Volume 57, Issue 6, Pages 1393-1665
30 total articles
The effect of cyproheptadine on plasma growth hormone and cortisol levels was studied in seven male volunteers with polygraphic sleep monitoring. Sleep-related growth hormone release was completely inhibited in three of the seven normal subjects by the intravenous infusion of cyproheptadine (5 mg) which was started at the onset of sleep. In the other four, growth hormone release during sleep was significantly decreased or delayed by cyproheptadine when the drug infusion was started at 7:00 p.m., 1-2 h before the onset of sleep. The usual increase in plasma cortisol in the early morning was completely suppressed in all five subjects given cyproheptadine infusions from 4:00 to 7:00 a.m. The intravenous infusion of cyproheptadine increased slow wave sleep, although the time from sleep onset to the first occurrence of slow wave sleep was not affected. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep was significantly decreased by cyproheptadine. These results suggest that cyproheptadine inhibits growth hormone and ACTH secretion during sleep in man, possibly by antagonizing serotoninergic mechanisms although other actions of the drug are not ruled out.
Arterial blood concentrations of insulin, glucagon, and various substrates were determined in six anephric subjects in the postabsorptive state and immediately after hemodialysis. Plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were normal, and declined during dialysis. Plasma glucagon was elevated and remained unchanged. There was moderate hypertriglyceridemia before dialysis, but this decreased significantly after administration of heparin just before the start of dialysis, and at the end of dialysis was lowered further into the normal range. Comparison of postabsorptive whole blood concentrations of amino acids with those in normal, healthy adults revealed striking differences. Glutamine, proline, citrulline, glycine and both 1- and 3-methyl-histidines were increased, while serine, glutamate, tyrosine, lysine, and branched-chain amino acids were decreased. The glycine/serine ratio was elevated to 300% and tyrosine/phenylalanine ratio was lowered to 60% of normal. To investigate the potential role of blood cells in amino acid transport, the distribution of individual amino acids in plasma and blood cell compartments was studied. Despite a markedly diminished blood cell mass (mean hematocrit, 20.6 +/- 1.4%), there was no significant decrease in the fraction of most amino acids present in the cell compartment, and this was explained by increases of several amino acids in cellular water. None were decreased. Furthermore, during dialysis, whole blood and plasma amino acids declined by approximately 30% and 40%, respectively, whereas no significant change was observed in the cell compartment. Alanine was the only amino acid whose concentration declined in the cells as well as in plasma. The results indicate (a) significant alterations in the concentrations of hormones and substrates in patients on chronic, intermittent hemodialysis; (b) removal of amino acids during hemodialysis, predominantly from the plasma compartment, with no significant change in cell content; and (c) a redistribution of amino acids in plasma and blood cell compartments with increased gradients of most of the amino acids per unit cell water, by mechanism(s) as yet undetermined.
Magnesium absorption was studied in the normal human jejunum and ileum by in vivo intestinal perfusion, using test solutions containing from 0 to 20 mM Mg (as MgCl2). As luminal Mg concentration was increased, the rate of absorption in the jejunum rose progressively with a tendency towards saturation at the higher concentrations. The kinetics and rates of Mg absorption in the ileum were comparable to those in the jejunum, with the exception that at higher luminal concentrations the ileal absorptive process was fully saturated. Using test solutions containing various combinations of Ca and Mg, we found that Ca had little or no influence on Mg absorption, even through Mg depressed Ca absorption to a modest extent. Patients with end-stage renal disease, who had a reduced rate of Ca absorption (presumably due to deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) were found to have a severe depression of Mg absorption. On the other hand, patients with absorptive hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis, who had an increased rate of Ca absorption, were found to absorb Mg normally. These results suggest that Mg absorption in the human is mediated by a transport process different from that which facilitates Ca absorption, and that normal Mg absorption may be dependent on vitamin D. Our results do not establish whether or not the normal intestine can absorb Mg against an electrochemical gradient.
The effect of phospholipase C (EC 126.96.36.199) on human blood platelets has been studied. Phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus was purified to homogeneity as judged by analytical and sodium dodecyl sulphate disc gel electrophoresis and by immunoelectrophoresis. Human platelets isolated from platelet-rich plasma by gel filtration or by centrifugation and washing were incubated with phospholipase C. A loss of 20-45% of the total platelet phospholipid was observed, whereas 88% was hydrolyzed when platelet homogenates were submitted to identical enzyme treatment. Intact platelets lost 50-75% phosphatidylethanolamine, 20-50% phosphatidylcholine, and 20-25% phosphatidylserine. Sphingomyelin was not a substrate for the enzyme under the conditions used. The platelets contained no detectable endogenous phospholipase C activity. The loss of phospholipid was not accompanied by aggregation of the platelets, nor did the platelets lose their ability to aggregate with ADP or thrombin. Total platelet factor 3 releasable by freezing and thawing was reduced. Measurements of releasable platelet factor 4 and the efflux of serotonin showed that no release reaction was triggered even when up to 45% of the total phospholipid in the platelets was hydrolyzed. When sphingomyelinase was added together with, before, or after phospholipase C, aggregation occurred. Sphingomyelinase alone gave no aggregation. The gel-filtered platelets also aggregated upon addition of purified phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens. The distribution of phospholipids in the platelet membrane is discussed.
