on tissue aerobic or anaerobic metabolism.
Inhalational exposure to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) produces an immediate-type asthmatic or a late respiratory systemic syndrome in certain workers after a latent period of work exposure. TMA has been found to react with proteins to produce a hapten-protein complex (trimellitate [TM] protein) or become hydrolyzed in aqueous, alkaline solutions to produce a salt, NaTM. Using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay technique, antibodies of different Ig classes were detected against TM-protein conjugates. IgE antibody was detected in three of five workers with asthma. IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in most exposed workers but higher levels of antibody were found in symptomatic workers even after long periods without direct TMA exposure. IgM antibody activity against TM-human serum albumin (TM-HSA) was detected but did not differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic workers. NaTM served as a hapten for study because it does not react with proteins to form a hapten-protein complex as TMA does. The NaTM only partially inhibited IgG antibody activity against TM-HSA and much smaller amounts of TM-HSA than of NaTM were required to neutralize IgG antibody. A similar result was found with TM-ovalbumin. The latter results suggest that some IgG antibody is directed against a TM-protein moiety, probably a TM-amino acid determinant. In contrast to IgG, marked inhibition by NaTM of IgA and IgM antibody against TM-HSA was found in the sera studied.
Erythroid burst forming units (BFU-E) are proliferative cells present in peripheral blood and bone marrow which may be precursors of the erythroid colony forming cell found in the bone marrow. To examine the possible role of monocyte-macrophages in the modulation of erythropoiesis, the effect of monocytes on peripheral blood BFU-E proliferation in response to erythropoietin was investigated in the plasma clot culture system. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal human donors were separated into four fractions. Fraction-I cells were obtained from the interface of Ficoll-Hypaque gradients (20-30% monocytes; 60-80% lymphocytes); fraction-II cells were fraction-I cells that were nonadherent to plastic (2-10% monocytes; 90-98% lymphocytes); fraction-III cells were obtained by incubation of fraction-II cells with carbonyl iron followed by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (>99% lymphocytes); and fraction-IV cells represented the adherent population of fraction-II cells released from the plastic by lidocaine (>95% monocytes). When cells from these fractions were cultured in the presence of erythropoietin, the number of BFU-E-derived colonies was inversely proportional to the number of monocytes present (r = −0.96, P < 0.001). The suppressive effect of monocytes on BFU-E proliferation was confirmed by admixing autologous purified monocytes (fraction-IV cells) with fraction-III cells. Monocyte concentrations of ≥20% completely suppressed BFU-E activity. Reduction in the number of plated BFU-E by monocyte dilution could not account for these findings: a 15% reduction in the number of fraction-III cells plated resulted in only a 15% reduction in colony formation. These results indicate that monocyte-macrophages may play a significant role in the regulation of erythropoiesis and be involved in the pathogenesis of the hypoproliferative anemias associated with infection and certain neoplasia in which increased monocyte activity and monopoiesis also occur.
Rheumatoid synovial cells dissociated from matrix and adherent to culture dishes released a latent form of collagenase into culture medium. Previous studies have shown that the latent enzyme does not complex with alpha2-macroglobulin and binds to fibrillar substrate. We now show that serum-free culture medium of the synovial cells contains an inhibitor of collagenase as well as latent enzyme; the two were separated on a column of acrylamide/agarose. Latent collagenase (estimated mol wt 45,000-49,000) was transformed by trypsin to active collagenase of approximately equal to mol wt 33,000. When mixed with inhibitor the active enzyme formed an inactive complex again with approximately equal to mol wt 45,000-49,000. The inhibitor(s) itself was found in one major peak of mol wt 33,000-35,000 and several minor peaks eluting with lower apparent molecular weight. Mersalyl, an organic mercurial compound, effectively activated latent collagenase producing an active enzyme with approximately equal to mol wt 33,000. Bacterial collagenase did not activate latent enzyme. We suggest that latent rheumatoid synovial collagenase, as it is harvested from synovial cells in culture, is an enzyme-inhibitor complex.
