To evaluate the influence of glucose infusate administered with insulin and potassium on left ventricular function during 4 h of ischemia, as well as mechanism of action, four groups of intact anesthetized dogs were studied. Acute regional ischemia was induced with a balloon tip catheter in the left anterior descending artery and infusates were begun after 20 min of ischemia. A threefold increase of plasma glucose concentration was associated with improved left ventricular function during ischemia, compared to animals receiving isovolumic saline. There was a significant decline of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure associated with elevation of stroke volume and ejection fraction to control levels, as determined by indicator dilution. In a separate subgroup studied by cineangiography, shortening of the ischemic anterior wall, after an initial decline, was increased in response to glucose but there was no evidence of extension of injury. Ischemic tissue exhibited a smaller gain of water as well as Na+ per gram dry weight as compared to ischemic controls. On precordial electrocardiogram mapping there was a significant decrease in the sigmaST (sum of ST elevation) as well as NST (number of ST segment elevations), but the reduction of R wave amplitude was not different from controls. To further evaluate long-term effects, eight controls and six treated animals underwent myocardial ischemia and were sacrificed after 4 mo. Calculated area and weight of scar, as well as degree of wall thinning, were similar in both groups. The glucose-treated animals had a significant decrease of plasma FFA in contrast to controls which manifested a significant rise. To examine the postulate that the decrease in FFA was important to therapeutic action, a third group was infused with Intralipid (Cutter Laboratories, Inc., Berkeley, Calif.) and heparin, simultaneously with the glucose infusate, to effect an elevation of plasma FFA during ischemia. Changes in myocardial function and electrolyte composition, as well as precordial electrocardiogram mapping, were similar to that of animals receiving glucose alone. Because serum osmolality was increased approximately 40 mosmol during the glucose infusion, the potential role of hyperosmolality was assessed by infusion of 20% mannitol during acute ischemia in a fourth group. After a transient small increase, there was a moderate decline in function by 4 h, suggesting that the response to glucose is not dependent upon extracellular osmolality. Thus, it is concluded that during the initial hours after the onset of myocardial ischemia the glucose infusate improves ventricular performance without evidence of arrhythmia induction or intensification of ischemic injury. Evolution of irreversible necrosis appears to be delayed rather than prevented under the circumstances of this study.
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) have increased oxidative metabolism during phagocytosis and emit light (chemiluminescence, CL) as a result of metabolic activation. The present study examined PMN CL in the absence of phagocytosis using sodium fluoride (NaF), a nonparticulate agent and known stimulator of cellular oxidative metabolism. Normal human and canine PMNs were assayed in a CL spectrometer which permitted continuous sample mixing and constant temperature regulation during CL measurement. PMNs treated with 20 mM NaF demonstrated maximum CL responses of 10,000-20,000 cpm above background, 13-17 min after addition of NaF at 37°C. Temperature regulation of reaction mixtures was found to be a critical factor in assaying PMN CL responses to NaF, because a small decrease in temperature (i.e. 1.5°C) substantially depressed and delayed the CL response. Superoxide anion production correlated closely with CL responses in NaF-treated human PMNs. CL responses were completely suppressed in the presence of the oxidative metabolic inhibitors, iodoacetamide, and N-ethylmalemide; and were partially suppressed in the presence of either superoxide dismutase or sodium azide.
The cholera enterotoxin produces intestinal secretion associated with an elevation of tissue levels of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate levels of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monosphosphate (cAMP). The objectives of this study were to determine whether intestinal secretion and cAMP elevation induced by cholera toxin could be prevented, or once initiated, reversed by nicotinic acid, an agent known to lower tissue levels of cAMP. In rabbits, four jejunal loops were constructed as alternating control (3-ml isotonic electrolyte solution) and cholera toxin (same solution containing 50 μg purified cholera toxin) loops. Net intestinal secretion was determined by measuring fluid accumulation, after which intestinal biopsies were taken for cAMP assay. The animals were pretreated either subcutaneously with 50 mg/kg nicotinic acid in saline 3 h and 1 h before the introduction of cholera toxin, or intraluminally with 200 mg/kg nicotinic acid in Ringer's lactate solution 15 min before the instillation of cholera toxin. Under these conditions, nicotinic acid blocked the cholera toxin-induced secretion and the rise in cAMP measured 3 h after the loops were exposed to cholera toxin. The effect of the nicotinic acid administered within the lumen on net intestinal secretion was studied. Maximal inhibition of net intestinal secretion was achieved with an intraluminally administered dose of nicotinic acid of 100 mg/kg. This dose was chosen for testing the ability of nicotinic acid to reverse the effects of cholera toxin. When nicotinic acid was instilled into a fifth loop constructed distally to the four experimental loops 3 h after exposure of these loops to cholera toxin, both intestinal secretion and elevation of cAMP were reversed. These results suggest that nicotinic acid can prevent and reverse the secretory effects of cholera toxin and may have a role in the therapy of cholera and other cAMP-associated diarrheal diseases.
During hemodialysis, alternative pathway complement activation leads to pulmonary sequestration of granulocytes, with loss of pulmonary vascular endothelial integrity and, at times, protein-rich pulmonary edema. An in vitro model of this phenomenon was constructed utilizing 51Cr-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures. In this system, granulocytes, when exposed to activated complement (C), induce endothelial damage; this injury is mediated primarily by oxygen radicals produced by the granulocytes. C5a appears to be the C component responsible for granulocyte-induced cytotoxicity; studies with cytochalasin B-treated granulocytes suggest that close approximation of the granulocytes and endothelial cells is necessary for maximal cell injury.
