Volume 57, Issue 2, Pages 245-538
34 total articles
In order to elucidate the role of insulin and glucagon during strenuous exercise (100 m/min, slope 10-12 degrees), we have determined the rates of production (Ra), utilization (Rd), and metabolic clearance (M) of glucose in normal dogs before pancreatectomy and 2 wk after total pancreatectomy (a) when they were being maintained on constant intraportal basal insulin infusion, (245 muU/kg-min) and (b) when insulin supply had been withheld before and during exercise. Such an intense exercise induced in normal dogs a prompt decrease in mean immunoreactive serum insulin (IRI) from 20 +/- 3 to 11 +/- 2 muU/ml. In depancreatized insulin-infused dogs serum IRI during rest and exercise was between 14 +/- 1 and 12 +/- 2 muU/ml. In the third group, after cessation of insulin infusion, IRI decreased by 76% (from 17 +/- 5 to 4 +/- 1) and did not decrease futher during exercise. During exercise, serum immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) increased threefold in normal dogs. In depancreatized dogs serum IRG was the same as in normal resting dogs (indicating a nonpancreatic source of the hormone) but it did not increase during exercise. In normal dogs exercise induced proportional increases in Ra, Rd, and M (threefold) and normoglycemia was maintained. Changes in glucose turnover in depancreatized insulin-infused dogs were similar to those seen in normal dogs suggesting that a decrease in insulin secretion and a rise in IRG are not essential to prevent hypoglycemia in diabetic dogs. With the cessation of insulin infusion in resting depancreatized dogs, Ra increased, M decreased, and hyperglycemia ensued. During exercise, Ra continued to rise, but M did not increase significantly. Conclusions: (a) Regulation of glucose production by liver during exercise is multifactorial. A decrease in IRI and an increase in IRG are not the only factors which can promote delivery of glucose to the peripheral tissues. The insulin glucagon molar ratio was found not to be an essential metabolic functional unit in regulating glucose metabolism during exercise. (b) It is hypothesized that increases in blood flow and capillary surface area can lead to an increase in the amount of insulin delivered to the muscle even when serum levels of IRI are reduced during exercies. It is suggested that small, but adequate amounts of insulin (as found in normal and depancreatized insulin-infused dogs) are essential in regulating glucose uptake in the working muscle. (c) Since totally depancreatized dogs had normal serum levels of IRG (originating presumably from the gastrointestinal tract), the question of essentiality of basal glucagon activity in glucose homeostasis during exercise could not be resolved by these experiments. It appears, however, that regulation of secretion of nonpancreatic glucagon differs from that of pancreatic glucagon.
To disclose a parathyroid-independent calcium modulation of phosphate transport along the nephron, the effect of increasing plasma calcium concentration to subnormal levels in rats 6 days after parathyroidectomy (chronic PTX) was studied. Fractional phosphate reabsorption was significantly increased. The whole kidney response to calcium infusion was similar whether or not the thyroid gland was removed, which suggests that calcitonin is not involved. The micropuncture study indicated an increase in the reabsorptive capacity for phosphate (absolute reabsorption/absolute delivered phosphate per nephron segment) in the proximal tubule, the loop, and the terminal nephron when calcium was infused. Thus, the level of plasma calcium or some related factor affects the phosphate transport by the tubule independently of parathyroid hormone. With calcium infusion, the profile of phosphate reabsorption along the nephron became close to that of acutely parathyroidectomized rats, but with persisting differences. The level of plasma calcium concentration may partly account for the differences between the acute and the chronic steps of parathyroidectomy. The role of possible interferences between alterations of extracellular calcium concentration or some related factor and the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP system in such an action of calcium was evaluated. Cyclic AMP was infused so as to achieve a 10(-6) M plasma concentration. Combined infusions of calcium and cyclic AMP were also performed. The results are compatible with calcium inhibition of adenylate cyclase, although they do not rule out a direct action of calcium.
The possibility of renal tubular adaptation to variations in dietary inorganic phosphate (Pi) was investigated in intact and thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats pair-fed diets containing low, normal, and high amounts of Pi for periods up to 10 days. Clearances were measured before and during active i.v. infusions with Pi in conscious animals. Thus tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRPi) could be assessed over a wide range of plasma phosphate concentrations ([Pi]P1). It was found that the renal tubule could adapt its capacity to transport Pi according to the dietary Pi: TRPi was always higher, for a given [Pi]P1, in the animals fed low than in those fed higher Pi diets. This diet-induced modification also occurred in the absence of thyroparathyroid glands, in the presence of the same calcemia and urinary pH, and during marked extracellular volume expansion. A time-course study in rats TPTX both before and during the administration of the experimental diets showed that a difference in the tubular handling of Pi was detectable as early as 3 days after switching the animals from a normal to low- or high-Pi diets. These results indicate that factors other than parathyroid hormone are implicated in the tubular response to variations in the dietary intake of inorganic phosphate.
The biochemical mechanisms by which a genetically determined deficiency of adenosine deaminase leads to immunodeficiency are still poorly understood and prompted this study. We have examined the effects of the adenosine deaminase inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine hydrochloride (EHNA) upon the response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to the mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). Cells isolated from normal volunteers were incubated in microtiter plates in the presence of various inhibitors, and the incorporation of tritrated thymidine or leucine into macromolecular material was measured after 64 h. EHNA at a concentration of 0.3 muM, which inhibited 90% of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in a mononuclear preparation, impaired the incorporation of tritrated leucine into protein; 100 muM EHNA was the minimal concentration that inhibited thymidine uptake. The addition of 15 muM adenosine or 10 muM cyclic AMP to Con A-stimulated lymphocytes inhibited leucine uptake, while millimolar concentrations were required to inhibit thymidine uptake. Lower doses of adenosine and cyclic AMP stimulated thymidine incorporation. The inhibition of thymidine uptake observed with millimolar concentrations of adenosine was independent of the type of mitogen (pokeweed or Con A), the concentration of mitogen, or the medium used, but could be increased if the cells were cultured in a serum with reduced levels of adenosine deaminase. Washout experiments failed to demonstrate a critical period early in immune induction during which adenosine exerted its inhibitory effects. Noninhibitory doses of EHNA potentiated the effects of adenosine and cyclic AMP on leucine and thymidine uptake. EHNA at a concentration of 50 muM also potentiated the inhibitory effects on thymidine uptake of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, butyric acid, norepinephrine, and isoproterenol, but not theophylline. When mitogenesis was assayed by leucine incorporations, no synergy between EHNA and these compounds was apparent. Uridine relieved to some extent the inhibition of blastogenesis produced by adenosine and cyclic AMP, but not by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, norepinephreine, isoproterenol, or theophylline. Neither uridine alone nor uridine plus adenosine protected lymphocytes from the inhibitory effects of EHNA.