Nine skin biopsies from seven herpes gestationis patients were studied by immunofluorescence (IF) techniques. Basement membrane zone (BMZ) deposition of C3 and properdin was present in all nine skin specimens, while IgG deposition was apparent in only one. With in vitro C3 IF staining, positive BMZ staining (HG factor activity) was noted with all seven of our patients' serum samples tested. By standard indirect IF staining, however, only one of these serum samples contained BMZ antibodies of the IgG type. Two cord serum samples, tested by these same methods, yielded positive in vitro C3 staining (HG factor activity) but negative indirect IF staining (IgG). HG factor activity was found to be stable at 56 degrees C for 30 min and in two of three specimens at 56 degrees C for 1 h. Treatment of the complement source (normal human serum) used in the in vitro C3 staining assay with Mg2-EGTA or use of C2-deficient serum as the complement source inhibited HG factor activity. HG factor blocked the specific staining of the BMZ of normal human skin by labeled bullous pemphigoid antibodies. By sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and gel chromatography (Sephadex G-200), HG factor activity eluted with IgG-containing fractions. The highly purified IgG fraction of two herpes gestationis sera was also positive for HG factor activity. Our studies suggest that HG factor is an IgG antibody that may not be demonstrable by conventional IF methods, but which activates the classical complement pathway.
Five patients with herpes gestationis, a blistering disease of pregnancy, were studied immunologically. All had in vivo deposition of C3 in a linear band along the basement membrane zone of lesional and normal-appearing skin, the location of early blister formation. Immunoglobulin deposition was more variable, though four patients had evidence of in vivo bound IgG at the same site. A circulating, complement binding herpes gestationis factor was demonstrated in the sera of four of the patients, its concentration unrelated to the activity of clinical disease. Characterization of this factor by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, specific absorption studies, and papain digestion indicates that it is an IgG. Evidence exists for involvement of both the classical and alternate complement pathways in vivo, though in vitro studies implicate the classical pathway as the primary route of complement activation. Three offspring were studied, none with clinical involvement; one showed in vivo deposition of C3 at the basement membrane zone of normal skin and a second showed the herpes gestationis factor in cord blood.
Many of the intracellular actions of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate are expressed through phosphorylation reactions mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinases, but little is known about hormonal control of endogenous protein kinase activity (PK) in kidney. In the present study, we examined the effects of parathyroid hormone, glucagon, and isoproterenol on cAMP and PK in slices of rat renal cortex. In the presence of 0.5 mM 1-methyl, 3-isobutyl xanthine, all three hormones activated PK in slices, as reflected by an increase in the ratio of enzyme activity assayable in homogenates of the slices without addition of cAMP to the kinase reaction mixture (cAMP-independent activity) over total enzyme activity (+2 uM cAMP in the reaction mixture). When enzyme activity was assayed in whole homogenates prepared from slices, the increase in the enzyme activity ratio (- cAMP/+cAMP) which followed hormonal stimulation was due entirely to an increase in cAMP-independent activity, with no change in total activity. In general, a good correlation existed between the alterations in tissue cAMP levels mediated by the hormones and/or 1-methyl, 3-isobutyl xanthine and concomitant alterations in PK. All three hormones increased PK activity ratios to near unity, suggesting complete enzyme activation. However, the concentrations of parathyroid hormone and glucagon which produced maximal activation of PK were much lower than those required for maximal cAMP responses. Studies with charcoal indicated that these hormonal actions on PK reflected intracellular events rather than representing activation of the enzyme during tissue homogenization, due to release of sequestered cAMP. Thus, homogenization of tissue in charcoal prevented activation of PK by subsequent addition of exogenous cAMP, but did not lower enzyme activity ratios in homogenates of hormone-stimulated cortical slices. When PK was determined in the 20,000 g supernatant fraction of renal cortical slices incubated with the hormones, enzyme activity ratios also increased, but total enzyme activity declined. Lost activity was recovered by extraction of particulate fractions with 500 mM KCl or NaCl, results which implied particulate binding of activated PK. Activated soluble PK from renal cortex was bound equally well by intact, heat- and trypsin-treated renal cortical pellets and by intact and heated hepatic pellets. Accordingly, the apparent translocation of enzyme in hormone stimulated cortex does not necessarily represent binding of the activated PK to specific acceptor sites in the particulate cell fractions or constitute a physiologic hormonal action. Activation of renal cortical PK by increasing concentrations of salts suggests that the enzyme in this tissue resembles the predominant type found in heart.
Immunologic function was evaluated in 12 patients with Hodgkin's disease and 5 patients with lymphocytic lymphoma who had been successfully treated with either chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both of these modalities 3-42 mo previously. Only two of the patients were found to have total anergy to a battery of six recall skin test antigens and all were responsive to skin testing with phytohemagglutinin. However, 10 of 16 patients were unable to develop delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity to either of the neoantigens dinitrochlorobenzene or keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Four other patients developed reactivity to only one of these neoantigens for a total of 14 of 16 (88%) of the patients demonstrating some impairment in neoantigen response. Total lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, and null cell numbers, as well as serum immunoglobulins were quantitatively normal. Monocyte numbers, chemotaxis, and Fc receptor activity were normal. Monocyte staphylocidal activity at 60 min was modestly depressed and candidacidal activity was depressed in those receiving both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Spontaneous (unstimulated) lymphocyte [3H]thymidine incorporation was low in the patients as a group and lymphoblastic transformation to specific antigens was impaired in 11 of 17 patients who had positive skin test reactions to the same antigen. Highly significant suppression of lymphoblastic transformation was noted after stimulation by the mitogens phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed, and concanavalin-A. The greatest impairment of mitogen response was seen in those patients receiving both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. These data demonstrate specific impairments of neoantigen processing, lymphocyte function, and to a lesser extent monocyte function in successfully treated patients with lymphoma. These impairments may contribute to the increased incidence of infections and second primary malignancies in these patients.