Ristocetin will induce the agglutination of platelets in the presence of von Willebrand factor. In previous studies, an electrostatic mechanism was proposed for this phenomenon wherein first the platelet's surface charge is reduced by the binding of ristocetin and then the von Willebrand factor acts as a bridge between platelets. To test this hypothesis, the effects of ristocetin and von Willebrand factor, singly and together, on the electrophoretic mobility of normal, trypsinized, and Bernard-Soulier platelets was measured. Ristocetin alone, at concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml or more, produced a statistically significant reduction in the electrophoretic mobility of fresh or fixed platelets. Control experiments showed that the reduction was not due to changes in the ionic milieu of the solution. Therefore, the decrease in platelet mobility is evidence for binding of ristocetin to the platelet surface. Bernard-Soulier and trypsinized platelets also had reductions in mobility with ristocetin, suggesting that ristocetin binds to the platelet at sites other than the binding site for von Willebrand factor. The presence of plasma from a patient with von Willebrand's disease did not alter the reduction in mobility of normal platelets by ristocetin. However, the reduction was markedly enhanced in the presence of normal plasma. This enhancement did not occur with Bernard-Soulier platelets and was inhibited by anti-Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor antiserum or trypsinization of the platelets. Thus, the enhanced reduction appears to be associated with the binding of von Willebrand factor to the platelet surface. These studies indicate that platelets undergo two changes with ristocetin and von Willebrand factor, both of which facilitate agglutination: reduction in net surface charge and binding of von Willebrand factor, a large molecule which can serve as a bridge between platelets. In parallel studies, bovine von Willebrand factor, without ristocetin, agglutinated and reduced the electrophoretic mobility of normal but not Bernard-Soulier or trypsinized platelets; this indicates a similar mechanism of agglutination.
Recent evidence has suggested that a particulate O2−-forming system is responsible for the respiratory burst in activated neutrophils. The respiratory burst is normally a transient event, lasting only 30-60 min. To investigate the mechanism by which the burst is terminated, we examined the O2−-forming activity of neutrophil particles as a function of time in the presence and absence of agents known to affect the function of intact cells. Measurements of the O2−-forming capacity of the particles against time of exposure of neutrophils to opsonized zymosan, a potent stimulating agent, revealed a rapid fall in activity when exposure was continued beyond 3 min. Exposure to zymosan under conditions in which the myeloperoxidase system was inactive (i.e., in the presence of myeloperoxidase inhibitors, or in the absence of oxygen) resulted in a substantial increase in the initial O2−-forming activity of particles from the zymosan-treated cells, but did not prevent the sharp fall in activity seen when zymosan exposure exceeded 10 min. The fall in activity was, however, prevented when activation took place in the presence of cytochalasin B (1.5 μg/ml), an agent thought to act largely by paralyzing the neutrophil through an interaction with its microfilament network.
Inhibitors of fibrin stabilization of apparently autoimmune origin, found in two severely bleeding unrelated patients (W. G. and G. A.), were compared with regard to their biological target specificities, potencies and immunological characteristics. Both interfered only with the activation of fibrin stabilizing factor (coagulation Factor XIII) and, while totally preventing the conversion of this zymogen to the functional transamidating enzyme, fibrinoligase (Factor XIIIa), they showed very little inhibition toward the enzyme itself. Thus, according to the classification of Lorand concerning biological specificities, both can be characterized as Type I inhibitors of fibrin stabilization. Potencies of the two inhibitors were quite similar when measured in conjunction with the plasma zymogen, but they differed remarkably in tests with platelet Factor 13. The inhibitor of patient W. G. prevented the activation of the zymogen from platelets, but that of G. A. had no effect on the platelet factor. It may therefore be concluded that the inhibitor of W. G. is directed exclusively against the a subunit which is a common constituent of plasma as well as platelet factors. The inhibitor of G. A., however, must be targeted against determinants uniquely characteristic for the ab ensemble of the plasma zymogen including the b subunit. On the basis of this difference in target specificity, the inhibitor of W. G. is designated as Type I-1 and that of G. A. as Type I-2.
We studied the synthesis of excreted DNA sequences and their release from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes under conditions permitting optimal cell growth. Cells were labeled by constant exposure to low specific activity [3H]thymidine. Excreted DNA sequences were synthesized during the period of logarithmic cell growth and moved slowly from the high molecular weight chromosomal DNA fraction into the low molecular weight cell DNA fraction (Hirt supernate) from which they could be specifically released by treating the cells briefly with small amounts of various proteases; 1 microgram/ml trypsin for 5 min was optimal. On day 5 of culture, 13.3 +/- 6.9% of the total cellular acid-precipitable [3H]thymidine was released by this treatment. Trypsin-induced release was partially and reversibly inhibited by incubating the cells for 16 h with 5 mM dibutyryl-cyclic AMP. Cells incubated in the absence of divalent cations spontaneously released this Hirt supernatant DNA; after maximal release had occurred under these circumstances, additional trypsin treatment caused no further release of DNA. Trypsin-induced DNA release could be completely and reversibly inhibited by incubating the cells in the presence of 10 mM calcium. Trypsin-released DNA was isolated and analyzed by reassociation kinetics. A major component, representing 54% of the DNA, reassociated with a C0t1/2 of 68 mol.s/liter (the value at which DNA association is 50% complete). The reassociation of this DNA was studied in the presence of an excess of DNA isolated from stimulated lymphocytes on day 3 in culture, and in the presence of an excess of resting lymphocyte DNA. The high molecular weight fraction of day-3 cell DNA contained three times more copies of the trypsin-released DNA major component as compared to resting lymphocyte DNA. Hirt supernatant DNA isolated from day-5 stimulated lymphocytes reassociated in an intermediate component representing 34% of the DNA with a Cot1/2 of mol.s/liter; after cells were treated with trypsin, this component could no longer be identified in the Hirt supernatant fraction, presumably because it had been released into the incubation medium. These data describe a quantitatively reproducible system with which synthesis and release of excreted DNA sequences can be studied.