The serum of a 23-yr-old woman with prolonged disseminated gonococcal infection syndrome failed to normally promote hemolysis of sensitized sheep red blood cells (RBC). The patient's serum was deficient in the eight component of complement (C8) as determined by functional assays, immunoelectrophoresis, and quantitative immunoprecipitation. Functional titers of each of her other complement components were normal. No serum inhibitors of C8 were detected. The patient's serum supported activation of both the classical and alternate complement pathways. Her fresh serum lacked any bactericidal activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, but addition of purified C8 or complement donor serum restored bactericidal activity as well as RBC hemolytic activity. Her serum gave normal opsonization of yeast particles and staphylococci and had normal capacity to coat sensitized RBC with C8 and C4 and to generate chemotactic activity. No defects were observed in the patient's blood coagulation mechanisms. Complement-mediated bacterial lysis may be important in human defense against bacteremic Neisseria infections.
Studies were performed in anesthetized opossums to determine the influence of binding of circulating gastrin with a high titer gastrin antiserum on lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Gastrin antiserum or control antiserum was administered intravenously in successive doses of 0.02, 0.1, and 0.5 ml/kg on separate days. The lower esophageal sphincter pressures were measured for 1 h before and for 1 h after antiserum administration. The control serum caused no binding of opossum circulating gastrin, nor did it modify lower esophageal sphincter pressure. On the other hand, the administration of gastrin antiserum resulted in the binding of 85-90% of circulating gastrin, but it did not reduce sphincter pressure. A continuous infusion of 0.25 mug-kg-1-h-1 of synthetic human gastrin I caused a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in the sphincter pressure, a 30-fold increase in gastric acid output, and a fourfold increase in immunoreactive gastrin in the opossum blood. Prior treatment with 0.1 ml/kg of gastrin antiserum antagonized and 0.2 ml/kg of the antiserum abolished the gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and the stimulating effect of gastrin on lower esophageal sphincter pressure. However, neither dose of antiserum modified basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure. It is concluded that circulating gastrin may be an important determinant of basal sphincter pressure.
Our purpose was to determine whether exposure to a realistic concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) could increase the bronchial sensitivity of asthmatic patients to bronchoconstrictor agents. We established dose-response curves for changes in specific airway resistance (SRaw) in response to aerosolized carbachol in 20 asthmatics after each had spent 1 h in an exposure chamber breathing on one occasion unpolluted air and on a separate occasion 0.1 ppm NO2: sequence of exposures to unpolluted air and to low levels of NO2 were randomized in a single-blind fashion. NO2 induced a slight but significant increase in initial SRaw and enhanced the bronchoconstrictor effect of carbachol in 13 subjects: curves were shifted to the left and the mean dose of carbachol producing a twofold increase in initial SRaw was decreased from 0.66 mg to 0.36 mg (P less than 0.001). In contrast, NO2 neither modified the initial SRaw nor the bronchoconstrictor effect of carbachol in seven subjects. In 4 out of the 20 subjects, exposure to a higher concentration of NO2 (0.2 ppm) yielded variable results. Potentiation of the carbachol bronchoconstrictor response by NO2 could not be related to any physical or clinical characteristics of the subjects tested. Although the mechanisms underlying the NO2 effect remain controversial, the present results demonstrate that very low levels of NO2 can adversely affect some asthmatics.
In the majority of patients with gout and excessive uric acid production, underlying enzyme abnormalities have not been identified. In the present study, measurement of both the rate of generation and concentration of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PP-ribose-P) and the concentration of ribose-5-phosphate in cultured cells were undertaken to establish a classification of purine overproducers to direct study of additional enzyme defects. Fibroblasts were cultured from 24 individuals assigned to 4 groups: group 1, 5 normal controls; group 2, 5 patients with gout and normal dialy urinary uric acid excretion (gouty controls); group 3, 7 patients with well-defined enzyme abnormalities and excessive urinary acid excretion (4 with hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency and 3 with excessive PP-ribose-P synthetase activity); and group 4, 7 patients with gout and excessive uric acid excretion but without grossly abnormal activities of the above enzymes in erythrocyte lysates. In all 14 fibroblast strains from patients showing excessive production of uric acid (groups 3 and 4), rates of purine synthesis de novo and PP-ribose-P concentrations exceeded values for cells from control groups. Cells from group 3 patients with hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency showed normal PP-ribose-P generation, while those with excessive PP-ribose-P synthetase activity demonstrated increased generation of this regulatory substrate. All strains from group 3 patients had normal ribose-5-phosphate concentrations. Five cell strains from group 4 patients showed one of the two patterns of abnormalities in these measurements seen in strains from group 3 patients: two resembled hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient cells, and three resembled cells with excessive PP-ribose-P synthetase activity. Analyses of erythrocyte enzyme preparations from two of these patients in group 4 have led to identification of a kinetic variant of each enzyme as predicted from the foregoing patterns. Two additional group 4 cell lines that showed increased ribose-5-phosphate concentrations in addition to increased PP-ribose-P concentrations and generation were classified in a separate subgroup, since in the individuals excessive purine synthesis appeared to result from increases ribose-5-phosphate concentration, leading to increased availability of PP-ribose-P. No abnormality in either hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase or PP-ribose-P synthetase has been found in erythrocyte preparations from one patient so classified.