The specific mechanism whereby superficial nephron glomerular filtration rate (sngfr) is reduced after the administration of benzolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor with a primary inhibitory effect in the proximal tubule, have been examined by measuring pertinent pressures, flows, and glomerular permeabilities in the hydropenic Munich-Wistar rat, a strain with surface glomeruli. Because benzolamide decreases absolute proximal reabsorptive rate, the rate of delivery of tubular fluid to the distal nephron should be at least transiently increased and may reduce sngfr by activating the tubulo-glomerular feedback system. Sngfr fell from 29.2+/2.0 to 2.1+/3.1 nl/min (P less than 0.01) after benzolamide (group 1), a percentage reduction equal to kidney glomerular filtration rate and similar to sngfr obtained in collections from distal tubules. Separate studies (group 2) revealed that if transient increases in distal nephron delivery were prevented by insertion of a long oil block in proximal tubules before control, the decrease in sngfr was prevented (30.3+/1.0 vs. 30.3+/1.8 nl/min, P greater than 0.9). In paired "unblocked" nephrons in the same rats, sngfr fell in group 2 (33.0+/1.0 vs. 25.2+/2.3 nl/min, P less than 0.01). In "blocked" nephrons in which sngfr reduction was prevented, the rate of fluid leaving the proximal tubule increased from 16.9+/ to 23.1+/1.0 nl/min (P less than 0.01). In group 1 studies in which sngfr fell and transient increases in flow out of the last segment of the proximal tubule (distal delivery) (approximately equal to 8 nl/min) were not prevented, steady-state distal delivery was unchanged by benzolamide (13.9+/1.1 vs. 14.2+/2.2 nl/min). Also, sngfr returned toward control, pre-benzolamide values, when a proximal oil block was placed for 15 min and the rate of distal delivery reduced after benzolamide administration, which suggests that this activation was reversible. These data suggest that activation of tubulo-glomerular feedback by transient increases in distal delivery was responsible for decreases in sngfr. Analysis of all determinants of glomerular ultra-filtration revealed that the efferent mechanism leading to reduced sngfr after benzolamide was decreased nephron plasma flow (101+/13 vs. 66+/13 nl/min, P less than 0.01). Hydrostatic pressure and the glomerular permeability coefficient did not contribute to reductions in sngfr with benzolamide. Because the rate of distal delivery remained constant in spite of large changes in both sngfr and absolute proximal reabsorptive rate, it is suggested that the rate of distal delivery may be the physiologic entity that is regulated by the tubulo-glomerular feedback system via alterations in sngfr.
A specific inhibitory activity of in vitro proliferative responses of normal human lymphocytes to Candida metabolic antigen was found in the serum of 6 out of 23 children with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. In each of the six patients, the presence of an inhibitory activity was associated with Candida-specific cellular defects, characterized by a negative-skin test and a lack of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation. The presence of a circulating inhibitor was detected during relapses of the disease and disappeared under antifungal therapy. This inhibitory effect was not associated with any toxicity on tested lymphocytes. The factor was shown to be nondialysable, thermostable, nonprecipitable with ammonium sulfate and absorbable on anti-Candida antibodies or concanavalin A-coupled agarose columns. Altogether, these results suggest that the inhibitory factor is not an immunoglobulin, but rather a polysaccharidic antigen of Candida albicans. An inhibition of Candida-induced proliferative response of normal human lymphocytes was also obtained by addition of polysacharide antigens or purified mannans from C. albicans to cultures. Candida polysaccharidic antigens appeared, therefore, to be involved in specific depression of cellular functions observed in chronic candidiasis.
These studies were designed to examine whether interrelationships exist between serotonin and prostaglandin E (PGE) during regulation of insulin secretion in dogs in vivo. In our studies serotonin was found to inhibit insulin responses to intravenous glucose. This inhibition was not reversed by complete adrenergic blockade provided through combined phentolamine and propranolol pretreatment. This property of serotonin is similar to that of PGE which also inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion in vivo independently of adrenergic activity. To investigate whether these effects of serotonin and PGE are related, studies with methysergide (a serotonin antagonist) and indomethacin (a PGE synthesis inhibitor) were performed. Methysergide reversed the effects of both PGE and serotonin. In contrast, indomethacin did not diminish the inhibitory effect of serotonin upon insulin secretion. It is hypothesized that endogenous serotonin may play a role in the inhibitory effect of PGE upon insulin secretion in dogs in vivo.