Myocardial relaxation is an important energy-dependent process. Hypoxia, unlike ischemia, has not been shown to impair myocardial relaxation. This difference may be because (a) the traditional index to assess isometric muscle relaxation (half time to relaxation or RT½) reflects both changes in developed tension as well as relaxation and (b) the relaxation process is highly sensitive to temperature and previous papillary muscle studies have been conducted under hypothermic conditions. The present study examines the effect of hypoxia on the relaxation process of 31 isometrically contracting kitten papillary muscles at hypothermic (29°C) and euthermic (38°C) conditions using RT½, the peak rate of tension fall (−dT/dt) and −dT/dt normalized for tension ([peak −dT/dt]/T and max [−dT/dt per T]). Hypoxia at 29°C resulted in a fall in RT½ from 278±11 (SEM) to 230±17 ms (P < 0.01) and no change in (peak −dT/dt)/T and max (−dT/dt per T). However, at 38°C, hypoxia impaired relaxation as reflected in a prolongation of RT½ from 101±6 to 126±8 ms (P < 0.01) in spite of a substantial fall in peak tension. Moreover, (peak −dT/dt)/T decreased from −15.4±0.7 to −11.0±0.8/s (P < 0.01) and max (−dT/dt per T) decreased from −25.1±1.8 to −13.8±0.9/s (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that hypoxia impairs the relaxation process of cardiac muscle.
Expression of a Platelet-specific alloantigen (PlA1) was studied in five unrelated patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia using immunologic techniques based on release of 51Cr from tagged platelets by PlA1-specific antibody. Less than 1% of the normal quantity of PlA1 could be detected on platelets of patients 1, 2, and 3; platelets from patients 4 and 5 contained 22 and 12% of normal levels, respectively. After treatment with bromelain, platelets from patients 4 and 5, but not those from patients 1, 2, and 3, released 51Cr as well as normal PlA1-positive platelets when exposed to anti-PlA1. Platelets from each of the five patients reacted normally with drug-dependent antibodies and with autoantibodies specific for platelets.
The bioenergetic pattern of a cell clone derived from rat lung with ultrastructural and biochemical characteristics like those of type II pneumocytes (T-II-P), has been studied in a tissue culture system. During air cultivation, these cells have a high rate of aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis associated with high activities of two rate-limiting enzymes in glycolysis (pyruvate kinase [PyKi] and phosphofructokinase [PFK]). This is present despite the rates of oxygen consumption and activities of cytochrome oxidase (CyOx) similar to other lung cells. Presumably the high rate of aerobic glycolysis explains the substantial lactate production previously described in lung slices and in the intact perfused lung.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the absorption of inhaled antigen (Ag) across the pulmonary air-blood barrier of the isolated perfused lung can be modulated by immunologic mechanisms. Lungs from immunized or nonimmunized rabbits were removed, ventilated, and perfused with autochthonous blood. Radioiodinated Ag (human serum albumin or ovalbumin) was introduced as an aerosol into the isolated lung for 15 min and blood samples were taken over a 4-h period. The results showed that radioactivity fom inhaled Ag entered the perfusing blood as two fractions. One fraction was precipitable by 5% trichloroacetic acid or antiserum. The TCA-soluble fraction chromatographed differently from iodide and may have represented metabolites of the Ag. Immunization specifically reduced the amount of antigenically intact protein entering the blood. On the other hand, the metabolite reached higher concentrations in the blood of immunized lungs. We conclude that the alveolar capillary barrier of the normal rabbit lung could provide a significant route of entry for inhaled antigen into the systemic circulation and that immunization reduces absorption via this route and enhances pulmonary metabolism of the Ag.
The relation between myocardial tissue cyclic AMP (cAMP) and the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation was assessed in the isolated perfused rat heart by measurement of ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) and vulnerable period duration (VP). Exogenous dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) reduced VFT and increased VP by a concentration-related action whereas exogenous cAMP did not. Theophylline (1.0 mmol/liter) increased the tissue content of cAMP by 58% (P < 0.001) and caused a leftward shift in the concentration-response curve to DBcAMP. An effect of cAMP on VFT and VP could be shown in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibition by theophylline. β-1-Adrenergic receptor blockade with atenolol did not alter the concentration-response curve for VFT when DBcAMP was administered. Epinephrine (100 nmol/liter to 1 μmol/liter) also increased vulnerability to VF; this effect was accompanied by a concentration-related increase in tissue cAMP, but inconsistent changes in tissue ATP, phosphocreatine and potassium. The concentration-response curve of VFT to epinephrine was shifted leftward by theophylline and rightward by atenolol.
The mechanism involved in 5-methyltetrahydrofolate uptake by human cells is poorly understood. To more clearly elucidate this physiologically important process, transport of the vitamin was studied in human erythrocytes. 5-methyltetrahydrofolate uptake was found to increase with reticulocytosis, but measurable incorporation occurred in erythrocyte suspensions depleted of reticulocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, indicating uptake by mature erythrocytes. Incubation of erythrocytes with increasing concentrations of [14C]5-methyltetrahydrofolate resulted in increasing uptake but decreasing percentage incorporation, consistent with saturation of a carrier system. Both influx and efflux phases of uptake were temperature dependent, with almost no transport at 4°C. Uptake of [14C]5-methytetrahydrofolate was effectively inhibited by unlabeled 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, and methotrexate, but not by pteroylglutamic acid. Prior incubation with 5-formyltetrahydrofolate increased uptake of [14C]5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and extracellular 5-formyltetrahydrofolate enhanced efflux of [14C]5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Nearly total depletion of ATP increased uptake of [14C]5-methyltetrahydrofolate, but efflux was unchanged. Column chromatography of membrane-free hemolysate after incubation with [14C]5-methyltetrahydrofolate showed 95% of radioactivity corresponded to marker radioisotope, and no other peak was noted.