The effect of perfusion of an isolated rat liver on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was studied. In liver removed during the basal period of the diurnal cycle of enzyme activity, a 227 +/- 41% increase in enzyme activity occurred after 3 h of a plasma-free perfusion. This could be prevented by the addition of cycloheximide or pure cholesterol (dispersed with lecithin) to the perfusate. In contrast, the continuous addition of taurocholate or taurochenodeoxycholate, alone or in combination, at a variety of rates did not prevent the increase in enzyme activity. The added bile salts were efficiently extracted from the perfusate and excreted in the bile. The addition of these bile salts to a cholesterol-enriched perfusate did not alter the effect obtained with cholesterol alone. If the perfusate contained whole serum, the increase induced by perfusion in the basal period was smaller (88 +/- 27%) than with plasma-free perfusate. Again, the major bile salts of the rat failed to prevent the increase in enzyme activity induced by liver perfusion. If livers were removed and perfused at the height of the diurnal cycle of enzyme activity, the enzyme activity remained high (2 +/- 10% increase) rather than decreasing, as occurs in vivo. If cholesterol was added to these perfusions, a 52 +/- 4% decrease was induced. Bile salt addition induced no decrease. From the results it is concluded that the major bile salts are not direct regulators of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, but pure cholesterol, in the absence of bile salt or lipoprotein, is able to initiate the mechanism that represses hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase.
Immunofluorescent techniques were utilized to identify the types of infiltrating lymphocytes adjacent to human malignant tumors arising from a wide range of anatomic sites. 24 of 29 primary tumors and 5 of 8 metastatic lesions showed varying degrees of lymphocytic infiltration. T cells predominated in the infiltrates in primary tumors (mean 80%, range 50-100%) and this pattern was evident regardless of anatomic site or the presence or absence of metastatic spread. By contrast, B cells predominated at the margins of three of five tumor metastases. Mononuclear cells bearing the Fc receptor were not a prominent component of the infiltrates associated with either primary tumors or metastases, but tumor cell binding of fluoresceinated IgG aggregates was observed in 12 of 29 primary tumors. A significant reduction in peripheral blood T cell numbers occurred in a third of the patients studied. This decrease was not clearly related either to the extent of local tumor T cell infiltration or to the presence of disseminated disease. These preliminary findings provide a descriptive analysis of the local and systemic distributions of immunocompetent cells in cancer.
It is generally believed that the reduction in plasma [HCO3] characteristic of chronic hypocapnia results from renal homeostatic mechanisms designed to minimize the alkalemia produced by.the hypocapneic state. To test this hypothesis, we have induced chronic hypocapnia in dogs in which plasma [HCO3] had previously been markedly reduced (from 21 to 15 meq/liter) by the prolonged feeding of HCl. The PaCO2 of chronically acid-fed animals was reduced from 32 to 15 mm Hg by placing the animials in a large environmental chamber containing 9% oxygen. In response to this reduction in PaCO2, mean plasma [HCO3] fell by 8.6 meq/liter, reaching a new steady-state level of 6.4 meq/liter. This decrement in plasma [HCO3] is almost identical to the 8.1 meq/liter decrement previously observed in normal (nonacid-fed) animals in which the same degree of chronic hypocapnia had been induced. Thus, in both normal and HCl-fed animals, the renal response to chronic hypocapnia causes plasma [HCO3] to fall by approximately 0.5 meq/liter for each millimeter of Hg reduction in CO2 tension. By contrast, the response of plasma [H+] in the two groups was markedly different. Instead of the fall in [H+] which is seen during chronic hypocapnia in normal animals, [H+] in HCl-fed animals rose significantly from 53 to 59 neq/liter (pH 7.28-7.23). This seemingly paradoxical response is, of course, an expression of the constraints imposed by the Henderson equation and reflects the fact that the percent fall in [HCO3] in the HCl-fed animals was greater than the percent fall in PaCO2. These findings clearly indicate that in chronic hypocapnia the kidney cannot be regarded as the effector limb in a homeostatic feedback system geared to the defense of systemic acidity.
