AIDS patients who receive zidovudine (AZT) frequently suffer from myopathy. This has been attributed to mitochondrial (mt) damage, and specifically to the loss of mtDNA. This study examines whether AZT causes oxidative damage to DNA in patients and to skeletal muscle mitochondria in mice, and whether this damage may be prevented by supranutritional doses of antioxidant vitamins. Asymptomatic HIV-infected patients treated with AZT have a higher urinary excretion (355+/-100 pmol/kg/d) of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) (a marker of oxidative damage to DNA) than untreated controls (asymptomatic HIV-infected patients) (182+/-29 pmol/kg/d). This was prevented (110+/-79 pmol/kg/d) by simultaneous oral treatment with AZT plus antioxidant vitamins (C and E). Mice treated with AZT also had a significantly higher urinary excretion of 8-oxo-dG than controls. Skeletal muscle mtDNA of mice treated with AZT had more 8-oxo-dG than controls. mt lipoperoxidation was also increased and skeletal muscle glutathione was oxidized. These effects may be due to an increased peroxide production by muscle mitochondria of AZT-treated animals. Dietary supplements with vitamins C and E at supranutritional doses protect against oxidative damage to skeletal muscle mitochondria caused by AZT.
In Liddle's syndrome, a rare inherited form of hypertension, epithelial sodium channel mutations appear to cause high blood pressure by increasing sodium reabsorption through sodium channels in the renal distal tubule. This increase in channel activity has not been confirmed previously by in vivo measurement. We have made transnasal potential difference measurements (effective in detection of increased sodium channel activity in cystic fibrosis) in three brothers with genetically proven Liddle's syndrome, their unaffected sister, and 40 normotensive controls. Maximum potential difference after 2 wk off treatment in the affected brothers was -30.4+/-1.2 mV (values mean+/-SD, lumen-negative with respect to submucosa) and was significantly more lumen-negative than that of the control group (-18.6+/-6.8 mV, P = 0.0228) or the unaffected sister (-18.25 mV, P < 0.01). The change in potential difference after topical application of 10(-)4 M amiloride was greater in the Liddle's patients, 14.0+/-2.1 mV, than in controls (7.9+/-3.9 mV, P = 0.0126) or the unaffected sister (5.5 mV, P < 0.05). This is the first in vivo demonstration of increased sodium channel activity in Liddle's syndrome. If these results are confirmed in other kindreds with this condition, then nasal potential difference measurements could provide a simple clinical test for Liddle's syndrome.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway cells, besides their well-known defect in cAMP-dependent Cl- conductance, are characterized by an enhanced Na+ conductance. In this study we have examined the Na+ conductance in human respiratory tract by measuring transepithelial voltage and resistance (Vte, Rte) and by assessing membrane voltages (Vm) of freshly isolated airway epithelial cells from CF and non-CF patients. Basal amiloride inhibitable (10 micromol/liter) equivalent short circuit current (Isc = Vte/Rte) was significantly increased in CF compared with non-CF tissues. After stimulation by forskolin (10 micromol/liter) a significant depolarization of Vm corresponding to the cAMP-dependent activation of a Cl- conductance was observed in non-CF but not in CF airway cells. In non-CF tissue but not in CF tissue the effects of amiloride and N-methyl-D-glucamine on Vm were attenuated in the presence of forskolin. Also the amiloride-inhibitable Isc was significantly reduced by forskolin (1 micromol/liter) and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX; 100 micromol/liter) only in non-CF tissue. We conclude that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator acts as a downregulator of epithelial Na+ channels in human airways. This downregulation of epithelial Na+ channels is absent in CF airways, leading to hyperabsorption and to the characteristic increase in mucus viscosity.
The intercellular signaling mediated by endothelins and their G protein-coupled receptors has recently been shown to be essential for the normal embryonic development of subsets of neural crest cell derivatives. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is proteolytically generated from its inactive precursor by endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) and acts on the endothelin-A (ETA) receptor. Genetic disruption of this ET-1/ECE-1/ETA pathway results in defects in branchial arch- derived craniofacial tissues, as well as defects in cardiac outflow and great vessel structures, which are derived from cephalic (cardiac) neural crest. In this study, in situ hybridization of ETA-/- and ECE-1(-)/- embryos with a cardiac neural crest marker, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein-1, shows that the migration of neural crest cells from the neural tube to cardiac outflow tract is not affected in these embryos. Immunostaining of an endothelial marker, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule CD-31, shows that the initial formation of the branchial arch arteries is not disturbed in ETA-/- or ECE-1(-)/- embryos. To visualize the subsequent patterning of arch vessels in detail, we generated ETA-/- or ECE-1(-)/- embryos that expressed an SM22alpha-lacZ marker transgene in arterial smooth muscle cells. Wholemount X-gal staining of these mutant embryos reveals that the abnormal regression and persistence of specific arch arteries results in disturbance of asymmetrical remodeling of the arch arteries. These defects include abnormal regression of arch arteries 4 and 6, enlargement of arch artery 3, and abnormal persistence of the bilateral ductus caroticus and right dorsal aorta. These abnormalities eventually lead to various types of great vessel malformations highly similar to those seen in neural crest-ablated chick embryos and human congenital cardiac defects. This study demonstrates that ET-1/ETA-mediated signaling plays an essential role in a complex process of aortic arch patterning by affecting the postmigratory cardiac neural crest cell development.