3,3′-Diiodothyronine (3,3′-T2) has been detected in human serum and in thyroglobulin. However, no quantitative assessment of its clearance rate (CR), production rate (PR), or of the importance of extrathyroidal sources of 3,3′-T2 relative to direct thyroidal secretion is yet available. This study examines these parameters in seven euthyroid subjects, and in eight athyreotic subjects (H) eumetabolic due to thyroxine therapy (HT4) (n = 5) or triiodothyronine replacement (HT3) (n = 3). A highly specific radioimmunoassay for the measurement of 3,3′-T2 in whole serum was developed. Serum 3,3′-T2 concentrations were (mean ± SD) 6.0±1.0 ng/100 ml in 13 normal subjects, 9.0±4.6 ng/100 ml in 25 hyperthyroid patients, and 2.7±1.1 ng/100 ml in 17 hypothyroid patients. The values in each of the latter two groups were significantly different from normal. 3,3′-T2 was detected regularly in normal concentrations in 11 hypothyroid patients eumetabolic by treatment with synthetic T4, in 10 eumetabolic patients suffering from nonthyroidal systemic illness, and in 2 subjects with elevated serum T4-binding globulin. The 3,3′-T2 CR was assessed from data acquired from the 125I-3,3′-T2 constant infusion technique. The 3,3′-T2 PR was calculated from CR and serum concentration of 3,3′-T2 determined by radio-immunoassay. In the HT4 subjects the 3,3′-T2 CR averaged 840±377 liters/day and 3,3′-T2 PR 33.9±12.5 μg/day. These results were not significantly different from those in the control group: 3,3′-T2 CR 628±218 liters/day and 3,3′-T2 PR 39.8±19.8 μg/day (all corrected to 70 kg body wt). In addition to 3,3′-T2 PR, T3, and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) PR were determined in three of the HT4 subjects. In each case studied, the 3,3′-T2 PR was close to the combined triiodothyronine (T3 + rT3) PR. The mean molar ratio of T2 PR/(T3 + rT3) PR was 1.08±0.10. The results obtained in the HT4 subjects indicate that the production of 3,3′-T2 is a major route of T4 metabolism. The combined studies of 3,3′-T2, T3 and rT3 PR in the HT4 subjects indicate that both T3 and rT3 are major precursors of 3,3′-T2. In the HT3 subjects, the conversion of T3 to 3,3′-T2, determined as the molar ratio of 3,3′-T2 PR to T3 PR, ranged from 0.36 to 0.92, providing further evidence that T3 is a precursor of 3,3′-T2. From the close agreement between the mean values for 3,3′-T2 PR in the euthyroid and HT4 group it is concluded that most, if not all of the 3,3′-T2 produced in normal humans is derived by extrathyroidal conversion from T3 and rT3.
The intratracheal injection of pancreatic elastase results in an acute loss of elastin from the lungs of hamsters and the development of emphysema. We used measurements of the unique covalent cross linking amino acids of elastin, desmosine and isodesmosine, to quantitate elastin. Direct measurements on the lungs estimated an average loss of elastin of 57% after elastase injection. Elastin breakdown products were also quantitated in the urine and feces after injection. An average of 8.8 nmol of desmosines was recovered from the urine of each hamster. This amount represented the desmosines from 61% of the elastin lost from the lungs. Desmosine and isodesmosine existed in the urine in peptide fractions that ranged from 9 to 27,000 daltons with an average of 13,000. Only trace quantities of desmosines could be detected in feces. Desmosines injected intraperitoneally were completely recovered in the urine, and radioactive tracer studies failed to reveal in vivo catabolism of injected desmosines. These results suggest that measurement of urinary desmosines holds promise for the study of elastin turnover.
The present study demonstrates the existence on human peripheral blood lymphocytes of a saturable cell surface receptor for low density lipoprotein inhibitor (LDL-In), a subset of normal human serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) that has been previously demonstrated to suppress selected lymphocyte functions in vivo and in vitro. The binding of radioiodinated LDL-In of demonstrable biological activity occurs rapidly and is quantitatively augmented by prior cultivation of the lymphocytes in lipoprotein-depleted serum, suggesting regulation of receptor density by lipoproteins in vivo. Binding is temperature dependent, facilitated by calcium ions, saturable at 4 degrees C within 40-60 min, and blocked by prior exposure to unlabeled LDL-In. The lymphocyte receptor is trypsin sensitive and regenerates in vitro with a t1/2 of 3.6 h. LDL-In receptors are calculated to have a maximum density of 4,860 +/- 460 per cell if uniformly distributed on all lymphocyte subsets. These receptors have an estimated average association constant of 1.47 X 10(7) liters/mol. When considered in context of the estimated concentration of LDL-In in blood, the receptors should be partially occupied in vivo by endogenous plasma LDL-In. Prior site occupancy inhibition experiments designed to analyze the specificity of LDL-In binding demonstrate that (a) LDL-In is 13.7-fold more effective than whole LDL in blocking the subsequent binding of 125I-LDL-In to cells; and that (b) LDL is 11-fold more effective than LDL-In in blocking the binding of 125I-LKL. This is consistent with the degree of contamination of each lipoprotein with the other lipoprotein. An independent identity of the LDL-In receptor is also supported by observations that in contrast to the previously described LDL receptor, synthesis and expression of the LDL-In receptor on lymphocytes are not suppressed by cultivation of the cells in the presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol. These findings suggest the existence of a previously undescribed and discrete receptor on lymphocytes for LDL-In, and that the modulation of lymphocyte function by LDL-In may be mediated by a specific cell surface receptor pathway.