Studies were undertaken in hypothyroid rats in an effort to define the kinetics of growth hormone (GH) accumulation in response to i.v. pulse injections of triiodothyronine (T3) and to calculate the relationship between nuclear occupancy by T3 and the instantaneous rate of accumulation of pituitary GH. Results were contrasted to the findings in previous studies of the induction of hepatic mitochondrial α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (α-GPD) and malic enzyme (ME) by T3. The dose of T3 required to achieve half-maximal accumulation of GH in 24 h was 0.6 μg/100 g body wt, a value 15-fold less than the half-maximal dose for α-GPD and ME induction at a comparable time after injection. Although significant increase in pituitary GH were evident as early as 3 h after injection of maximally effective doses of T3, the rate of increase became linear only 12 h after injection. After achievement of peak values, the pituitary content of GH decayed with a similar terminal t½ of 3.9 days and 4.1 days in two groups of animals injected with a single dose of 1.0 and 50 μg T3/100 g body wt, respectively. In vivo isotopic displacement studies carried out at the equilibrium time point indicated that the pituitary nuclear binding capacity was 5.5 ng T3/g tissue and that the plasma concentration at which one-half of the nuclear sites are occupied is 1.0 ng/ml. Nuclear occupancy as a function of time was calculated from the estimated plasma T3 concentration after injection of the dose and the half-occupancy plasma concentration. These data were then analyzed by application of the mathematical model previously developed to ascertain the relationship between nuclear occupancy and the rate of hepatic enzyme induction. Results indicated that the pituitary nuclear occupancy-response relationship was generally linear, in marked contrast to the highly amplified relationship between nuclear occupancy and the response of ME and α-GPD to T3 in the liver. In supplementary experiments, euthyroid rats received daily injections of 200 μg of T3 for 7 days to keep nuclear sites nearly saturated for the duration of the experiment. No significant increase in the pituitary GH content above euthyroid base-line levels was noted. This also contrasts with the marked increase above euthyroid levels in α-GPD and ME observed in previous studies. Our findings suggest the existence of major differences between the specific mechanisms which lead to the induction of pituitary GH and the hepatic enzymes by T3.
Chloralose-anesthetized dogs were infused intravenously with either Tris-acetate or Tris-pyruvate at 0.0375, 0.075, and 0.15 mmol/kg per min successively, each for 20 min. Acetate infusion increased cardiac output, left ventricular dP/dt and dP/dt/P, and coronary blood flow, while pyruvate infusion did not. Infusions of either substance increased arterial blood and skeletal muscle concentrations of citrate and malate, but only acetate infusion increased the tissue AMP content and decreased the ATP:AMP ratio. The increase in cardiac output produced by acetate was accompanied by an increase in total body oxygen consumption and a decrease in the difference between arterial and mixed venous blood oxygen.
To determine whether intramural nerves affect intestinal ion transport, we studied the effect of electrical field stimulation (EFS) on the movement of ions across isolated rabbit ileum. EFS increased the transmural electrical potential difference and the short circuit current (Isc), caused C1 secretion, and reduced conductance, but did not alter fluxes of Na or the residual current (JRnet). The neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin, prevented all the changes caused by EFS but did not prevent the increase in Isc caused by theophylline (5 mM), carbachol (10 micrometer), or glucose (10 mM), or the reduction in Isc caused by norepinephrine (10 micrometer), implying that tetrodotoxin prevented responses to EFS by affecting electrically excitable cells rather than epithelial cells. Tetrodotoxin also enhanced the mucosa to serosa fluxes of Na and C1, reduced the potential difference and Isc, and increased conductance. The site of tetrodotoxin action is uncertain because it may affect the release of at least four neuro-transmitters and the release of peptides from endoctine cells. The Isc response to EFS was not affected by atropine (10 micrometer), physostigmine (10 micrometer), or by hemicholinium (1 micrometer). The mechanism by which EFS causes C1 secretion remains to be determined.