We report the absence of functional parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptors (PTH/PTHrP receptor) in Blomstrand chondrodysplasia, a genetic disorder characterized by advanced endochondral bone maturation. Analysis of PTH/PTHrP receptor genomic DNA from a patient with Blomstrand chondrodysplasia demonstrated that the patient was heterozygous for a point mutation (G--> A substitution at nucleotide 1176) inherited from the mother. Analysis of PTH/PTHrP receptor cDNA demonstrated that: (a) this point mutation caused the deletion of the first 11 amino acids of exon M5 (encoding the fifth transmembrane domain of the receptor), resulting from the use of a novel splice site created by the base substitution; (b) the mutant receptor was well expressed in COS-7 cells, but did not bind PTH or PTHrP, and failed to induce detectable stimulation of either cAMP or inositol phosphate production in response to these ligands; and (c) the paternal allele was not expressed. Thus, only the abnormal and nonfunctional PTH/PTHrP receptors encoded by the maternal allele were expressed by chondrocytes from this patient. In view of the known role played by the PTH/PTHrP receptor in bone and cartilage development, these results strongly support the conclusion that the absence of functional PTH/ PTHrP receptors is responsible for the skeletal abnormalities seen in Blomstrand chondrodysplasia, abnormalities that are the mirror image of those observed in Jansen's chondrodysplasia. These findings emphasize the importance of signaling through this receptor in human fetal skeletal development.
In rheumatoid arthritis, synovial expression of urokinase (uPA) activity is greatly increased (Busso, N., V. Péclat, A. So, and A. -P. Sappino. 1997. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 56:550- 557). We report the same effect in murine antigen-induced arthritis. uPA-mediated plasminogen activation in arthritic joints may have deleterious effects via degradation of cartilage and bone matrix proteins as well as beneficial effects via fibrin degradation. We evaluated these contrasting effects in vivo by analyzing the phenotype of uPA-deficient (uPA-/-) and control mice during antigen-induced arthritis. Joint inflammation was comparable in both groups up to day 3 and subsequently declined in control mice, remaining significantly elevated in uPA-/- mice on days 10 and 30 after arthritis onset. Likewise, synovial thickness was markedly increased in uPA-deficient mice persisting for up to 2 mo, whereas it subsided in control animals. Bone erosion was exacerbated in uPA-/- mice on day 30. By contrast, no difference in articular cartilage proteoglycan content was found between both groups. Significantly increased accumulation of fibrin was observed by day 30 in arthritic joints of uPA-/- mice. We hypothesized that synovial fibrin deposition plays a role in joint inflammation. Accordingly, defibrinogenation of uPA-/- mice by ancrod significantly decreased the sustained joint inflammation. All the above observations were reproducible in plasminogen-deficient (Pln-/-) mice. In conclusion, synovial fibrin deposition plays a role as a nonimmunological mechanism which sustains chronic arthritis.
We have evaluated the possibility of inducing antibody responses locally in the human stomach as a prerequisite for the development of a vaccine against Helicobacter pylori. Both H. pylori-infected and noninfected subjects were immunized with an oral B subunit whole cell (BS-WC) cholera vaccine, and total and vaccine-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) were determined by the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) technique in cells isolated from the antrum and duodenum, respectively, before and after vaccination. Most of the subjects responded to the vaccination with high frequencies of vaccine-specific ASCs in the duodenum as well as high-serum antibody titers, and no significant differences were seen in the responses between H. pylori- infected and noninfected subjects. When studying the gastric mucosa, on the other hand, there were dramatic differences between the H. pylori-infected and the noninfected subjects. Thus, whereas none of the noninfected subjects responded to the immunization in antrum, most of the H. pylori-infected subjects had high frequencies of vaccine-specific ASCs in this location after vaccination. Furthermore, the H. pylori-infected subjects had strikingly higher (as a mean 80-fold) frequencies of total IgA-secreting cells in antrum than the noninfected subjects, whereas the frequencies of total IgA-secreting cells in the duodenum were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the possibility of inducing antibody responses locally in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected individuals, a finding with obvious implications for the future development of a therapeutic vaccine against H. pylori.
Mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel gene cause autosomal recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Here we report the first patient with an autosomal dominant form of NDI, which is caused by a G866A transition in the AQP2 gene of one allele, resulting in a E258K substitution in the C-tail of AQP2. To define the molecular cause of NDI in this patient, AQP2-E258K was studied in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast to wild-type AQP2, AQP2-E258K conferred a small increase in water permeability, caused by a reduced expression at the plasma membrane. Coexpression of wild-type AQP2 with AQP2-E258K, but not with an AQP2 mutant in recessive NDI (AQP2-R187C), revealed a dominant-negative effect on the water permeability conferred by wild-type AQP2. The physiologically important phosphorylation of S256 by protein kinase A was not affected by the E258K mutation. Immunoblot and microscopic analyses revealed that AQP2-E258K was, in contrast to AQP2 mutants in recessive NDI, not retarded in the endoplasmic reticulum, but retained in the Golgi compartment. Since AQPs are thought to tetramerize, the retention of AQP2-E258K together with wild-type AQP2 in mixed tetramers in the Golgi compartment is a likely explanation for the dominant inheritance of NDI in this patient.
Enhanced formation of superoxide radicals has been proposed to play a major role in the development of nitrate tolerance in humans. We tested the effects of vitamin C (Vit-C) supplementation on glyceroltrinitrate (GTN)-induced hemodynamic effects during 3-d nonintermittent transdermal administration of GTN (0.4 mg/h) in nine healthy subjects. Tolerance development was monitored by changes in arterial pressure, dicrotic digital pulse pressure, and heart rate. Studies with GTN, Vit-C, or GTN/Vit-C were successively carried out at random in three different series in the same subjects. GTN treatment caused an immediate rise in arterial conductivity (a/b ratio of dicrotic pulse), but within 2 d of initiating GTN, the a/b ratio progressively decreased and reached basal levels. In addition, there was a progressive loss of the orthostatic decrease in blood pressure. However, coadministration of Vit-C and GTN fully maintained the GTN-induced changes in the orthostatic blood pressure, and the rise of a/b ratio was augmented by 310% for the duration of the test period. Changes in vascular tolerance in GTN-treated subjects were paralleled by upregulation of the activity of isolated platelets, which was also reversed by Vit-C administration. These findings demonstrate that dietary supplementation with Vit-C eliminates vascular tolerance and concomitant upregulation of ex vivo-washed platelet activity during long-term nonintermittent administration of GTN in humans.
Recently, it has been reported that the protein kinase C (PKC) beta isoform plays a critical role in the development of hypertrophy and heart failure. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the mechanism by which activation of PKCbeta led to depressed cardiac function. Thus, we used a PKCbeta2 overexpressing mouse, an animal model of heart failure, to examine mechanical properties and Ca2+ signals of isolated left ventricular cardiomyocytes. The percentage of shortening, rate of shortening, and rate of relengthening of cardiomyocytes were markedly reduced in PKCbeta2 overexpression mice compared to wild-type control mice, although the baseline level and amplitude of Ca2+ signals were similar. These findings suggested a decreased myofilament responsiveness to Ca2+ in transgenic hearts. Therefore, the incorporation of [32P] inorganic phosphate into cardiac myofibrillar proteins was studied in Langendorff-perfused hearts. There was a significant increase in the degree of phosphorylation of troponin I in PKCbeta2-overexpressing transgenic mice. The depressed cardiomyocyte function improved after the superfusion of a PKCbeta selective inhibitor. These findings indicate that in vivo PKCbeta2-mediated phosphorylation of troponin I may decrease myofilament Ca2+ responsiveness, and thus causes cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Since chronic and excess activation of PKCbeta2 plays a direct and contributory role in the progression of cardiac dysfunction, the PKCbeta selective inhibitor may provide a new therapeutic modality in the setting of heart failure.
Recent insights into the pharmacological control of HIV replication and the molecular mechanisms of peripheral T cells homeostasis allowed us to investigate in vivo the mechanisms mediating T cell depletion in HIV-infected patients. Before the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a high degree of lymphoid tissue apoptosis is present, which is reduced upon HAART initiation (P < 0.001) and directly correlates with reduction of viral load and increases of peripheral T lymphocytes (P < 0.01). Because Fas/FasL interactions play a key role in peripheral T lymphocyte homeostasis, we investigated the susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis in peripheral T lymphocytes and of FasL expression in lymphoid tissue before and during HAART. High levels of Fas-susceptibility found in peripheral CD4 T lymphocytes before HAART were significantly reduced after HAART, coinciding with decreases in viral load (P = 0.018) and increases in peripheral CD4 T lymphocyte counts (P < 0.01). However, the increased FasL expression in the lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected individuals was not reduced after HAART. These results demonstrate that lymphoid tissue apoptosis directly correlates with viral load and peripheral T lymphocyte numbers, and suggest that HIV-induced susceptibility to Fas-dependent apoptosis may play a key role in the regulation of T cell homeostasis in HIV-infected individuals.