Monocyte-mediated lysis in vitro of human red cells coated with measured amounts of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or complement were studied. 1,000-1,500 molecules of IgG anti-D are necessary to effect measurable lysis, and lysis increases linearly with increasing levels of antibody sensitization. 100 microgram/ml of IgG1 abolished lysis even at maximal levels of anti-D sensitization (15,000 molecules/cell). Two isoimmune IgG anti-A or anti-B antisera were 5 to 10-fold less efficient in promoting phagocytosis or lysis per molecule of IgG bound; however, because of the greater antigen density of A or B, more than 100,000 molecules IgG/cell could be bound, producing equivalent lysis to anti-D-coated cells. Although inhibition by IgG1 was similar at equivalent levels of sensitization with anti-A, anti-B, or anti-D at high levels of coating with anti-A or anti-B (not attainable with anti-D), lysis was not inhibited by IgG1. Cells coated with human complement components alone were not lysed by monocytes; however, complement coating augmented IgG-mediated lysis and reduced the quantity of anti-D necessary to produce lysis to less than 1,000 molecules/cell. After thorough degradation of C3b by serum to C3d, complement augmentation persisted.
Previous studies in the mammalian proximal tubule have suggested that para-aminohippurate (PAH) secretion is ∼threefold greater in the straight segment, or pars recta, than in the convoluted segment, or pars convoluta. However, the possibility that the site of maximal PAH secretion might be related better to particular tubule segments as identified by cell type had not been explored. In addition, the presence or absence of differences in PAH secretion between morphologically identical regions of superficial (SF) vs. juxtamedullary (JM) proximal tubules has not been examined. These issues were studied using a combination of histologic methods and measurement of [3H]PAH secretion in isolated perfused tubules. Measurements of microdissected SF and JM proximal tubules from young and adult rabbits revealed that SF proximal tubules were slightly but significantly longer than JM tubules ([young rabbits: SF, 8.69±SE 0.14 mm vs. JM, 7.97±SE 0.13 mm; P < 0.01] [adult rabbits: SF, 10.61±SE 0.28 mm; JM, 9.17±SE 0.19 mm; P < 0.001]). Light and electron microscopy revealed three sequential segments (S1, S2, and S3) along the length of SF and JM proximal tubules as defined by cell type. PAH secretion was measured in each of these three segments by the isolated perfused tubule technique. Net PAH secretion in fmol/mm per min in SF proximal tubules was: S1, 281±SE 21; S2, 1,508±SE 104; S3, 318±SE 46. Corresponding values in JM proximal tubules were 353±SE 31, 1,391±SE 72, and 188±SE 23. Net PAH secretion did not differ between comparable segments of SF and JM proximal tubules. It is concluded that differences in PAH secretion along the proximal tubule correlate best with cell type rather than the arbitrary division of the proximal tubule into pars convoluta and pars recta according to its external configuration. Evidence of functional heterogeneity between comparable segments of SF and JM proximal tubules was not observed.
The ability of highly purified human leukocytic pyrogen (LP) to induce neutrophil lysosomal protein release is described. Human peripheral blood neutrophils isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque and dextran sedimentation were exposed to purified human LP. The specific granule-associated proteins, lysozyme and lactoferrin were selectively released, whereas primary granule (beta-glucuronidase) and cytoplasmic (lactic dehydrogenase) enzyme markers were not. Optimum release was observed after 45 min in the presence of Ca++ and Mg++. Cytochalasin B (5 microgram/ml) had no effect on LP-induced lysosomal enzyme release. Since the pyrogenicity of LP is dependent on prostaglandin synthesis, the effect of two potent inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis on lysozyme release was studied. Both indomethacin and naproxen failed to inhibit specific granule protein release. These observations suggest that the concommitance of fever, elevated serum or urine lysozyme and hypoferremia may, in part, be explained by the interaction of LP and peripheral blood neutrophils.
The effects of tolbutamide and glibenclamide on the metabolism of cyclic AMP were investigated in pancreatic islets of the rat. Changes in cyclic AMP were assessed by measuring [3H]cyclic AMP after labeling of the islets with [2-3H]adenine. In the presence of a nonstimulatory concentration of glucose (3.3 mM), both sulfonylureas caused a rapid increase in islet [3H]cyclic AMP, which declined within 5 (tolbutamide) or 10 min (glibenclamide). In the absence of glucose, the glibenclamide effect was shortened, but the initial (1 min) response of [3H]-cyclic AMP was unaffected. Glucose could be substituted with d-glyceraldehyde but not pyruvate for prolongation of the glibenclamide response. The effect of glucose withdrawal on the glibenclamide response was reproduced by the addition of d-mannoheptulose to glucose containing media.
Plasma glucose, immunoreactive glucagon (IRG), and insulin were measured in hypophysectomized dogs receiving cortisol and thyroid replacement therapy. 4 wk after hypophysectomy mean fasting plasma glucose levels had declined from 90±2 mg/100 ml to 64±2; fasting and arginine-stimulated insulin and IRG levels were, respectively, ∼50% lower and unchanged. 12 wk or more after hypophysectomy, despite lower plasma glucose levels, fasting and arginine-stimulated IRG levels were significantly below control dogs. Hypophysectomized and shamhypophysectomized dogs were subjected to total pancreatectomy. Postoperatively, in the sham-hypophysectomized, depancreatized dogs fasting glucose levels ranged from 300-500 mg/100 ml on 8-10 U/day of insulin; IRG levels averaged 215±29 pg/ml. The hypophysectomized, depancreatized dogs required 0-4 U/day and fasting glucose levels under 100 mg/100 ml were not uncommon, even without insulin; fasting IRG levels averaged 63±4 pg/ml (P < 0.001). During arginine infusion in sham-hypophysectomized, depancreatized dogs, IRG levels rose from 215±60 pg/ml to a peak of 404±112 pg/ml; in hypophysectomized, depancreatized dogs, the base line IRG averaged 44±8 and the peak 110±25 pg/ml (P < 0.05). IRG levels in the venous effluent of the gastric fundus, the major source of nonpancreatic glucagon, reached a peak of 4,898±959 pg/ml in the sham-hypophysectomized, depancreatized group during arginine infusion and only 219±128 pg/ml in the hypophysectomized, depancreatized group. In three hypophysectomized, depancreatized dogs, a replacement infusion with glucagon for 10 h promptly increased hyperglycemia by 80-180 mg/100 ml and worsened glycosuria, evidence of a hepatic response to glucagon replacement. It is concluded that hypophysectomy somehow decreased both the hypersecretion of gastric IRG and the severe hyperglycemia that otherwise follows pancreatectomy. The hypophysectomized, depancreatized animal, therefore, has combined insulin and glucagon deficiency, and the latter may contribute to reduced severity of its hyperglycemia.