Several studies have clearly shown that extracellular volume expansion is associated with suppression of whole kidney bicarbonate reabsorption, although little is known concerning the single nephron correlates of this response. More recently, attention has also been focussed on bicarbonate transport in attempts to identify a possible role for this ion in enhancing the rate of net fluid efflux by proximal tubules. To further explore proximal tubular bicarbonate handling in the rat, we carried out recollection micropuncture studies to assess the effects of infusions of modified Ringer or salt-poor hyperoncotic human albumin. With stable levels of arterial PCO2, plasma [HCO3-] or plasma [K+], marked suppression of fractional HCO3- reabsorption occurred: during Ringer infusion fractional reabsorption fell by 31% (P less than 0.001) while during albumin infusion a decrease of 20% (P less than 0.001) was observed. Despite this, absolute net HCO3- reabsorptive rates did not change significantly. Simple and partial correlation analysis of single tubular responses revealed strong linkage effects between changes in absolute net reabsorptive rates for HCO3- and H2O in both types of infusion; the partial r was 0.91 (P less than 0.001) and 0.94 (P less than 0.001) during Ringer and albumin infusions, respectively. We conclude that under these free-flow conditions, Ringer and albumin infusions do not suppress absolute net HCO3- reabsorption by proximal tubules, and that strongly linked changes in absolute HCO3- and H2O fluxes are characteristic of both protocols.
Collagens in normal human lung and in idiopathic chronic fibrosis were investigated in terms of their covalent structure and compared for possible alterations in the diseased state. Collagens were solubilized by limited digestion with pepsin under nondenaturing conditions, and after purification they, were fractionated into types I and III. Carboxymethylcellulose and agarose chromatography of both types I and III collagens, and amino acid and carbohydrate analyses of the resulting alpha-chains indicated that the alpha 1 (I), alpha 2, and alpha 1 (III) chains of normal human lung were identical with the human skin alpha-chains in all respects examined except that the normal lung chains contained higher levels of hydroxylysine. Examination of collagens obtained from the diseased lung revealed that the content of hydroxylysine of the alpha 1 (I) and the alpha 1 (III) chains appeared to be diminished as compared to the normal lung chains. The values, expressed as residues per 1,000 residues, are 7.1 and 8.3 for the alpha 1 (I) and the alpha 1 (III) chains, respectively, as compared to 10.0 and 11.1 for the alpha-chains from the normal tissue. The chromatographic properties and amino acid and carbohydrate composition of the alpha-chains from the diseased tissue were otherwise indistinguishable from those of normal lung. In addition, isolation and characterization of the CNBr peptides of alpha 1 (I), alpha 2 and alpha 1 (III) from the diseased lung revealed no significant differences from the CNBr peptides from other human tissues reported previously. Normal and diseased lungs were also digested with CNBr, and the resultant alpha 1 (I) and alpha 1 (III) peptides were separated chromatographically. The relative quantities of these peptides indicate that type III collagen constitutes 33% of the total collagen in normal human lung, with the remainder being type I, whereas in idiopathic chronic pulmonary fibrosis, the relative content of type III collagen is markedly diminished, ranging from 12 to 24% in different patients. These results indicate that an alteration in tissue collagen polymorphism as well as subtle variations in the collagen structure accompany the fibrotic process in the diseased state, and suggest that these alterations may have possible pathogenetic implications.
In 17 dogs with acute myocardial infarcts produced by ligation of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery, a comparative study was made of myocardial scintigrams obtained with technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) and thallium-201 (201T1), tissue levels of 99mTc-PYP and 201T1 uptake, histopathologic alterations, and regional myocardial perfusion measured with radioactive microspheres. 9 of the 10 hearts examined histologically had transmural infarcts with outer peripheral, inner peripheral, and central zones characterized by distinctive histopathologic features. A progressive reduction in myocardial blood flow was demonstrated between normal myocardium and the centers of the infarcts, and correlated well with progressive reduction in 201T1 upatke in the same regions. Marked 99mTc-PYP concentration occurred in areas with partial to homogeneous myocardial necrosis and residual perfusion located in the outer peripheral regions of the infarcts. The latter areas also were characterized by the presence of muscle cell calcification. The patterns of distribution of 99mTc-PYP and 201T1 explained the filling defects on 201T1 myocardial scintigrams and the doughnut patterns on 99mTc-PYP myocardial scintigrams in dogs with transmural infarcts. One dog with a subendocardial infarct had a small homogeneous area of activity on the 99mTc-PYP myocardial scintigram, and showed marked uptake of 99mTc-PYP in subendocardial areas of extensive necrosis and calcification still receiving some coronary perfusion. Thus, the data indicate that the status of regional myocardial perfusion is a key determinant for the occurrence of distinctive patterns of myocardial necrosis and for the scintigraphic detection of acute myocardial infarcts with 99mTc-PYP and 201T1.