Cellular and molecular characterization of osteoclasts (OCL) has been extremely difficult since OCL are rare cells, and are difficult to isolate in large numbers. We used the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase promoter to target the bcl-XL and/or Simian Virus 40 large T antigen (Tag) genes to cells in the OCL lineage in transgenic mice as a means of immortalizing OCL precursors. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed that we had targeted Bcl-XL and/or Tag to OCL, and transformed and mitotic OCL were readily apparent in bones from both Tag and bcl-XL/Tag mice. OCL formation in primary bone marrow cultures from bcl-XL, Tag, or bcl-XL/Tag mice was twofold greater compared with that of nontransgenic littermates. Bone marrow cells from bcl-XL/Tag mice, but not from singly transgenic bcl-XL or Tag mice, have survived in continuous culture for more than a year. These cells form high numbers of bone-resorbing OCL when cultured using standard conditions for inducing OCL formation, with approximately 50% of the mononuclear cells incorporated into OCL. The OCL that form express calcitonin receptors and contract in response to calcitonin. Studies examining the proliferative capacity and the resistance of OCL precursors from these transgenic mice to apoptosis demonstrated that the increased numbers of OCL precursors in marrow from bcl-XL/Tag mice was due to their increased survival rather than an increased proliferative capacity compared with Tag, bcl-XL, or normal mice. Histomorphometric studies of bones from bcl-XL/Tag mice also confirmed that there were increased numbers of OCL precursors (TRAP + mononuclear cells) present in vivo. These data demonstrate that by targeting both bcl-XL and Tag to cells in the OCL lineage, we have immortalized OCL precursors that form bone-resorbing OCL with an efficiency that is 300-500 times greater than that of normal marrow.
The induction of allergen-specific anergy in peripheral T cells represents a key step in specific immunotherapy (SIT). Here we demonstrate that the anergic state results from increased IL-10 production. In bee venom (BV)-SIT the specific proliferative and cytokine responses against the main allergen, the phospholipase A2 (PLA), and T cell epitope-containing PLA peptides were significantly suppressed after 7 d of treatment. Simultaneously, the production of IL-10 increased during BV-SIT. After 28 d of BV-SIT the anergic state was established. Intracytoplasmic cytokine staining of PBMC combined with surface marker detection revealed that IL-10 was produced initially by activated CD4(+)CD25(+), allergen-specific T cells, and followed by B cells and monocytes. Neutralization of IL-10 in PBMC fully reconstituted the specific proliferative and cytokine responses. A similar state of IL-10-associated T cell anergy, as induced in BV-SIT, was found in hyperimmune individuals who recently had received multiple bee stings. The addition of IL-10 to soluble CD40 ligand IL-4-stimulated PBMC or purified B cells inhibited the PLA-specific and total IgE and enhanced the IgG4 formation. Accordingly, increased IL-10 production by SIT causes specific anergy in peripheral T cells, and regulates specific IgE and IgG4 production toward normal IgG4-related immunity.
Protoporphyria is a genetic disorder in which a deficiency of mitochondrial ferrochelatase activity causes accumulation of protoporphyrin that produces severe liver damage in some patients. In this study, mutations of the ferrochelatase gene were examined in eight unrelated patients who had liver transplantation. RNA was prepared from liver and/ or lymphoblasts, and specific reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reactions amplified and sequenced ferrochelatase cDNAs. Products shorter than normal resulted from an exon 3 deletion in three patients, exon 10 deletion in two, exon 2 deletion in one, and deletion of five nucleotides in exon 5 in one. Sequence of normal-size products revealed no other mutations. Western blot showed a reduced quantity of normal-size ferrochelatase protein in protoporphyria liver compared with normal liver (19-51%, mean 32% of normal). Levels of the mitochondrial protein F1-ATPase beta-subunit were not decreased to a similar degree. Liver ferrochelatase activity was reduced more than could be explained by the decrease in ferrochelatase protein (4-20%, mean 9% of normal). These results establish genetic heterogeneity in the most severe phenotype of protoporphyria. However, the gene mutations found share the property of causing a major structural alteration in the ferrochelatase protein.
Administration of IL-11 prevented lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a murine bone marrow transplant (BMT) model (B6 --> B6D2F1) across MHC and minor H antigen barriers (survival at day 50: 90 vs 20%, P < 0.001). Surpisingly, IL-11 administration polarized the donor T cell cytokine responses to host antigen after BMT with a 50% reduction in IFNgamma and IL-2 secretion and a 10-fold increase in IL-4. This polarization of T cell responses was associated with reduced IFNgamma serum levels and decreased IL-12 production in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC). In addition, IL-11 prevented small bowel damage and reduced serum endotoxin levels by 80%. Treatment with IL-11 also reduced TNFalpha serum levels and suppressed TNFalpha secretion by macrophages to LPS stimulation in vitro. IL-11 thus decreased GVHD morbidity and mortality by three mechanisms: (a) polarization of donor T cells; (b) protection of the small bowel; and (c) suppression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNFalpha. We conclude that brief treatment with IL-11 may represent a novel strategy to prevent T cell-mediated inflammatory processes such as GVHD.
Primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP or familial erythrocytosis) is a rare proliferative disorder of erythroid progenitor cells, characterized by elevated erythrocyte mass and hemoglobin concentration, hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to erythropoietin (EPO), and autosomal dominant inheritance or sporadic occurrence. A number of EPO receptor (EPOR) mutations were found in subjects with PFCP; most of these mutations resulted in the truncation of the COOH-terminal of the EPOR protein. We studied a family with autosomal dominant inheritance of PFCP in which four subjects were affected in three generations. We screened the affected individuals for EPOR gene mutations using SSCP analysis and found a C5964G mutation in exon VIII that changes tyrosine codon 426 to a translation termination codon resulting in an EPOR protein truncated by 83 amino acids. The mutant C5964G-EPOR exhibited hypersensitive EPO-dependent proliferation compared to the wild-type EPOR when tested in a murine interleukin-3-dependent myeloid cell line (FDC-P1). We also examined the segregation of the mutation with PFCP in the family and found that a child in the third generation inherited the mutation without having laboratory evidence of polycythemia. Further in vitro analysis of the erythroid progenitor cells of this affected child revealed that the progenitor cells were hypersensitive to EPO (a hallmark of PFCP) suggesting the presence of the disease at the level of progenitor cells. Failure of this child to develop polycythemia suggests the existence of as yet unidentified environmental or genetic factors that may suppress disease development.
To study isoform-specific effects of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in vivo, we generated mice with a human APOE*2 allele in place of the mouse Apoe gene via targeted gene replacement in embryonic stem cells. Mice expressing human apoE2 (2/2) have virtually all the characteristics of type III hyperlipoproteinemia. Their plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels are both twice to three times those in (normolipidemic) mice that are expressing human apoE3 (3/3) made in an identical manner. The 2/2 mice are markedly defective in clearing beta-migrating VLDL particles, and spontaneously develop atherosclerotic plaques, even on a regular diet. An atherogenic diet, high in fat and cholesterol, exacerbates development of atherosclerosis and xanthomas in the 2/2 mice. Thus, comparisons between the 2/2 and 3/3 mice unequivocally demonstrate that a single amino acid difference (Arg158 Cys) in the apoE protein is sufficient to cause type III HLP and spontaneous atherosclerosis in mice.
Platelets, activated by various agonists, produce microparticles (MP) from the plasma membrane, which are released into the extracellular space. Although the mechanism of MP formation has been clarified, their biological importance remains ill defined. We have recently shown that platelet-derived MP influence platelet and endothelial cell function. In this study, we have further examined the mechanism of cellular activation by platelet MP. To address the possibility that they may influence monocyte-endothelial interactions, we used an in vitro assay to examine their effects on the adhesion of monocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Platelet MP increased the adhesion of monocytes to HUVEC in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Maximal adhesion of monocytes to resting HUVEC was observed after 24 h of stimulation with MP. Similar kinetics were observed with U-937 (human promonocytic leukemia) cells, used as a model for the blood-borne monocyte. Maximal adhesion of resting monocytes to MP-stimulated HUVEC was observed after 5 h of stimulation with MP. The EC50s for MP-induced increases in HUVEC, monocyte, and U-937 cell adhesion is 8.74, 43.41, and 10.83 microg/ml of MP protein, respectively. The induction of monocyte-endothelial adhesion was mimicked by arachidonic acid isolated from MP. The observed increased cellular adhesiveness correlated with MP-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules. MP-stimulated HUVEC increased intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but not vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), P-, or E-selectin expression. Monocyte and U-937 lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18) and macrophage antigen-1 (CD11b/ CD18, alpham/beta2) were both upregulated upon MP stimulation, but an increase in p150,95 (CD11c/CD18), very late antigen-1, or ICAM-1 expression was not observed. The functional importance of these changes was demonstrated with blocking antibodies. MP also induced the chemotaxis of U-937 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 4.40 microg/ml of MP protein. Similarly, arachidonic acid isolated from MP mimicked the chemotactic response. A role for PKC was implicated in both adhesion and chemotaxis. GF 109203X, a specific inhibitor of PKC, significantly reduced monocyte-endothelial adhesion, as well as U-937 chemotaxis. The demonstration that platelet MP may modulate important aspects of endothelial and monocyte function provides a novel mechanism by which platelets may interact with such cells in human atherosclerosis and inflammation.