Based on studies of the interaction of insulin with its receptors in vitro, we calculated that a receptor compartment should be measurable directly in vivo. For this purpose, rabbits were injected intravenously with a labeled insulin that has low affinity for receptors in combination with a radioiodinated insulin that has high affinity for receptors. Plasma concentrations of labeled insulins were measured at selected intervals after injection. Apparent volumes of distribution were calculated by extrapolation of plasma distribution were calculated by extrapolation of plasma disappearance curves; high affinity insulins consistently distributed into spaces that were two-three times greater than those of the low affinity insulins. Injections of unlabeled pork insulin before tracer insulins decreased the distribution space of the high affinity insulin in a dose-dependent manner while having little or no effect on the distribution space of the low affinity labeled insulin. When unlabeled insulin was injected after the tracer insulins, there was an immediate rise in the plasma concentration of the high affinity insulin with only a slight change in the plasma concentration of the low affinity insulin. These results demonstrate that high affinity insulins distribute into a body compartment which has many properties of the insulin receptor previously studied in vitro. This receptor compartment: (a) recognizes insulins based on their biological potencies; (b) is saturated by elevated concentrations of insulin; and (c) insulin bound to receptors is in equilibrium with free hormone in plasma. Further, the bound to free ratios for hormone, calculated from these data, suggest that in vivo greater than 50% of the extrapancreatic insulin is bound to receptors during normal physiological states.
We studied the effects of vitamin D metabolites on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Test materials were injected into the cranial thyroid artery of the dog, and immunoreactive PTH was measured frequently in serum samples from the inferior thyroid vein and the femoral vein. This model for the study of secretion had previously been validated with the use of known modulators on PTH secretion. In control experiments, injection of 100% ethanol, the vehicle in which cholecalciferol (D3) metabolites were suspended, resulted in no change in PTH secretion. Likewise, native vitamin D3, in doses ranging from 250 to 1,250 ng had no effect on PTH secretion. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol, 25-(OH)D3, in doses of 125-240 ng, caused complete suppression of PTH secretion. When 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, 24,25-(OH)2D3, was injected in doses of 50-250 ng, suppression of PTH secretion was again complete; in doses of 5 ng, injection of this metabolite resulted in significant but incomplete suppression of secretion. In doses of 50-250 ng, 1,25-(OH)2D3 strongly stimulated PTH secretion, but in a dose of 5 ng this metabolite had no effects. Injection of equal doses of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3 resulted in significant suppression of PTH secretion. Hypocalcemia-induced stimulation of PTH secretion was suppressed by 24,25-(OH)2D3 while hypercalcemia-induced suppression of PTH secretion was stimulated by 1,25-(OH)2D3. In all experiments showing suppression of PTH secretion, peripheral PTH decreased. Arguments are presented for considering the suppressive effects of D3 metabolites as physiologic modulators. However, this stimulating effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 occurred only in pharmacologic doses and hence probably has no physiologic relevance.
Lymphocytes binding C-reactive protein (CRP) were studied in 31 patients with acute rheumatic fever and 30 controls who were children. Marked elevations in both proportions and absolute numbers of CRP-binding lymphocytes were recorded in rheumatic fever (P less than 0.001). No clear correlation was noted between plasma CRP as quantitated by radioimmunoassay and proportions or numbers of CRP-binding cells. Double-labeling experiments indicated that 60-80% of CRP-binding lymphocytes also showed Fc receptors reacting with fluorescein-conjugated IgG aggregates. Passage of lymphocytes over Ig--anti-IgG columns, removed cells bearing surface Ig but not CRP-binding lymphocytes. Studies of T-cell subpopulations indicated no overlap between Tmicron- and CRP-binding cells; however about half of Tgamma-cells showed concurrent CRP binding. "Active" T-cell rosetting cells did not bind CRP. A 12-15-h incubation of lymphocytes at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2-air showed persistence of CRP binding in substantial proportions of cells particularly in acute rheumatic fever. CRP-binding lymphocytes may represent a marker for immunologically committed cells in acute rheumatic fever.