Thymus-derived lymphocyte (T-cell) function, as determined in vivo by cutaneous reactivity to several antigens and in vitro by responsiveness to mitogens and antigens, was assessed in 14 patients infected with a variety of fungal organisms. While all patients manifested a normal frequency of peripheral blood T cells, only seven patients reacted to at least one of the antigens used for cutaneous testing and demonstrated normal in vitro T proliferative responses. Three patients exhibited cutaneous anergy but normal in vitro T-cell reactivity while four patients demonstrated persistent anergy and marked in vitro T-cell hyporeactivity which was independent of activity of infection, concurrent medication, or any associated disorders. The marked diminution of in vitro T-cell reactivity noted for these later four patients was not due to a deletion of antigen- or mitogen-reactive cells. Thus, patients' cells which had been initially cultured for 7 days without any mitogenic or antigenic stimulus and which were subsequently washed and recultured with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, or histoplasmin demonstrated a marked increase in their responsiveness. Moreover, this reactivity noted for recultured cells could be suppressed by a nonphagocytic, nonadherent, nonimmunoglobulin-bearing, sheep red blood cell rosette-forming population of cells isolated from the fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the same patient. While these "regulator" T cells were capable of suppressing T-proliferative responses to antigens and mitogens, they did not diminish pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulin synthesis by normal bone marrow-derived lymphocytes. Patients in whom suppressor "T" cells were found were at risk for relapsing, disseminated fungal infection.
Splanchnic metabolism was studied to quantify changes underlying the fatty liver, hyperlipemia, and hypoglycemia produced by ethanol. Four subjects fasted for 15 h were compared with five subjects fasted for 69 h under basal conditions and during continuous intravenous infusion of sufficient ethanol to give a concentration of 3-5 mM in arterial blood plasma. Splanchnic storage of fatty acids was estimated from the difference between uptake of FFA and secretion of derived products. Basal values for splanchnic uptake of FFA were twofold higher after the 69-h fast while splanchnic storage of fatty acids and production of ketone bodies increased threefold. Values for basal secreation into the blood of triglycerides derived from FFA were similar in the two groups. In both nutritional states, the fraction of FFA taken up in the splanchnic region oxidized to ketone bodies and to CO2 fell when ethanol was given because of preferential oxidation of ethanol to acetate, and the fraction esterified rose. However, systemic transport and splanchnic uptake of FFA fell with ethanol in subjects fasted 15 h, so that neither storage of triglycerides in splanchnic tissues nor secretion into the blood increased. In subjects fasted 69 h, ethanol increased transport of FFA and splanchnic storage of fat. In all but one subject it also increased secretion of triglycerides into the blood. The concentration of glucose in blood fell during ethanol infusion in all five subjects undergoing the 69-h fast. Mean splanchnic glucose production was maintained at about one-half of the pre-ethanol value, despite virtual cessation of splanchnic uptake of lactate and of those amino acids that are metabolized via malate. Quantitative estimates of extrasplanchnic metabolism suggest that enhanced formation of alpha-glycerophosphate from glucose, in addition to impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis, may contribute to ethanol-induced hypoglycemia in man.
The effects of ischemia on the canine myocardial (Na+ + K+)-ATPase complex were examined in terms of alterations in cardiac glycoside binding and enzymatic activity. Ability of the myocardial cell to bind tritiated ouabain in vivo was assessed after 1, 2, and 6 h of coronary occlusion followed by 45 min of reperfusion, and correlated with measurements of in vitro (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity and in vitro [3H]ouabain binding after similar periods of ischemia. Regional blood flow alterations during occlusion and reperfusion were simultaneously determined utilizing 15 mum radioactive microspheres to determine the degree to which altered binding of ouabain might be flow related. Anterior wall infarction was produced in 34 dogs by snaring of confluent branches of the left coronary system. Epicardial electrograms delineated ischemic and border zone areas. Coronary reperfusion after 2 and 6 h of occlusion was associated with impaired reflow of blood and markedly impaired uptake of [3H]ouabain in ischemic myocardium. In both groups, in vivo [3H]ouabain binding by ischemic tissue was reduced out of proportion to the reduction in flow. Despite near-complete restoration of flow in seven dogs occluded for 1 h and reperfused, [3H]ouabain remained significantly reduced to 58 +/- 9% of nonischemic uptake in subendocardial layers of the central zone of ischemia. Thus, when coronary flow was restored to areas of myocardium rendered acutely ischemia for 1 or more hours, ischemic zones demonstrated progressively diminished ability to bind ouabain. To determine whether ischemia-induced alteration in myocardial (Na+ + K+)-ATPase might underlie these changes, (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity and [3H]ouabain binding were measured in microsomal fractions from ischemic myocardium after 1, 2, and 6 h of coronary occlusion. In animals occluded for 6 h, (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity was significantly reduced by 40% in epicardial and by 35% in endocardial layers compared with nonischemic myocardium. Comparable reductions in in vitro [3H]ouabain binding were also demonstrated. Reperfusion for 45 min after occlusion for 6 h resulted in no significant restoration of enzyme activity when compared to the nonreperfused animals. In six animals occluded for 2 h, a time at which myocardial creatine phosphokinase activity remains unchanged, (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity was reduced by 25% compared with nonischemic enzyme activity. In five dogs occluded for 1 h, (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity in ischemic myocardium was unchanged from control levels. We conclude that reduced regional myocardial blood flow, local alterations in cellular milieu, and altered glycoside-binding properties of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase all participate in the reduction of cardiac glycoside binding observed after reperfusion of ischemic myocardium. In addition, after 2 or more hours of severe ischemia, myocardial (Na+ + K+)-ATPase catalytic activity is significantly reduced despite incubation in the presence of optimal substrate concentrations.