P- and E-selectins are adhesion molecules mediating the first step in leukocyte extravasation. Because their function in leukocyte adhesion is overlapping, we hypothesized that there might be a combined effect of these selectins on the development of atherosclerotic lesions. We bred P- and E-selectin-double-deficient mice onto the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient background (LDLR-/- P/E-/-) and compared lesion development in these mice to that in mice wild type for both selectins (LDLR-/- P/E+/+). After 8 wk on atherogenic diet, the LDLR-/- P/E-/- mice developed fatty streaks in the aortic sinus that were five times smaller than those in LDLR-/- P/E+/+ mice. The density of macrophages in the fatty streaks was comparable between LDLR-/- P/E+/+ and LDLR-/- P/E-/- mice. After 22 wk on the diet, the lesions spread throughout the aorta but this process was delayed in LDLR-/- P/E-/- mice. At 37 wk on diet, the lesions progressed to the fibrous plaque stage in both genotypes. However, the lesions in the aortic sinus in LDLR-/- P/E-/- mice were 40% smaller and less calcified than those of LDLR-/- P/E +/+ mice. Our results suggest that P- and E-selectins together play an important role in both early and advanced stages of atherosclerotic lesion development.
Sexually dimorphic growth hormone (GH) secretory pattern is important in the determination of gender-specific patterns of growth and metabolism in rats. Whether GH secretion in humans is also sexually dimorphic and the neuroendocrine mechanisms governing this potential difference are not fully established. We have compared pulsatile GH secretion profiles in young men and women in the baseline state and during a continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I). During the baseline study, men had large nocturnal GH pulses and relatively small pulses during the rest of the day. In contrast, women had more continuous GH secretion and more frequent GH pulses that were of more uniform size. The infusion of rhIGF-I (10 microg/kg/h) potently suppressed both spontaneous and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)-induced GH secretion in men. In women, however, rhIGF-I had less effect on pulsatile GH secretion and did not suppress the GH response to GHRH. These data demonstrate the existence of sexual dimorphism in the regulatory mechanisms involved in GH secretion in humans. The persistence of GH responses to GHRH in women suggests that negative feedback by IGF-I might be expressed, in part, through suppression of hypothalamic GHRH.
AA stimulates integrin-dependent neutrophil adhesion, a critical early step in acute inflammation. However, neither the signaling pathway(s) of AA-stimulated adhesion, nor whether AA acts directly or through the generation of active metabolites, has been elucidated. Previously, we have observed a tight association between neutrophil Erk activation and homotypic adhesion in response to chemoattractants acting through G protein-linked receptors. We now report a similar association between homotypic adhesion and Erk activation in response to AA. Erk activation was cyclooxygenase independent and required AA metabolism to 5(S)- hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HpETE) via 5-lipoxygenase, but not the further lipoxygenase-dependent metabolism of 5-HpETE to leukotrienes. AA stimulation of Erk was accompanied by Raf-1 activation and was sensitive to inhibitors of Raf-1 and Mek. Whereas activation of Erk by AA was pertussis toxin sensitive, [3H]-AA binding to neutrophils was not saturable, suggesting that an AA metabolite activates a G protein. Consistent with this hypothesis, Erk activation by 5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE; lipoxygenase-independent metabolite of 5-HpETE) was also pertussis toxin sensitive. These data suggest that a 5-lipoxygenase metabolite of AA, e.g., 5-HETE, is released from AA-treated cells to engage a plasma membrane-associated, pertussis toxin-sensitive, G protein-linked receptor, leading to activation of Erk and adhesion via the Raf-1/Mek signal transduction pathway.
Prostacyclin (PGI2) is a key mediator of pulmonary vasodilation in the perinatal period and its synthesis in the pulmonary vasculature increases markedly during late gestation due to enhanced expression of the rate-limiting enzyme cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). The hormone estrogen may play a role in COX-1 upregulation since fetal estrogen levels rise dramatically during late gestation and estrogen enhances PGI2 synthesis in nonpulmonary vascular cells. We therefore studied the direct effects of estrogen on COX-1 expression in ovine fetal pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC). Exposure to estradiol-17beta (E2beta, 10(-)10 to 10(-)6 M) caused a dose-related increase in COX-1 mRNA expression that was evident after 48 h and maximal at 10(-)8 M (fourfold increase). COX-1 mRNA stability was unchanged, suggesting that the upregulation is mediated at the level of transcription. E2beta treatment (10(-)8 M for 48 h) also caused a threefold increase in COX-1 protein expression and a threefold increase in PGI2 synthesis stimulated by bradykinin, the calcium ionophore A23187, or arachidonic acid. The estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780 fully reversed the effects of the hormone on COX-1 protein expression and on arachidonic acid-stimulated PGI2 synthesis, and ER expression was evident in the PAEC by immunoblot analysis. These findings indicate that physiologic levels of estrogen cause upregulation of COX-1 expression and PGI2 synthesis in fetal PAEC via activation of PAEC ER. This process may play a critical role in optimizing the capacity for PGI2-mediated pulmonary vasodilation at birth, and it may also be involved in estrogen responsiveness in other vascular beds.
Adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene transfer to airway epithelia is inefficient because the apical membrane lacks the receptor activity to bind adenovirus fiber protein. Calcium phosphate (CaPi) precipitates have been used to deliver plasmid DNA to cultured cell lines. However, such precipitates are not effective in many primary cultures or in vivo. Here we show that incorporating recombinant adenovirus into a CaPi coprecipitate markedly enhances transgene expression in cells that are resistant to adenovirus infection. Enhancement requires that the virus be contained in the precipitate and viral proteins are required to increase expression. Ad: CaPi coprecipitates increase gene transfer by increasing fiber-independent binding of virus to cells. With differentiated cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia in vitro, a 20-min application of Ad:CaPi coprecipitates that encode CF transmembrane conductance regulator produced as much CF transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- current as a 24-h application of adenovirus alone. We found that Ad:CaPi coprecipitates also increased transgene expression in mouse lung in vivo; importantly, expression was particularly prominent in airway epithelia. These results suggest a new mechanism for gene transfer that may be applicable to a number of different gene transfer applications and could be of value in gene transfer to CF airway epithelia in vivo.
PGE2 exerts potent diuretic and natriuretic effects on the kidney. This action is mediated in part by direct inhibition of collecting duct Na+ absorption via a Ca++-coupled mechanism. These studies examine the role the Ca++-coupled PGE-E EP1 receptor plays in mediating these effects of PGE2 on Na+ transport. Rabbit EP1 receptor cDNA was amplified from rabbit kidney RNA. Nuclease protection assays demonstrated highest expression of EP1 mRNA in kidney, followed by stomach, adrenal, and ileum. In situ hybridization, demonstrated renal expression of EP1 mRNA was exclusively over the collecting duct. In fura-2-loaded microperfused rabbit cortical collecting duct, EP1 active PGE analogs were 10-1, 000-fold more potent in raising intracellular Ca++ than EP2, EP3, or EP4-selective compounds. Two different EP1 antagonists, AH6809 and SC19220, completely blocked the PGE2-stimulated intracellular calcium increase. AH6809 also completely blocked the inhibitory effect of PGE2 on Na+ absorption in microperfused rabbit cortical collecting ducts. These studies suggest that EP1 receptor activation mediates PGE2-dependent inhibition of Na+ absorption in the collecting duct, thereby contributing to its natriuretic effects.
We have shown that osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) (bone morphogenetic protein-7) is responsible for the induction of nephrogenic mesenchyme during embryonic kidney development. Gene knock-out studies showed that OP-1 null mutant mice die of renal failure within the first day of postnatal life. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of recombinant human OP-1 for the treatment of acute renal failure after 60 min bilateral renal artery occlusion in rats. Bioavailability studies in normal rats indicate that approximately 1.4 microg OP-1/ml is available in the circulation 1 min after intravenous administration of 250 microg/kg, which then declines steadily with a half life of 30 min. About 0.5% of the administered OP-1 dose/g tissue is targeted for OP-1 receptors in the kidney. We show that OP-1 preserves kidney function, as determined by reduced blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, and increased survival rate when administered 10 min before or 1 or 16 h after ischemia, and then at 24-h intervals up to 72 h after reperfusion. Histochemical and molecular analyses demonstrate that OP-1: (a) minimizes infarction and cell necrosis, and decreases the number of plugged tubules; (b) suppresses inflammation by downregulating the expression of intercellular adhesive molecule, and prevents the accumulation and activity of neutrophils; (c) maintains the expression of the vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype in pericellular capillaries; and (d) reduces programmed cell death during the recovery. Collectively, these data suggest that OP-1 prevents the loss of kidney function associated with ischemic injury and may provide a basis for the treatment of acute renal failure.