The role of dextran in the pathogenesis of bacterial endocarditis was investigated by studying the adherence of dextran producing oral streptococci to the constituents of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) in vitro and in vivo. The adherence of Streptococcus sanguis to fibrin and platelets was determined in an in vitro assay system simulating nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Adherence was increased when the organisms were grown in sucrose-supplemented media (adherence ratio X 10(4), 177 +/- 6 in 5% sucrose vs. 140 +/- 7 in 0.5% sucrose, P less than 0.001), and decreased by incubating the organisms in dextranase (adherence ratio X 10(4), 117 +/- 16, P less than 0.001), an effect which was nullified by heat inactivating this enzyme (adherence ratio X 10(4), 192 +/- 7, P less than 0.001). The amount of dextran produced in broth by three different oral streptococci correlated directly with the adherence observed to fibrin and a fibrin-platelet matrix in vitro (P less than 0.001). These organisms adhered more readily to a fibrin-platelet matrix than to fibrin alone (adherence ratio X 10(4), 455 +/- 30 vs. 177 +/- 6, respectively, P less than 0.001). The role of dextran formation was also examined in vivo in rabbits with preexisting NBTE. After injection of 10(7) S. sanguis, 12 of 17 animals developed endocarditis. In contrast, when the organisms were pretreated with dextranase (an enzyme that removes dextran from the bacterial cell surface), the same inoculum resulted in endocarditis in only 5 of 19 animals (P less than 0.05). In addition, a fresh strain of S. sanguis that produced high levels of dextran (1,220 +/- 50 microgram/ml) and adhered avidly to fibrin (adherence ratio X 10(4), 220 +/- 11) produced endocarditis in 12 of 18 rabbits after injection of 10(7) organisms. Another isolate of the same strain that had been passed repeatedly in the laboratory produced less dextran (400 +/- 30 microgram/ml), adhered poorly to fibrin (adherence ratio X 10(4), 140 +/- 7), and produced endocarditis in only 3 of 14 rabbits under identical conditions (P less than 0.05). This study demonstrates that dextran production is important in the adherence of oral streptococci to the constituents of NBTE and may play a role in the pathogenesis of bacterial endocarditis by oral streptococci.
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is associated with a severe defect in thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte function combined with normal bone marrow-derived (B)-lymphocyte function. To investigate the role of this enzyme deficiency in the resulting immune dysfunction, we measured the levels of ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in erythrocytes from two unrelated PNP-deficient, T-lymphocyte-deficient patients. Both PNP-deficient patients have abnormally high levels of deoxyguanosine triphosphate (deoxy-GTP) in their erythrocytes (5 and 8 nmol/ml packed erythrocytes). In contrast, normal controls and adenosine deaminase-deficient, immunodeficient patients do not have detectable amounts of deoxyGTP (<0.5 nmol/ml packed erythrocytes). We propose that deoxyguanosine, a substrate of PNP, is the potentially lymphotoxic metabolite in PNP deficiency. The mechanism of toxicity involves phosphorylation of deoxyguanosine to deoxyGTP, which acts as a potent inhibitor of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase.
Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) has been demonstrated by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in rat serum using an antiserum specific for somatostatin and cross-reacting maximally with the biologically important area on the peptide. The RIA has a sensitivity of 35 pg/ml. SLI dilutes in parallel with synthetic somatostatin standard in the RIA and shows characteristics similar to synthetic somatostatin on Sephadex G-25 (f) gel chromatography eluting largely as a single peak with 1 M acetic acid. Significant regional differences in serum SLI are present. A positive gradient was found in paired samples from aorta (mean±SEM, 0.304±0.024 ng/ml) and portal vein (0.495±0.047 ng/ml) consistent with the known presence of somatostatin in gut and pancreas, and a negative gradient was noted between paired samples from portal vein (0.523±0.076 ng/ml) and hepatic vein (0.290±0.048 ng/ml) indicating hepatic clearance. No significant differences were demonstrated between aorta and confluence of cerebral venous sinuses or between aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC). After intragastric glucose, a significant and marked elevation of portal SLI was observed, maximal at 5 min (0.416±0.137 vs. 1.55±0.30 ng/ml at 5 min). A significant biphasic elevation of portal SLI also occurred after intravenous glucose. After both routes of glucose administration, the patterns of portal SLI followed closely those of portal glucose and insulin. By contrast, IVC SLI failed to reflect these changes.
Human platelets aggregate and undergo a release reaction when incubated with catecholamines. Indirect evidence indicates that these events are mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. We used [3H]dihydroergocryptine, an α-adrenergic antagonist, to identify binding sites on platelets that have the characteristics of α-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamines compete for the binding sites in a stereo-specific manner with the potency series of (−) epinephrine > (−) norepinephrine > (±) phenylephrine > (−) isoproterenol. The dissociation constant (Kd) of (−) epinephrine is 0.34 μM. Binding is saturable using a platelet particulate fraction but not with intact platelets. There are 0.130 pmol binding sites per milligram protein in fresh platelet membranes. This number represents approximately 100 binding sites per platelet. The Kd for [3H]-dihydroergocryptine was 0.003−0.01 μM. The α-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine (Kd = 0.0069 μM) was much more potent than the β-adrenergic antagonist (±) propranolol (Kd = 27 μM) in competing for the binding sites. The binding data were correlated with catecholamine-induced platelet aggregation and inhibition of basal and prostaglandin E1-stimulated adenylate cyclase. (−) Epinephrine was more potent than (−) norepinephrine in producing aggregation whereas (−) isoproterenol was ineffective. The threshold dose for inducing aggregation by (−) epinephrine was 0.46 μM. Phentolamine and dihydroergocyrptine blocked this response, whereas (±) propranolol had no effect. (−) Epinephrine and (−) norepinephrine inhibited basal and prostaglandin E1-stimulated adenylate cyclase in a dose-related manner. The concentration of (−) epinephrine inhibiting adenylate cyclase 50% was 0.7 μM. This inhibition was also blocked by phentolamine and dihydroergocryptine but not by (±) propranolol. The specificity of binding and the close correlation with α-adrenergic receptor-mediated biochemical and physiological responses suggest that the [3H]dihydroergocryptine binding site represents, or is closely related to, the human platelet α-adrenergic receptor. The ability to assay this receptor directly and to correlate these data with independently measured sequelae of receptor activation should facilitate increased understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of the human platelet α-adrenergic receptor.