A prospective study was undertaken to establish the incidence of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis and its histopathological characteristics in a clinical group of patients presenting with renal disease. Biopsies from 43 of 409 consecutive patients technically satisfactory for direct immunofluorescent (IF) examination had diffuse and generalized linear localization of host immunoglobulin (Ig); two other badly scarred kidneys tested negative to IF although GBM antibodies were eluted. Confirmatory evidence of GBM antibody-mediated disease in these patients came from whole kidney or biopsy elutions (15 patients), serologic assays for circulating GBM antibodies by indirect IF (9 of 38 patients), radioimmunoassay (26 of 34), and hemagglutination (31 of 32). Although sera were not tested from six patients, circulating antibodies were demonstrated by some test in 36 of 39 of the remainder. Histologically, half of the patients had minor and nonspecific glomerular abnormalities or mild focal proliferative glomerulonephritis. More severely involved kidneys had focal necrotizing (17%), rapidly progressive (7%), and chronic, usually sclerosing, glomerulonephritis (27%). Clinical courses of these patients comparably were quite variable, ranging from indolent microhematuria and/or gross hematuric bouts to progressive renal failure; nephrotic syndrome was observed in 11 patients. GBM antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis may be a relatively mild disease with apparently stable renal function, although 16 patients have experienced functional deterioration, and 11 have progressed to dialysis, renal transplantation, or death.
These investigations delineate the recently described suppression of a form of cellular hypersensitivity in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus using a variety of cell-mediated immunologic responses in animals with several different forms of diabetes. Streptozotocin- and alloxan-induced diabetic mice and db/db genetically determined diabetic mice showed reductions in the areas of inflammation around Schistosoma mansoni eggs injected into the pulmonary vasculature of 68, 70, 77%, respectively. In contrast, streptozotocin-induced diabetes had no effect on the nonimmunologic foreign body granuloma around divinyl benzene copolymer beads injected into the pulmonary arterioles. Animals protected from diabetes by treatment with nicotinamide before streptozotocin administration did not develop hyperglycemia and had normal areas of immunologic granuloma formation around schistosome eggs. Treatment with insulin reversed the suppression of schistosome egg granuloma formation in both streptozotocin- and alloxan-diabetic animals. Two additional in vivo parameters of cellular immunologic reactivity were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetes: delayed footpad swelling was essentially eliminated; skin graft survival across the H-2 area was significantly prolonged from 10.2 days in the controls to 14.4 days in moderately diabetic A/J mice. These observations suggest that diabetes mellitus is associated with suppression of cell-mediated reactions in vivo and that the defect is reversible with insulin treatment.
The effect of thyroid status on QO2, QO2 (t) and NaK-ATPase activity was examined in rat skeletal muscle. QO2(t) (i.e. Na+-transport-dependent respiration) was estimated with ouabain or Na+-free media supplemented with K+. In contrast to the effects of ouabain on ion composition, intracellular K+ was maintained at about 125 meq/liter, and intracellular Na+ was almost nil in the Na+-free media. The estimates of QO2(t) were independent of the considerable differences in tissue ion concentrations. The increase in QO2(t) account for 47% of the increase in QO2 in the transition from the hypothyroid to the euthyroid state and 84% of the increase in the transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state. Surgical thyroidectomy lowered NaK-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction (expressed per milligram protein) 32%; injections of triodothyronine (T3) increased this activity 75% in initially hypothyroid rats and 26% in initially euthyroid rats. Thyroidectomy was attended by significant falls in serum Ca and Pi concentrations. Administration of T3 resulted in further declines in serum Ca and marked increases in serum Ps concentrations. Similar effects were seen in 131I-treated rats, but the magnitude of the declines in serum Ca were less. The effects of T3 on QO2, QO2(t), and NaK-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle were indistinguishable in the 131I-ablated and surgically thyroidectomized rats. In thyroidectomized or euthyroid rats given repeated doses of T3, QO2(t) and NaA-ATPase activity increased proportionately. In thyroidectomized rats injected with single doses of T3, either 10, 50, or 250 mug/100 g body wt, QO2(t) increased linearly with NaK-ATPase activity. The kinetics of the NaK-ATPase activity was assessed with an ATP-generating system. T3 elicited a significant increase in Vmax with no change in Km for ATP.
To study the role of circulating natriuretic factors in the postobstructive diuresis that occurs after relief of bilateral, but not unilateral ureteral ligation, cross-circulation was carried out between normal recipient rats and donor rats have either 24-h bilateral (BUL) or unilateral (UUL) ureteral ligation. With BUL donors, there was a rapid marked increase in sodium and water excretion in the recipient rats, sustained for 80-140 min, with a peak approximately 10 times control values. With UUL donors, no significant natriuretic response occurred. Changes in glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, blood pressure, hematocrit, or circulating levels of aldosterone or Pitressin did not explain the diuresis-natriuresis produced by cross-circulation with BUL donors. Differences in the intrinsic renal damage produced by bilateral as compared to unilateral ureteral obstruction did not appear to account for this response, since UUL donors given an acute urea load and urine reinfusion caused a similar diuresis-natriuresis. Moreover, normal donor rats given a urea load also caused a diuresis-natriuresis nearly equal to that produced by BUL rats, and the relationship between increased urea excretion and sodium excretion or urine flow in the recipients was not different in the two groups. Total urine reinfusion for 3 h in donor rats produced a significant, although less marked, diuresis-natriuresis in recipient animals, with only a slight elevation of the blood urea nitrogen level, much less increase in urea excretion rate, and no significant relationship between urea excretion and sodium excretion or urine flow. The results indicate that potent natriuretic factors, which act by decreasing the tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, are present in the blood of rats with bilateral, but not unilateral, ureteral ligation. High blood and urine urea levels appear to be the factors responsible for the marked natriuresis-diuresis occurring in normal rats during cross-circulation with BUL donors, although suggestive evidence of other natriuretic factors in urine reinfused intravenously was also obtained. The data suggest that urea osmotic diuresis is an important mechanism for determining the striking difference between the postobstructive diuresis observed after relief of bilateral as compared to unilateral ureteral ligation.