A fluid-phase immunoradiometric assay has been developed which identifies an antigen on the Factor VIII (antihemophilic factor) procoagulant protein. This sensitive and quantitative assay is not influenced by levels of Favor VIII-related antigen (von Willebrand factor) or other plasma proteins. There is a close correlation of procoagulant activity and immunologically detectable protein in normal and von Willebrand's disease plasmas. In contrast, several different patterns have been identified in hemophilic plasmas. Neither procoagulant activity nor procoagulant antigen is detectable in plasmas from patients with severe classic hemophilia. Patients with mild and moderate hemophilia have either comparable plasma concentrations of procoagulant activity and procoagulant antigen or relatively greater levels of immunologically detectable protein.
The agglutination of human platelets by ristocetin and von Willebrand factor was inhibited by aggregated immunoglobulin (Ig)G and by Fc fragments of IgG, but not by Fab, F(ab′)2 or pFc fragments of IgG. Because this inhibition occurred with formalin-fixed platelets as well as with normal platelets, a generalized aggregation of fluid membrane components by Fc fragments was not responsible for this inhibition of ristocetin and von Willebrand factor-induced agglutination. Reciprocal inhibition of platelet Fc receptors was produced by prior incubation of platelets with von Willebrand factor and ristocetin. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation studies demonstrated that aggregated IgG did not form fluid-phase complexes with von Willebrand factor and ristocetin. Furthermore, passage of von Willebrand factor and ristocetin through a column of immobilized heat-aggregated IgG did not alter platelet agglutinating activity which indicates that aggregated IgG did not inactivate von Willebrand factor or ristocetin. Thus, it was likely that the IgG-mediated interference with platelet agglutination by ristocetin and von Willebrand factor did not occur in the fluid phase but at the platelet surface. These studies suggest that the platelet membrane Fc receptor may be either a part of, or sterically related to, the membrane glycoprotein I complex that interacts with von Willebrand factor, and that occupation of one of these surface components blocks the availability of the other.
Coal tar products, which are widely used in treating dermatologic disease, contain numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including 3,4-benzo[a]pyrene (BP). BP is among the most potent environmental chemical carcinogens and is known to evoke tumors in the skin of experimental animals and perhaps also of man. In this study the effect of cutaneous application of coal tar solution (U. S. Pharmacopeia) on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in the skin of patients usually treated with this drug was investigated. AHH, a cytochrome P-450 dependent carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme appears to play an important role in the activation of polycyclic hydrocarbons into reactive moieties that can bind to DNA and that may directly induce cancer. Application of coal tar solution to human skin caused a two to five-fold induction of cutaneous AHH in nine subjects. In further studies, the incubation of human skin with coal tar solution in vitro also caused variable induction of cutaneous AHH. Maximum responses in both systems occurred after 24 h and enzyme activity in vitro was time- and tissue- and substrate-concentration dependent. Studies in experimental animals showed that topical application of coal tar solution caused induction of AHH in skin and, after percutaneous absorption, in liver as well. Assay of several defined constituents of coal tar for AHH induction showed that BP was the most potent inducer of AHH tested. These studies indicate that topical application of coal tar solution in doses ordinarily used in treating dermatologic disease causes induction of AHH in human skin and suggest that such induced enzymatic activity could relate to carcinogenic responses to this agent in skin or, after percutaneous absorption, in other tissues as well.
An approach to the assessment of reticuloendothelial function that quantitates clearance specifically mediated by membrane receptors for C3b and immunoglobulin (Ig)G has been applied in man. Clearance of isologous erythrocytes coated with IgM or C3b or coated with IgG were examined in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), chronic hepatitis, or alcoholic cirrhosis and normal control subjects and compared with the clearance of aggregated human serum albumin. Clearance of these three types of particles varied independently. None of the patients studied had a defect in the clearance of aggregated albumin. No patient with PBC (0:6) had delayed clearance of IgG-coated erythrocytes; one of six patients with chronic hepatitis had delayed clearance of these cells. Indeed, four of six with PBC had increased rates of IgG-mediated clearance. In contrast, six out of six patients with PBC had an unequivocal defect in clearance mediated by C3b receptors. The patients with PBC varied widely in terms of duration of symptoms, degree of cholestasis, and histologic stage of disease. No defect of C3b-mediated erythrocyte clearance was found in the patients with chronic hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis. Furthermore, a patient with severe cholestasis secondary to large duct biliary obstruction exhibited normal C3b-mediated clearance. The defect in C3b-mediated clearance in PBC did not correlate with serum levels of individual complement components or inhibitors or with the presence of circulating immune complexes as measured by the Clq precipitation assay. Thus, measurements of receptor specific clearance, but not clearance of aggregated proteins, have revealed a highly specific defect in reticuloendothelial function in PBC.