The marked stimulatory effect of insulin on the conversion of 20 mM D-[6-14C]glucose to CO2, glyceride-glycerol, and fatty acid observed in small rat adipocytes was greatly diminished in large cells from older rats. Similarly, total glucose utilization as estimated by summing the total metabolites accumulated intracellularly plus the release of labeled CO2 and lactate was substantially lower in large cells in the presence of insulin and 5 mM labeled glucose. However, under conditions of 0.2 mM medium glucose where transport of the hexose into adipocytes is relatively more rate-limiting for subsequent metabolism, large cells actually utilized slightly greater total amounts of glucose than small cells in the presence of insulin. Increments of total glucose utilization due to both submaximal and maximal doses of insulin were similar in large and small cells incubated with a low glucose concentration. Under these conditions, conversion of labeled glucose to CO2 and fatty acid in response to insulin was somewhat diminished in large cells, while conversion to glyceride-glycerol was enhanced. The activity of the D-glucose transport system in large and small cells was estimated by monitoring initial rates and small cells was estimated by monitoring initial rates of 3-O-[3H]methylglucose uptake by a rapid filtration method. Transport system activity on a per cell basis was actually severalfold higher in large adipocytes in the basal state as well as in the presence of submaximal and maximal concentrations of insulin compared to small cells. However, the percent stimulation by insulin was less in the large cells. Uptake of 2-deoxyglucose under basal conditions and in response to insulin was also higher in large cells compared to small cells. Analysis of the accumulated label in extracts from fat cells incubated with D-[14C]deoxyglucose revealed the presence of free deoxyglucose, deoxyglucose-6-phosphate, and 6-phosphodeoxygluconate. The levels of these metabolites were significantly higher in large cells compared to small cells indicating hexokinase activity appears not to account for the defective glucose utilization in large cells at high glucose concentrations. It is concluded that (a) possible defects in insulin receptor components, the D-glucose transport system, and the coupling mechanism which links these entities do not significantly contribute to the apparent insulin-insensitivity of large fat cells and (b) the principal cellular defect which confers this blunted insulin response to large rat adipocytes involves one or more intracellular enzymes involved in glucose metabolism.
Bacterial multiplication associated with virus infections is related to defects in in situ bactericidal (phagocytic) mechanisms of the lung. To determine whether the phagocytic defect was in bacterial ingestion and/or intracellular digestion, mice were infected with a sublethal dose of aerosolized Sendai virus and challenged 7 days later with a finely dispersed aerosol of Staphylococcus aureus. Groups of uninfected and virus-infected mice were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 h after challenge, the lungs were perfused with formalin in situ, and the intra- or extracellular location of the bacteria was determined histologically. At 0 h, 49% and 51% of the staphylococci had an intracellular location in virus and nonvirus-infected lungs, respectively. With time, decreasing numbers of staphylococci were observed within the phagocytic cells of nonvirus-infected lungs, mostly as single organisms or in small clusters of less than four. In contrast, in focal area of virus-infected lungs, increasing numbers of phagocytic cells showed clumps of more than 25 bacteria/cell. These data demonstrate that virus-infected suppression of pulmonary antibacterial activity against S. aureus is related primarily to defects in intracellular processing mechanisms.
The effects of short-term treatment with 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 [1,25(0H)2D3] or 1 alpha-hydroxy-vitamin D3 [1 alpha(OH)D3] on intestinal absorption of 47Ca were compared in 41 experiments in normals and 72 experiments in patients with chronic renal failure. 11 patients were studied a second time after treatment for 2-5 mo. Doses varied from 0.14 to 5.4 mug/day to establish dose-response relationships. Urinary calcium was monitored in normal subjects, nine of whom received a constant calcium intake on a metabolic unit. There was an increase in intestinal absorption of 47Ca and urinary calcium in normals receiving 1,25 (OH)2D3, 0.14 mug/day or greater, and 0.28 mug/day or greater augmented intestinal absorption of 47Ca in chronic renal failure. In contrast, 2.6 mug/day of 1 alpha (OH) D3 was required to increase intestinal absorption of 47Ca in both groups. The increase in urinary calcium to maximal levels was delayed during treatment with 1 alpha (OH) D3, 5-10 days vs. 2-5 days with 1,25 (OH)2D3. Moreover, half times for urinary calcium to decrease to pretreatment levels after stopping treatment were greater after 1 alpha-(OH) D3 (1.5-2.7 days) than 1,25(OH)2D3 (1.1-2.0 days). With long-term administration there was a progressive increase in intestinal absorption of 47Ca in the patients receiving 1 alpha (OH)D3; this was not observed with 1,25(OH)2D3. The pharmacologic differences between 1 alpha(OH) D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 may be explained by the requirement for 25-hydroxylation of 1alpha(OH) D3 before biologic effects occur; at low doses (less than 1 mug/day), 1 alpha(OH) D3 competes with vitamin D3 for 25-hydroxylation. With prolonged treatment or larger doses (greater than 2 mug/day),, 1alpha(OH) D3 could accumulate and then be hydroxylated resulting in production of higher levels of 1,25(OH)2D3.
Prostaglandins (PGE1, PGE2, PGA1) and histamine have opposing effects on gastric HCl secretion, but we found that both stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in cell-free membrane preparations of guinea pig gastric fundic mucosa. The stimulatory effect of prostaglandins was found in this study to be specific and dose-dependent over a concentration range from 10(-7) to 10(-4) M. In similar preparations from antral regions of guinea pig gastric mucosa, the adenylate cyclase was stimulated only by PGE1, PGE2, and PGA1 and not by histamine. Maximum stimulating doses of PGE1, PGE2, or PGA1, and of histamine had an additive effect on the adenylate cyclase activity from fundic gastric mucosa. Metiamide, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, inhibited the stimulation of fundic mucosa adenylate cyclase by histamine but did not interfere with the stimulation by prostaglandins. Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity of guinea pig gastric mucosa was unaffected by PGE1 and PGE2 or by histamine, and was slightly depressed by PGA1. These results indicate that histamine and prostaglandins stimulate two different adenylate cyclase systems both present in guinea pig gastric mucosa tissue. Therefore, the known inhibitory effect of prostaglandins on gastric acid secretion is not related to the interference with the stimulation of the histamine H2-receptor-sensitive adenylate cyclase complex by histamine nor do prostaglandins accelerate cyclic AMP breakdown by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase to reduce cyclic AMP levels.