A patient who suffered a recurring thrombosis over the last 15 yr has been investigated. The only abnormality found in this patient was a significantly depressed level of plasminogen activity in plasma. In spite of the depressed plasminogen activity, the patient was found to have a normal level of plasminogen antigen concentration. It was calculated that the activity per milligram of plasminogen of the patient was approximately one-half the values of normal subjects. The same discrepancy between biological activity and antigen concentration was found in the other members of the kindred. A niece was found to have practically no plasminogen activity but possessed a normal concentration of plasminogen antigen. Both her parents were found to have approximately half the normal plasminogen activity and normal antigen levels. These studies suggested that the molecular abnormality was inherited as an autosomal characteristic, and the family members who had half the normal levels of activity with normal plasminogen antigen were heterozygotes whereas the one with practically no plasminogen activity was homozygote. Subsequent studies showed that the pattern of gel electrofocusing of purified plasminogen of the heterozygotes consisted of 10 normal bands and 10 additional abnormal bands, each of which had a slightly higher isoelectric point than each corresponding normal component. This indicates that plasminogen of the heterozygote is a mixture of normal and abnormal molecules in an approximately equal amount, which was substantiated by active site titration of purified plasminogen preparations obtained from the propositus and a normal individual. The gel electrofocusing pattern of the homozygote consisted of abnormal bands only. The defect is a hereditary abnormality of plasminogen.
Injections of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) into chronically hypothyroid rats were used to evaluate the contribution of intracellular T4 to T3 conversion to nuclear T3 in pituitary, liver, and kidney, and to correlate the occupancy of pituitary nuclear T3 receptors with inhibition of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) release. Injection of a combination of 70 ng T3 and 400 ng T4/100 g body wt resulted in plasma T3 concentrations of 45±7 ng/dl (mean±SD) and 3.0±0.4 μg/dl T4 3 h later. At that plasma T3 level, the contribution of plasma T3 to the nuclear receptor sites resulted in saturation of 34±7% for pituitary, 27±5% for liver, and 33±2% for kidney. In addition to the T3 derived from plasma T3, there was additional T3 derived from intracellular monodeiodination of T4 in all three tissues that resulted in total nuclear occupancy (as percent saturation) of 58±11% (pituitary), 36±8% (liver), and 41±11% (kidney), respectively. The percent contribution of T3 derived from cellular T4 added 41% of the total nuclear T3 in the pituitary which was significantly higher than the contribution of this source in the liver (24%) or the kidney (19%). 3 h after intravenous injection of increasing doses of T3, the plasma T3 concentration correlated well with both the change in TSH and the nuclear occupancy, suggesting a linear relationship between the integrated nuclear occupancy by T3 and TSH release rate. The contribution of intrapituitary T4 to T3 conversion to nuclear T3 was accompanied by an appropriate decrease in TSH, supporting the biological relevance of nuclear T3. Pretreatment of the animals with 6-n-propylthiouracil before T4 injection decreased neither the nuclear T3 derived from intrapituitary T4 nor the subsequent decrease in TSH.
Pulmonary diffusing capacity and arterial blood Po2 decrease in humans when 10% fat emulsion is infused. To study its effects on the pulmonary circulation and lung fluid balance, we infused 0.25 g/kg × h of a 10% fat emulsion (Intralipid, Cutter Laboratories, Inc., Berkeley, Calif.) into an awake sheep lung lymph preparation. The emulsion caused a sustained increase in pulmonary artery pressure to approximately twice base line with little change in left atrial pressure. PaO2 decreased an average 13 torr and lung lymph flow increased two- to threefold. Lymph/plasma total protein concentration fell as lymph flow increased; the magnitude of the lymph/plasma protein decrease was similar to that reported previously when lung vascular pressures were mechanically elevated. Heparin infusion (loading dose = 4,000 U, maintenance dose = 2,000 U/h) cleared the serum of triglycerides but did not alter the response to fat emulsion. Indomethacin infusion (loading dose = 5 mg/kg, maintenance dose = 3 mg/kg × h) blocked the rise in pulmonary artery pressure, the increase in lung lymph flow, and the fall in PaO2. Neither extravascular lung water nor [14C]urea lung vascular permeability surface area products were altered by fat emulsion infusion. We conclude that fat emulsion infusion in sheep increases lung microvascular filtration by increasing vascular pressures, but has no effect on vascular permeability. Since the effects are blocked by indomethacin, they may be prostaglandin mediated.
The effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on intestinal water and electrolyte transport and transmucosal potential difference was investigated in the dog jejunum in vivo and compared to secretion induced by cholera toxin. Isolated jejunal loops were perfused with a plasma-like electrolyte solution. VIP (0.08 μg/kg per min) was administered directly into the superior mesenteric artery by continuous infusion over 1 h. From a dye dilution method, it was estimated that a mean plasma VIP concentration of 12,460 pg/ml reached the loops. VIP caused secretion of water and electrolytes; for example, chloride: control, 8 μeq/cm per h absorption; VIP, 92 μeq/cm per h secretion. A marked increase in transmucosal potential difference (control, −1.0 mV; VIP, −5.9 mV, lumen negative) occurred within 1 min after starting VIP infusion. Analysis of unidirectional fluxes showed increased plasma-to-lumen flux of sodium and chloride and decreased lumen-to-plasma flux of sodium. Chloride and bicarbonate were actively secreted against an electrochemical gradient. Although sodium secretion occurred down an electrochemical gradient, flux ratio analysis suggested a component of active sodium secretion. VIP caused a slight increase in protein output into the loops; light microscopy revealed capillary dilatation and closed intercellular spaces. The effect of VIP was readily reversible. Except for the delayed onset of secretion, the effect of cholera toxin was qualitatively similar to VIP; however, capillary dilatation and increased protein output were not noted with cholera toxin.
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