Human Factor IX (Christmas factor) was isolated from the plasma of a patient with mild hemophilia B. The patient's plasma contained 5% Factor IX clotting activity but 100% Factor IX antigenic activity as determined by immunological assays, which included inhibitor neutralization and a radioimmunoassay for Factor IX. This abnormal Factor IX is called Factor IX Chapel Hill (Factor IXCH). Both normal Factor IX and Factor IXCH have tyrosine as the NH2-terminal amino acid. The two proteins have a similar molecular weight, a similar amino acid analysis, the same number of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues (10 gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues), and a similar carbohydrate content. Both exist as a single-chain glycoprotein in plasma. The major difference between normal Factor IX and Factor IXCH is that the latter exhibits delayed activation to Factor IXa in the presence of Factor XIa and Ca2+. Thus, Factor IXCH differs from other previously described abnormal Factor IX molecules.
Normal blood lymphocytes bearing complement receptors (CRL) were divided into two populations, one expressing both CR1 (C4b-C3b receptor) and CR2 (C3d receptor) and a second expressing only CR1. Nearly all of the population that expressed both CR1 and CR2 also bore membrane surface immunoglobulins (Ig) and Ia antigens. The majority of cells that had only CR1 lacked detectable surface Ig. These Ig- CR1+ CR2- cells could be distinguished from the majority of monocytes and immature granulocytes, in that the latter ingested latex particles and expressed CR2 as well as CR1. The Ig- CR1+ cells were further subdivided into an Ia-bearing subpopulation and another that lacked Ia. Among the Ig- Ia- CR1+ cells, one third formed spontaneous rosettes with sheep erythrocytes while all of the remaining CRL were erythrocyte-rosette negative. Essentially all CRL in normal blood had IgG Fc receptors, but a qualitative heterogeneity in the Fc receptors of Ia+ CRL vs. Ia- CRL was observed in their binding of different immune complex systems.
Recently we demonstrated potassium secretion by the pars recta or by the descending limb of the juxtamedullary nephron. The purpose of this present investigation is to study the effect of a chronic high-potassium intake on this phenomenon. Fractional reabsorption of water and sodium by the juxtamedullary proximal nephron was decreased when compared to that in normal hydropenic rats. There was a striking increase in the fraction of filtered potassium at the end of the juxtamedullary descending limb from 94+/11% to 180+/18%, which was principally a result of enhanced potassium secretion. When the concentration of potassium in the collecting tubule fluid of potassium-loaded rats was reduced after the administration of amiloride, a sharp fall was observed in the amount of potassium which reached the end of the descending limb (64+/8%). A direct correlation was observed between the fraction of filtered potassium at the descending limb and the potassium concentration in the final urine (P less than 0.001). The findings suggest that potassium, like urea, normally undergoes medullary recycling, which is enhanced by chronic potassium loading.
The enzyme Na+,5+-ATPase was cytochemically localized in the rat hepatocyte by a modification of the Ernst potassium-dependent nitrophenyl phosphatase technique. Measurement of nitrophenol release from 50-micrometer liver slices confirmed the presence of ouabain-inhibitable nitrophenyl phosphatase activity that increased over the 30-min incubation period. Electron micrographs demonstrated that sinusoidal and lateral membrane reaction product deposition was K+-dependent, Mg++-dependent, inhibited by ouabain but not by alkaline phosphatase inhibitors, and was localized to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. In contrast, canalicular reaction product was K+-independent, Mg++-dependent, inhibited by alkaline phosphatase inhibitors but not by ouabain, and was localized to the luminal side of the membrane. These findings indicate that Na+,K+-ATPase is localized to the sinusoidal and lateral portions of the rat hepatocyte plasma membrane and is not detectable on the bile canaliculus where alkaline phosphatase is confined. This basolateral localization of Na+,K+-ATPase is similar to that found in epithelia where secretion is also directed across the apical membrane.
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