Rhesus monkeys were immunized with normal human lymphoid cells, cultured lymphoid cells, and chronic leukemic lymphocytes. Antisera were analyzed by cytotoxicity and immunofluorescence techniques to study the antigenic characteristics of human lymphocytes. In an attempt to obtain a reagent specifically reactive with T (thymus-derived) lymphocytes, an antispleen antiserum was absorbed with cellf from five B- (bone marrow-derived) cell lines. After absorption, the antiserum killed 60-75% of peripheral blood lymphocytes and 40-50% of tonsil cells, so that there was a relationship between the percentage of killed cells and the proportion of T lymphocytes. However, when cells after cytotoxic treatment were assayed for rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes (a T-cell marker) 5-20% of viable rosette-forming lymphocytes were found. Therefore, this antiserum was cytotoxic for only 75-90% of T cells. From studies performed with antisera prepared against spleen and B-cell lines, we conclude that lymphoblastoid cells are antigenically different and deficient in comparison to normal B lymphocytes. In addition, cultured B-cell lines appear to be antigenically heterogenous, as shown by the cytotoxic activity remaining in antispleen and anti-B-cell lines sera after absorption with various numbers and types of lymphoid cell lines. After absorption with normal lymphocytes, an antiserum produced against chronic lymphatic leukemia cells had specific activity associated with 12 chronic lymphatic leukemia cells tested. Absorption of the same antiserum with leukemic cells from two patients showed that a certain degree of antigenic heterogeneity also exists among chronic leukemic lymphocytes.
By combination of isoelectric focusing and immunoelectrophoresis of fresh bovine plasma it is shown that 10% of the albumin in plasma has isoionic points equal to the intramolecular SS-interchanged isomers of bovine serum albumin (BSA). It is also shown that (a) albumin with the isoionic point of SS-interchanged BSA is produced in the cow from radioiodinated BSA depleted from SS-interchanged albumin before injection and (b) purified radiolabeled SS-interchanged BSA can be converted in vivo to albumin with the native isoionic point. On this basis, it is proposed that SS-interchanged albumin in vivo is in postsynthetic equilibrium with the "native" albumin conformation. The SS-interchanged isomers purified either from commerical BSA or from BSA submitted to SH-SS interchange was, after radioiodination with 125I, compared metabolically with "native" albumin labeled with 131I in the same calf. Both species of SS-interchanged albumins have fast initial turnover rates but obtain a normal rate of degradation after the reversion to native albumin. If the isomers formed in vivo have the same properties as the ones present in commercial BSA, at least 50% of the physiological degradation of albumin can be accounted for by the 6-7 times faster catabolic rates of these isomers.
In order to study renal salt-retaining mechanisms during the early stages of ascites formation, rats were subjected to bile duct ligation. After this procedure, plasma volumes were found to be reduced and hematocrits slightly increased. The whole-kidney glomberular filtration rate and plasma flows were reduced to 59 and 57% of control values, but the filtration fraction was unchanged. Absolute sodium excretion, as well as the fraction of the filtered sodium load excreted, was also significantly reduced. When micropuncture techniques were used to examine the function of single superficial nephrons, the glomerular filtration rate in these nephrons was found to be reduced to 70% of controlled values, and fractional reabsorption was found to be increased at all accessible sites along the nephron. Filtration by intermediate and juxtamedullary nephrons, determined by Hanssen's technique, was reduced to 55 and 48% of control values. By the use of radioactive microspheres, it was demonstrated that blood flow to superficial, intermediate, and juxtamedullary nephrons was reduced to 49, 59, and 73% of control values. Filtration by superficial nephrons decreased much more than plasma flow--a finding which suggests that the measured increase in fractional reabsorption was associated with an increase in the superficial nephron filtration fraction. From this study, it appears that two factors play an important part in the sodium retention observed in the initial stages of ascites formation following bile duct ligation in rats: (a) a decrease in the filtered sodium load and (b) increased fractional reabsorption by the superficial nephrons--the nephrons which show the least decrease in filtration.
The effects of both synthetic and biologically produced angiotensin II (AII) upon the process of glolerular filtration were examined in the plasma-expanded (2.5% body wt) Munich-Wistar rat, by micropuncture evaluation of pressures, nephron plasma flow (rpf) and filtration rate (sngfr). Plasma expansion was chosen as a control condition because (a) response to AII was uniform and predictable, (b) endogenous generation of AII was presumably suppressed, and (c) the high control values for rpf permitted accurate determination of values for the glomerular permeability coefficient (LpA) before and during AII infusion. With subpressor quantities of synthetic Asn-1, Val-5 AII (less than 5 ng/100 g body wt/min), sngfr fell from 47.7 in the control group to 39.8 nl/min/g kidney (P less than 0.005). The rpf fell to 60% of control values (P less than 0.001). Measurement of glomerular capillary (PG) and Bowman's space (Pt) hydrostatic pressures in surface glomeruli with a servo-nulling device permitted evaluation of the hydrostatic pressure gradient (deltaP = PG - Pi). DeltaP increased from 38.1 +/- 1.2 in control to 45.9 +/- 1.3 mm Hg after Asn-1, Val-5 AII and essentially neutralized the effect of decreased rpf in sngfr. The sngfr then fell as a result of a decreased in LpA from 0.063 +/- 0.008 in control to 0.028 +/- 0.004 nl/s/g kidney/mm Hg after Asn-1, Val-5 AII (P less than 0.02). Lower doses of Asp-1, Ile-5 AII (less than 3 ng/100 g body wt/min) had no effect on sngfr, rpf, deltaP, and afferent and efferent vascular resistance, but significantly elevated systemic blood pressure, suggesting peripheral effects on smooth muscle at this low dose. LpA was 0.044 +/- 0.007 nl/s/g kidney/mm Hg after low-dose Asp-1, Ile-5 AII, and 0.063 +/- 0.008 in the control group (0.02 greater than P greater than 0.1). Higher, equally pressor doses of native AII (5 ng/100 g body wt/min) produced effects almost identical to similar quantites of synthetic Asn-1, Val-5 AII upon rpf, deltaP, sngfr, and renal vascular resistance. LpA again fell to 0.026 +/- 0.004 nl/s/g kidney/mn Hg, a value almost identical to that after the synthetic AII. Paired studies with Asp-1, Ile-5 AII also demonstrated a consistent reduction in LpA.