C3b inactivator (C3bINA) has been measured in biologic fluids by radial immunodiffusion using a monospecific antiserum prepared in rabbits, and by a hemolytic assay which measures the reduction in the capacity of EAC43 cells bearing limited C3b sites to form C3B, the alternative pathway C3 convertase. The radial immunodiffusion and hemolytic assays show a good correlation (r = 0.86 P less than 0.001). Measurement of C3bINA concentrations in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus showed that during exacerbations of disease activity C3bINA concentrations tended to be lower, usually in association with reductions in C4, C3, factor B, and properdin, and sometimes with reductions of the alternative pathway proteins, factor B, and properdin alone. Supranormal values for C3bINA were found in the sera of 14 of 20 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and 3 of 9 seronegative patients, but none of 7 patients with degenerative joint disease. Synovial fluid concentrations of C3bINA, after correction for total synovial fluid protein and serum concentration of the enzyme, were significantly reduced in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared to patients with degenerative joint disease (P less than 0.05). In both serum and synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, there was a good correlation between the concentrations of C3bINA and those of C3, factor B, and properdin, but not that of C4, suggesting that levels of C3bINA may serve to modulate recruitment of the properdin amplification loop in this disease.
Medullary collecting duct function was studied by direct microcatheterization techniques in rats undergoing postobstructive diuresis. Significant net addition of water and sodium to the duct was demonstrated during postobstructive diuresis after relief of 24-h bilateral ureteral ligation. This striking abnormality in function was associated with reduced delivery of sodium and water to the collecting duct compared to sham-operated controls. To examine the role of circulating factors in this phenomenon, another group of rats was studied that underwent 24 h of total urine reinfusion into the femoral vein. Natriuresis and diuresis were similar to the postobstructive group, but absolute collecting duct reabsorption of sodium and water was normal. The natriuresis and diuresis in rats with urine reinfusion resulted from increased delivery of fluid and sodium to the medullary collecting duct. A third group of rats was studied with 24-h unilateral ureteral ligation as well as urine reinfusion from the contralateral normal kidney. Without urine reinfusion there was no diuresis-natriuresis but with urine reinfusion the diuresis and natriuresis after relief of unilateral obstruction was similar to that after relief of bilateral obstruction. Moreover, net addition of sodium and no significant water reabsorption were demonstrated in the medullary collecting duct of such animals. The results indicate that (a) the medullary collecting duct is the critical nephron segment affected by ureteral obstruction, since postobstructive diuresis occurred despite reduced delivery of fluid from the more proximal nephron; (b) the net addition of sodium to the medullary collecting duct observed during postobstructive diuresis is probably a direct effect of obstruction, since it was found during postobstructive diuresis after relief of bilateral or unilateral ureteral ligation, but not with urine reinfusion alone; and (c) blood-borne factors are important in the development of postobstructive natriuresis and diuresis, and probably act by increasing the fraction of filtered sodium and water delivered from the proximal and distal tubule to the collecting duct.
Although a diminished fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the hallmark of acute proliferative glomerulonephritis (APGN), an enhanced natriuresis per glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the chronic phases of this disease has been reported. We studied this adaptive response utilizing two different split-bladder dog models with unilateral, and a third group of dogs with bilateral Masugi's nephritis. Group I. Six dogs with unilateral nonaccelerated APGN studied a mean of 6 days after induction had a mean base-line APGN/intact kidney GFR of 31/50 ml/min (P less than 0.005) and FENa of 0.2/0.75% (P less than 0.005). Acute volume expansion caused a smaller absolute increase in FENa from the APGN kidney, 1.6%, than from the intact kidney, 4.0%, (P less than 0.01). Maximum tubular secretion of rho-aminohippuric acid/GFR (TmPAH/GFR) measured in three dogs was higher in the APGN kidney than intact kidney, 13.1 vs. 9.3 mg/dl. Subsequent studies on three of the six dogs when the disease had become chronic demonstrated a reversal in the pattern of sodium excretion in response to volume expansion. Group II. Six dogs with accelerated unilateral APGN (dogs presensitized to antibody source) studied a mean of 5 days after induction had a mean base-line APGN/intact kidney GFR of 16/57 ml/min and FENa of 0.22/0.12% (P less than 0.1). Contrary to group I, volume expansion caused a greater absolute increase in FENa from the APGN kidney, 5.8%, than from the intact kidney, 2.9% (P less than 0.05). TmPAH/GFR studied in four dogs was similar for both kidneys, 17.9 and 18.5 mg/dl for the APGN kidney and intact kidney, respectively. Group III. Sequential studies were performed on seven dogs with bilateral nonaccelerated APGN. Initially each demonstrated sodium retention and a smaller absolute increase in FENa in response to volume expansion compared to a predisease control study. With disease progression, volume expansion induced a greater absolute increase in FENa than in the control study. We concluded that (a) the fractional excretion of sodium from the APGN kidney will be less or greater than the contralateral intact kidney or control study depending on the severity and/or chronicity of the disease, possibly as the result of morphologic alterations; (b) the degree of extracellular fluid volume expansion is an important variable influencing similarity of glomerulotubular balance between the APGN and contralateral intact kidney; and (c) the "intact nephron hypothesis" applies in a limited fashion to kidneys with APGN in the absence of volume expansion just as it does for kidneys with chronic glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis.