Hormone-induced desensitization of hormonal regulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) content has been described in a number of tissues. In the present study, we examined responses of rat liver to glucagon after periods of sustained exposure to the hormone in vivo and in vitro. In intact anesthetized rats infused with glucagon (50 ng/min) for 1 h or more and in liver slices incubated with the hormone (10 muM) for this period, hepatic cAMP responsiveness to glucagon was significantly blunted compared with that of tissue exposed to the hormone for shorter periods. The reduction in hepatic cAMP responsiveness to glucagon appeared to be fully expressed by 2 h. With the doses of hormone employed, the sequential alterations in hepatic responsiveness seemed to be limited to the cAMP system, since other parameters of glucagon action did not wane with time. Diminished hepatic cAMP responsiveness during sustained hormonal exposure could not be attributed to decreased glucagon availability, accelerated extracellular release of cAMP, hepatic ATP depletion, or enhanced phosphodiesterase activity. Studies in vitro suggested that modulation of the cAMP response occurred at the level of adenylate cyclase (AC). During sustained exposure of hepatic slices to glucagon, reductions in glucagon-responsive AC correlated temporally with those in cAMP and both changes were reversible. Alterations in glucagon-responsive AC were demonstrated over a wide range of ATP (10 muM-0.1 mM) and glucagon (10 nM-5 MM) concentrations in the cyclase reaction mixture, and appeared to be a noncompetitive phenomenon relative to glucagon. Maximal NaF-responsive AC did not fall concomitantly with time. Thus, the reduction in glucagon-responsive AC was probably not related to a reduction in the catalytic unit of the enzyme, but could have been due to an alteration in glucagon binding to its receptor sites, or in the coupling mechanism involved in transmission of the hormonal signal to the catalytic unit.
A reduction in the release of substrate amino acids from skeletal muscle largely explains the decrease in gluconeogenesis characterizing prolonged starvation. Brief starvation is associated with an increase in gluconeogenesis, suggesting increased release of amino acids from muscle. In the present studies, accelerated amino acid release from skeletal muscle induced by brief starvation was sought to account for the accompanying augmentation of gluconeogenesis. To do this amino acid balance across forearm muscles was quantified in 15 postabsorptive (overnight fasted) subjects and in 7 subjects fasted for 60 h. Fasting significantly reduced basal insulin (11.3-7.5 muU/ml) and increased glucagon (116-134 pg/ml). Muscle release of the principal glycogenic amino acids increased. Alanine release increased 59.4%. The increase in release for all amino acids averaged 69.4% and was statistically significant for threonine, serine, glycine, alanine, alpha-aminobutyrate, methionine, tyrosine, and lysine. Thus, with brief starvation, muscle release of glycogenic amino acids increases strikingly. This contrasts with the reduction of amino acid release characterizing prolonged starvation. The adaptation of peripheral tissue metabolism to brief starvation is best explained by the decrease in insulin.
The effect of cholera toxin on adenylate cyclase from rat liver has been studied in a broken cell preparation. The activation of the enzyme in this in vitro preparation requires the addition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to the incubation medium and the presence of cell components other than the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase. Once the activation of the cyclase is produced, the effect persists despite repeated washing or solubilization of the enzyme. The effect can be obtained with concentrations of cholera toxin as low as 0.4 nM after 15 min of incubation at 22 degrees C, and stimulation can be detected after only 5 min of incubation at 37 degrees C. The activation of the enzyme is still apparent after at least 2 h at 0 degrees C. Preincubation with choleragenoid in vitro does not interfere with this effect of the toxin. Animals pretreated by an intravenous injection of cholera toxin do not respond to the in vitro addition of cholera toxin and NAD to the same extent as untreated animals; i.e., the effects overlap to suggest that the in vitro effect is the same as that in vivo. Responses to isoproterenol, glucagon, and NaF were also similar in the in vitro broken cell-activated system, as previously reported for the enzyme activated in vivo.
The ability of d,l-propranolol to block renin secretion in response to various extrarenal stimuli, such as hemorrhage and hypoglycemia, has been interpreted to indicate the presence of an intrarenal beta receptor regulating renin release. However, two problems complicate this interpretation: (a) the stimuli have effects outside the kidney, and (b) d,l-propranolol has a local anesthetic, as well as a beta adrenergic blocking, action. In the present study, the effects of a purely intrarenal stimulus, in the form of renal nerve stimulation (RNS), on renin secretion was examined. The effects of d,l-propranolol (anesthetic and beta-blocking activity), l-propranolol (beta-blocking activity only), and d-propranolol (local anesthetic activity only) on the renin response to RNS were examined. In a control group of animals, two sequential RNS increased mean renin secretion from 401 to 1,255 U/min (P less than 0.25) and from 220 to 2,179 U/min (P less than 0.01). In a second group the first RNS increased renin secretion from 201 to 1,181 U/min (P less than 0.01), but after d,l-propranolol was given RNS did not significantly alter renin secretion (33 to 55 U/min). In a third group the initial RNS increased renin secretion from 378 to 1,802 U/min (P less than 0.025), but after l-propranolol was given RNS had no significant effect on renin secretion (84 to 51 U/min). A fourth group of dogs showed a rise in renin secretion from 205 to 880 U/min (P less than 0.001) in response to the first RNS, while the second RNS, given after an infusion of d-propranolol, caused a rise in renin secretion from 80 to 482 (P less than 0.005). The nature of the electrical stimulus was consistent in all groups and caused no detectable changes in renal or systemic hemodynamics or in urinary electrolyte excretion. The results, therefore, indicate that renin secretion can be stimulated through intrarenal beta receptors independent of changes in systemic or renal hemodynamics or in tubular sodium reabsorption. Hence the effect of beta stimulation on renin secretion would appear to result from a direct action on the renin-secreting cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus.
By immunochemical methods and simultaneous measurements of several normal plasma proteins, human placenta was shown to contain elevated quantities of four pregnancy-associated plasma proteins (PAPP's). In the order of increasing amounts, PAPP-A, PAPP-C, PAPP-B, and human chorionic somatomammotropin (PAPP-D) all were present in placenta extracts in quantities greater than could be expected on the basis of their content in maternal blood. In sharp contrast, the placental content of pregnancy zone protein could be entirely accounted for by the maternal plasma present in the placenta. All of the PAPP's appeared to be readily extractible from placental tissue with buffered saline, the large bulk of them being solubilized in the first extraction procedure. However, absorption studies indicated that appreciable quantities of the PAPP's were still present in the insoluble placental residue after 12 sequential extractions with saline. The chorioamniotic membranes were not significantly enriched in any of the PAPP's. Immunochemical analysis of unwashed placental tissue extracts for the PAPP's IgA, and IgM (maternal blood derived), as well as albumin and transferrin (maternal and fetal blood derived), permitted calculations to be made of the amount of blood and PAPP's in placenta. On the basis of these data, it was roughly estimated that a 400-g placenta (wet weight) would occupy 312 ml in volume, and would contain 144 ml of blood. Of this blood, 36 ml would be derived from the mother.
To understand better the mechanisms involved in biliary lipid excretion and to evaluate their role in cholesterol gallstone formation, the rates of biliary excretion of bile salts, cholesterol, and phospholipids were measured in two species, man and dog. Seven cholecystectomized patients with balloon-occludable reinfusion T-tubes were studied during intact and interrupted enterohepatic circulation and four cholecystectomized dogs were studied during interrupted enterohepatic circulation. In man and dog both cholesterol and phospholipid outputs were hyperbolically related to bile salt output by the equation y = x/(a + bx). The output curves intersected the origin and showed an initial rapid rise, followed by a slower increase to a maximum, suggesting a rate-limited mechanism. The shape of the curves permitted calculation of the theoretical maximal outputs and the rates of rise to those outputs. Comparison of these values showed that in both man and dog phospholipid output was greater than cholesterol output and that cholesterol and phospholipid were excreted at different rates. These studies (a) indicate that cholesterol, phospholipids, and bile salts are not excreted in a fixed relationship and (b) demonstrate the usefulness of the derived theoretical maximal lipid output, and the rate of rise of lipid excretion to a maximum, in evaluating the kinetics of biliary lipid excretion.
Current methods to isolate and identify anaerobic bacteria are laborious and time consuming. It was postulated that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by these organisms might serve as microbial markers in clinical material. 98 specimens of pus or serous fluid were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, and findings were compared with culture results. Good correlations were found for the recovery of anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli and the presence of isobutyric, butyric, and succinic acids. 19 of 20 specimens with significant amounts of these acids (greater than 0.01 mumol/ml) yielded bacteroides or fusobacteria. Culture of the single "false-positive" specimen failed to grow anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli, although clinical data and Gram-stain suggested their presence. 77 of 78 specimens which has insignificant concentrations of the marker acids failed to yield anaerobic, Gram-negative bacilli in culture. The single "false-negative" specimen yielded Bacteroides pneumosintes, an organism which does not ferment carbohydrates. It is concluded that direct gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of clinical specimens provides a rapid presumptive test for the presence of anaerobic, Gram-negative bacilli.
It has been previously suggested that inherited thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) abnormalities in man may be due to mutations at a single X-chromosome-linked locus controlling TBG synthesis. However, abnormalities in TBG degradation have not been excluded. The availability of purified human TBG and its successful labeling with radioiodide allowed us to examine such possibility. Human TBG was purified by affinity chromatography, labeled under sterile conditions with 131I or 125I,, and mixed with [125I]thyroxine (T4) or [131I]T4, respectively, before their intravenous injection. Blood and urine samples were collected over a 10-day period, and the turnover parameters were calculated. In eight normal volunteers mean values +/-SD for TBG and T4 respectively, were as follows: Half time (t1/2) 5.3 +/- 0.4 and 7.0 +/- 0.6 days; distribution space (DS) 7.2 +/- 1.0 and 10.8 +/- 1.2 liters; and total daily degradation (D) 0.211 +/- 0.053 and 0.088 +/- 0.011 mumol/day. In all subjects, t1/2 of TBG was shorter than that of T4; and the DS was smaller. 2.4 mol of TBG was degraded for each mole of T4. In five of six subjects from four families, comprising hemizygous and heterozygous carriers of TBG absence, decrease, and excess, the t1/2 and DS for TBG were within the normal range. The D of TBG was proportional to the serum concentration of the protein. Changes in the T4 kinetics in these patients were compatible with euthyroidism and with the known alterations in the extrathyroidal T4 pool associated with the changes in serum TBG concentration. A striking decrease in the t1/2 of TBG was found only in a patient with acquired diminution in TBG concentration and in patients with thyrotoxicosis or other conditions apparently unrelated to thyroid dysfunction. TBG t1/2 was 2.5 days in a patient with multiple myeloma and 3.6 days in two patients with thyrotoxicosis. Decreased TBG t1/2 was also observed in three of six patients with nonthyroidal pathology and was associated with an increase in TBG D disproportionate to their level of serum TBG. These studies indicate that changes in TBG concentration in patients with X-chromosome-linked TBG abnormalities are due to alterations in its rate of synthesis. In other conditions, abnormalities of TBG degradation and/or rate of synthesis may be found.
It is generally assumed that hepatic transport of bile acids is a carrier-mediated process. However, the basic mechanisms by which these organic anions are translocated across the liver cell surface membrane are not well understood. Since carrier-mediated transport involved binding of the transported molecule to specific receptor sites, we have investigated the possibility that bile acid receptors are present in liver surface membranes. Isolated liver surface membranes were incubated at 4 degrees C with [14C]cholic acid and [14C]taurocholic acid, and membrane-boudn bile acid was separated from free by a rapid ultrafiltration technique through glass-fiber filters. Specific bile acid binding is rapid and reversible and represents approximately 80% of the total bile acid bound to liver surface membranes. Taurocholic acid binding is independent of the medium pH, while cholic acid binding demonstrates an optimum at pH 6.0. Analysis of equilibrium data for both cholic and taurocholic acid binding indicates that specific binding is saturable and consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics, while nonspecific binding is nonsaturable. Apparent maximal binding capacity and dissociation constant values indicate a large capacity system of receptors that have an affinity for bile acids comparable to that of the hepatic transport mechanism. Scatchard analysis of the saturation kinetics as well as inhibition studies suggest that bile acids bind to a single and noninteracting class of anion that competes with bile acids for hepatic uptake, also inhibits cholic acid binding. In contrast, no inhibition was demonstrated with indocyanine green and probenecid. Specific bile acid binding is enriched and primarily located in liver surface membranes and found only in tissues involved in bile acid transport. Specific bile acid binding is independnet of Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ and does not require metabolic energy. In addition, thiol groups and disulfide are not required for activity at the binding site. However, specific bile acid binding is markedly decreased by low concentrations of proteolytic enzymes and is also decreased by the action of neuraminidase and phospholipases A and C. These results are consistent with the existence of a homogeneous bile acid receptor protein in liver surface membranes. The primary surface membrane location of this receptor, its binding properties, and its ligand specificity suggest that bile acid binding to this receptor may represent the initial interaction in bile acid transport across liver surface membranes.