The relationship of the mucosal enzyme systems Na+-K+-activated adenosine triphophatase (Na-K-ATPase) and adenylate cyclase and their associated intestinal transport processes was studied in the rat ileum. Two ileal loops were constructed in each anesthetized rat; one loop was inoculated with saline, the other loop with choleragen. Net transport of water and electrolytes was measured in vivo after which enzyme activity was measured in the mucosa of the perfused loops. All doses of choleragen between 5 and 150 mug decreased water movement as early as 3 1/2 h after inoculation. A linear relationship between the dose of choleragen and the level of net water and electrolyte secretion was observed when choleragen doses between 5 and 150 mug were incubated in ileal loops for 4 h. Adenylate cyclase activity was always increased in secreting intestinal loops, whereas Na-K-ATPase was unaffected by choleragen. In animals pretreated with methylprednisolone acetate, 3 mg/100 g per day for 3 days before loop inoculation, saline loops had enhanced mucosal Na-K-ATPase activity had increased net water and electrolyte absorption; choleragen-exposed loops had increased adenylate cyclase and Na-K-ATPase activities, and net absorption of water and electrolytes 4 h after inoculation. These effects of methylprednisolone acetate were still present 19 1/2 h after inoculation. When a single injection of methylprednisolone acetate was given 3 1/2 h after choleragen inoculation, both adenylate cyclase and Na-K-ATPase were activated, and net intestinal absorption of water and electrolytes was observed 19 1/2 h after inoculation. These results suggest that methylprednisolone can prevent and reverse the secretory effects of choleragen by selectively stimulating a coexisting absorptive process.
Discordance between clinical phenotype and the level of a mutant enzyme activity may reflect differences between enzyme function in vivo and that measured by the customary enzyme assays on cell extracts. In the present study, the conversion of hypoxanthine to phosphorylated products was measured in intact skin fibroblasts and in cell extracts from seven patients with mutant hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and six control subjects. The patient's phenotypes ranged from asymptomatic hyperuricemia to the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Although there was a general correlation between the HPRT activity in cell extracts assayed by the usual methods and the function of the purine salvage pathway in patients, as reflected by urinary oxypurine excretion, there were notable exceptions. A more accurate appraisal of the functioning of the pathway at the cellular level is achieved by measuring the conversion of substrate to product in the intact cell at physiological concentrations of substrates, activators, and product and metabolite inhibitors, and in a physiological ionic environment. In one of the seven patients, the standard enzyme assay indicated normal function, whereas measurements in the intact cell exposed severe dysfunction of the salvage system. In another, the standard assay suggested a severe deficiency not evident in the intact cell or in the patient.
The role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the development of congestive failure has been assessed in the conscious dog by use of the nonapeptide converting enzyme inhibitor. Constriction of the pulmonary artery or thoracic inferior vena cava was maintained for 2 wk while daily measurements were made of plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone, plasma volume, hematocrit, serum sodium and potassium concentrations, sodium and water balance, body weight, and arterial, caval, and atrial pressures. The initial response to constriction was a reduction in blood pressure, a rise in plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone, and water intake, and nearly complete sodium retention. In the days after moderate constriction plasma volume and body weight increased (with development of ascites and edema); blood pressure, sodium excretion, plasma renin acvitity, and plasma aldosterone returned to normal. In animals in which blood pressure was not restored, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone remained elevated throughout the period of constriction. Single injections of converting enzyme inhibitor reduced blood pressure when plasma renin activity was elevated. Chronic infusion of the inhibitor in dogs with thoracic inferior vena caval constriction prevented the restoration of blood pressure and suppressed the rise in plasma aldosterone; sodium retention and volume expansion were less than in control experiments. Thus the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays an essential role in the maintenance of blood pressure during the genesis of congestive failure. Initially, the restoration of blood pressure is dependent upon circulating angiotensin II; in the later stages, blood pressure is dependent upon the increase in plasma volume.
Epinephrine infusion causes variable increases in the components of the Factor VIII (antihemophilic factor) complex in patients with von Willebrand's disease. The increase in antihemophilic factor procoagulant activity was greater than that of Factor VIII-related antigen and von Willebrand factor activity in two patients with von Willebrand's disease. Similar increases in the three individual factors were demonstrated in two other patients. A 4-10-fold increase in Factor VIII-related properties was identified in each of these individuals after infusion. One patient has been studied with very severe von Willebrand's disease; none of the Factor VIII-related properties increased despite two infusions of epinephrine. Bleeding times were normalized or remained normal in the two patients whose von Willebrand factor activity was greater than 25 U/100 ml. It remained prolonged in those three patients whose von Willebrand factor activity levels remained below that concentration. The increase in procoagulant activity was transient in all patients and t 1/2 values were estimated to be between 0.8 and 3.4 h.