Homogenized tissue from the frontal cortex of normal human brains obtained at postmortem examination was used to absorb lymphocytotoxic antibody from the serum of six patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Four absorptions of all of the SLE sera with equal volumes of homogenized brain tissue at 4 degrees C depleted their cytotoxic capacity more than 90%. Three of the six sera, however, retained some lymphocytotoxicity despite extensive brain absorption. Absorbed lymphocytotoxic antibodies were eluted from brain tissue absorbents at 37 degrees C. Cytotoxicity of the brain eluates was blocked by antibodies to human IgM (mu-chain specific) but not anti-IgG. The unabsorbed SLE sera, brain-absorbed sera, and brain eluates were equally cytotoxic to T (thymus-derived) and B (bone marrow-derived) cells fractionated from normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Thus, the lymphocytotoxic antibodies in SLE serum exhibit no preference for circulating human T cells. An analysis of the clinical records of 40 patients with SLE whose serum cytotoxic capacity had been determined revealed that circulating lymphocytotoxicity is greater in sera of patients with central nervous system (CNS) manifestations than in other SLE patients. This observation suggests a possible role for brain-reactive lymphocytotoxic antibodies in the development of CNS disease in SLE.
Studies were performed to determine the effect of decreased endogenous release of renal prostaglandins on urinary sodium excretion. Two structurally dissimilar inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis were employed, and studies were performed in conscious dogs allowed to recover from prior surgical instrumentation. Either meclofenamate (2 mg/kg) or the competitive prostaglandin inhibitor RO 20-5720 (1 mg/kg) was given to seven unanesthetized dogs undergoing a water diuresis. The administration of either prostaglandin inhibitor did not alter glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, urinary volume, or potassium excretion. Sodium excretion, however, increased from 32 to 130 mueq/min (P less than 0.02). Essentially, the entire increase in sodium excretion was due to an increase in urinary sodium concentration from 7.7 to 28.3 meq/liter (P less than 0.02). On a different day, the same animals were studied before and after administration of the diluent of the prostaglandin inhibitor. No change was noted in sodium excretion or any other parameter. Thus, these findings suggest that prostaglandin inhibition in the conscious dog is associated with a natriuresis without a change in urinary volume or potassium excretion during water diuresis. This may indicate that the natruiresis was due to diminished sodium reabsorption beyond the distal tubule.
Hypoglycemia stimulates immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) secretion and increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. To ascertain if the augmented alpha cell activity evoked by glucopenia is mediated by the adrenergic nervous system, the glucagon response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia of five subjects with neurologically complete cervical transections resulting from trauma, thereby disrupting their hypothalamic sympathetic outflow, was compared to six healthy volunteers. In addition to clinical neurological evaluation, completeness of sympathectomy was verified by failure to raise plasma norepinephrine levels during hypoglycemia compared to the two- and threefold increase observed in controls. Total IRG response (IRG area above basal 0-90 min) and peak IRG levels achieved were the same in the quadriplegics and the controls. Although the glucagon rise tended to be slower, and the peak levels attained occurred later in the quadriplegic patients than in the controls, this response was appropriate for their sugar decline, which was slower and reached the nadir later than in the control subjects. These observations that the glucagon release during insulin-induced hypoglycemia is normal in subjects whose hypothalamic sympathetic outflow has been interrupted provide strong evidence that the sympathetic nervous system does not mediate the glucagon response to hypoglycemia.
Nonsuppressible insulin-like activity soluble in acid ethanol (NSILA-s) is a well-characterized peptide derived from human serum which has previously been shown to have insulin-like bioactivity and react with both insulin and NSILA-s receptor sites in liver plasma membranes. In the present study we find that NSILA-s is also a potent competitive inhibitor of the insulin-degrading system of the liver plasma membrane. The most purified NSILA-s preparation tested was 20-fold more potent than insulin itself, and significant inhibition of insulin degradation occurred at concentrations of NSILA-s similar to those found in plasma.
We tested whether apoprotein B is present in fasting and postprandial human duodenojejunal mucosa because lipoprotein-like particles are visualized by electron microscopy within the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi cisternae of these absorptive cells. Duodenojejunal biopsies from normal volunteers were incubated in citrate buffer and were shaken in 1% EDTA so that absorptive cells could be freed from underlying tissue. Apoprotein B was determined by double-antibody radioimmunoassay in homogenates of absorptive cells. The preparations of absorptive cells were shown to be uncontaminated by plasma lipoproteins; they did not contain any albumin by immunodiffusion able to detect 2 mug/ml. They adsorbed less than 0.1% of 125I-low density lipoprotein which was added to the citrate buffer. Cell preparations from suction biopsies of human rectum contained no detectable apoprotein B. Duodenojejunal absorptive cells from 22 fasting subjects contained 3.2 +/- 0.5 mug of apoprotein B per 100 mg (wet wt) of biopsies or 1.3 mug of apoprotein B per mg of total cell protein. The amount of apoprotein B per milligram of cell protein fell to 0.3 mug in 14 of these individuals whose mucosa was also sampled 45 min after instilling fat intraduodenally. These experiments provide immunochemical evidence that human duodenojejunal absorptive cells contain apoprotein B. This technique should be valuable for studying the physiology of intestinal lipoproteins in absorption and in patients with hyperlipidemia.
Human subjects and rhesus monkeys receiving the antitumor agent methotrexate at the high dose levels recently introduced into clinical use (greater than 50 mg/kg) excrete significant amounts of the metabolite 7-hydroxymethotrexate. The metabolite is not detected in these species after methotrexate therapy at conventional dose levels. The evidence indicates that in primates, the in vivo conversion of methotrexate to 7-hydroxymethotrexate is a dose-dependent phenomenon, with the enzyme system(s) catalyzing the reaction having a low affinity for the drug.
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