The first recognized human kindred with hereditary deficiency of the fifth component of complement (C5) is described. The proband, a 20-year-old black female with systemic lupus erythematosus since age 11, lacked serum hemolytic complement activity, even during remission. C5 was undetectable in her serum by both immunodiffusion and hemolytic assays. Other complement components were normal during remission of lupus, but C1, C4, C2, and C3 levels fell during exacerbations. A younger half-sister, who had no underlying disease, was also found to lack immunochemically detectable C5. By hemolytic assay, she exhibited 1-2% of the normal serum C5 level and normal concentrations of other complement components. C5 levels of other family members were either normal or approximately half-normal, consistent with autosomal codominant inheritance of the gene determining C5 deficiency. Normal hemolytic titers were restored to both homozygous C5-deficient (C5D) sera by addition of highly purified human C5. In specific C5 titrations, however, it was noted that when limited amounts of C5 were assayed in the presence of low dilutions of either C5D serum, curving rather than linear dose-response plots were consistently obtained, suggesting some inhibitory effect. Further studies suggested that low dilutions of C5D serum contain a factor (or factors) interfering at some step in the hemolytic assay of C5, rather than a true C5 inhibitor or inactivator. Of clinical interest are (a) the documentation of membranous glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, and arthritis in an individual lacking C5 (and its biologic functions), and (b) a remarkable propensity to bacterial infections in the proband, even during periods of low-dose or alternate-day corticosteroid therapy. Other observations indicate that the C5D state is compatible with normal coagulation function and the capacity to mount a neutrophilic leukocytosis during pyogenic infection.
The first known human kindred with hereditary deficiency of the fifth component of complement (C5) was documented in the accompanying report. This study examines several biological properties of C5-deficient (C5D) human serum, particularly sera obtained from two C5D homozygotes. The proband, who has inactive systemic lupus erythematosus is completely lacking C5, while her healthy half-sister has 1-2% of normal levels. Both sera were severely impaired in their ability to generate chemotactic activity for normal human neutrophils upon incubation with aggregated human gamma-globulin or Escherichia coli endotoxin. This function was fully restored in the sibling's serum, and substantially improved in the proband's serum, by addition of highly purified human C5 to normal serum concentrations. Sera from eight family members who were apparently heterozygous for C5 deficiency gave normal chemotactic scores. The ability of C5D serum to opsonize Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) or Candida albicans for ingestion by normal neutrophils was completely normal. In addition, C5D serum was capable of promoting normal phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus. The proband's serum was incapable of mediating lysis of erythrocytes from a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in both the sucrose hemolysia and acid hemolysis tests, and also lacked bactericidal activity against sensitized or unsensitized Salmonella typhi. The sibling's serum, containing only 1-2% of normal C5, effectively lysed S. typhi, but only at eightfold lower serum dilutions as compared to normals. These findings underscore the critical role of C5 in the generation of chemotactic activity and in cytolytic reactions, as opposed to a nonobligatory or minimal role in opsonization, at least for the organisms under study.
The effects of pentagastrin on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure has been studied in trained, unanesthetized dogs. LES pressure was monitored by an infusion manometric technique. Increasing doses of pentagastrin up to 3 mug/kg given as an i.v. bolus resulted in increasing rises in LES pressure; larger doses resulted in a lesser effect of shorter duration. Increasing i.v. boluses of methacholine produced greater increases in LES pressure up to a maximum of 5 mug/kg; higher doses had similar effects. Atropine (50-100 mug/kg) slightly diminished the response of the LES to 2 or 6 mug/kg of pentagastrin. In large doses (500-2,000 mug/kg), atropine did not diminish the response to pentagastrin and prolonged the response of 6 mug/kg pentagastrin. Hexamethonium (2 mg/kg i.v.) depressed the peak response to 3 mug/kg pentagastrin slightly but the response to 6 mug/kg was increased and prolonged. Propranolol (2 mg/kg i.v.) significantly prolonged the effect of 6 mug/kg pentagastrin on the LES. We conclude that the stimulatory effect of pentagastrin is mainly due to a direct action on the LES. A lesser stimulatory effect is due to an action on preganglionic cholinergic neurons. Large doses of pentagastrin have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects. The inhibitory effect is mediated at least in part via preganglionic neurons acting through adrenergic receptors. Ganglionic transmission of the effect may be through muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors.
Hemoglobin A1c, the most abundant minor hemoglobin component in human erythrocytes, is formed by the condensation of glucose with the N-terminal amino groups of the beta-chains of Hb A. The biosynthesis of this glycosylated hemoglobin was studied in vitro by incubating suspensions of reticulocytes and bone marrow cells with [3H]leucine or 59Fe-bound transferrin. In all experiments, the specific activity of Hb A1c was significantly lower than that of Hb A, suggesting that the formation of Hb A1c is a posttranslational modification. The formation of Hb A1c in vivo was determined in two individuals who were given an infusion of 59Fe-labeled transferrin. As expected, the specific activity of Hb A rose promptly to a maximum during the 1st week and remained nearly constant thereafter. In contrast, the specific activity of Hb A1c and also of Hbs A1a and A1b rose slowly, reaching that of Hb A by about day 60. These results indicate that Hb A1c is slowly formed during the 120-day life-span of the erythrocyte, probably by a nonenzymatic process. Patients with shortened erythrocyte life-span due to hemolysis had markedly decreased levels of Hb A1c.
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