A subset of SLE patients has serologically detectable autoantibodies to the ribosomal P proteins (anti-P). We reported the discovery of covert anti-P antibodies and their masking IgG-inhibitory antibodies in the sera of healthy adults. The aim of this study was to determine if these IgG-inhibitory antibodies are anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Ids). IgG and IgG-depleted fractions of plasma from two healthy adults were assayed for inhibition of anti-P F(ab')2 binding to the ribosomal P proteins in immunoblot. Anti-P antibody activity was completely inhibited by plasma IgG, whereas there was no inhibition by IgG-depleted plasma. IgG-inhibitory antibodies recognized a cross-reactive epitope among anti-P from different SLE patients. Plasma IgG from one healthy adult was depleted of pepsin agglutinators and generic anti-F(ab')2 antibodies by adsorption with an affinity column prepared with normal IgG F(ab')2. Unretained IgG bound exclusively to anti-P F(ab')2 in ELISA. Using four affinity columns, we isolated IgG anti-Ids to anti-P antibodies from four healthy adults. These purified anti-Ids bound to anti-P F(ab')2 from a healthy adult and SLE patients. They did not bind to F(ab')2 fragments prepared from normal IgG or anti-dsDNA. Ribosomal antigens blocked this anti-Id-Id interaction. Purified anti-Ids inhibited the binding of anti-P F(ab')2 from patients to ribosomal P proteins. SLE patients without overt anti-P antibodies also possessed IgG anti-Ids to anti-P antibodies. We conclude that IgG-inhibitory antibodies are anti-Ids to anti-P antibodies, and are directed to public idiotopes on anti-P antibodies. These anti-Ids may be part of an Id network that regulates anti-P antibody expression, and perhaps pathogenicity.
Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), which are the natural ligands of the CC-chemokine receptor CCR5, inhibit replication of MT-2- negative strains of HIV-1 by interfering with the ability of these strains to utilize CCR5 as a coreceptor for entry in CD4(+) cells. The present study investigates the capacity of natural killer (NK) cells isolated from HIV-infected individuals to produce CC-chemokines and to suppress HIV replication in autologous, endogenously infected cells as well as to block entry of MT-2-negative HIV into the CD4(+) T cell line PM-1. NK cells freshly isolated from HIV-infected individuals had a high number of mRNA copies for MIP-1alpha and RANTES. NK cells produced significant amounts of RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta constitutively, in response to stimulation with IL-2 alone and when they were performing their characteristic lytic activity (K562 killing). After CD16 cross-linking and stimulation with IL-2 or IL-15 NK cells produced CC-chemokines to levels comparable to those produced by anti-CD3-stimulated CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, CD16 cross-linked NK cells suppressed (49-97%) viral replication in cocultures of autologous CD8/NK-depleted PBMC to a degree similar to that of PHA or anti-CD3-stimulated CD8(+) T cells. In 50% of patients tested, NK-mediated HIV suppression could be abrogated by neutralizing antibodies to MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES; in contrast, CD8(+) T cell-mediated suppression was not significantly overcome upon neutralization of CC-chemokines. Supernatants derived from cultures of CD16 cross-linked NK cells stimulated with IL-2 or IL-15 dramatically inhibited entry of a MT-2-negative strain of HIV, BaL, in the CD4(+)CCR5(+) PM-1 T cell line. These data suggest that activated NK cells may be an important source of CC-chemokines in vivo and may suppress HIV replication by CC-chemokine-mediated mechanisms in addition to classic NK-mediated lytic mechanisms.
The homeodomain transcription factor insulin promoter factor-1 (IPF-1) is required for development of the pancreas and also mediates glucose-responsive stimulation of insulin gene transcription. Earlier we described a human subject with pancreatic agenesis attributable to homozygosity for a cytosine deletion in codon 63 of the IPF-1 gene (Pro63fsdelC). Pro63fsdelC resulted in the premature truncation of an IPF-1 protein which lacked the homeodomain required for DNA binding and nuclear localization. Subsequently, we linked the heterozygous state of this mutation with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the extended family of the pancreatic agenesis proband. In the course of expressing the mutant IPF-1 protein in eukaryotic cells, we detected a second IPF-1 isoform, recognized by COOH- but not NH2-terminal-specific antisera. This isoform localizes to the nucleus and retains DNA-binding functions. We provide evidence that internal translation initiating at an out-of-frame AUG accounts for the appearance of this protein. The reading frame crosses over to the wild-type IPF-1 reading frame at the site of the point deletion just carboxy proximal to the transactivation domain. Thus, the single mutated allele results in the translation of two IPF-1 isoproteins, one of which consists of the NH2-terminal transactivation domain and is sequestered in the cytoplasm and the second of which contains the COOH-terminal DNA-binding domain, but lacks the transactivation domain. Further, the COOH-terminal mutant IPF-1 isoform does not activate transcription and inhibits the transactivation functions of wild-type IPF-1. This circumstance suggests that the mechanism of diabetes in these individuals may be due not only to reduced gene dosage, but also to a dominant negative inhibition of transcription of the insulin gene and other beta cell-specific genes regulated by the mutant IPF-1.
Viral infections increase vagally mediated reflex bronchoconstriction. Decreased function of inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors on the parasympathetic nerve endings is likely to contribute to increased acetylcholine release. In this study, we used cultured airway parasympathetic neurons to determine the effects of parainfluenza virus and of interferon (IFN)-gamma on acetylcholine release, inhibitory M2 receptor function, and M2 receptor gene expression. In control cultures, electrically stimulated acetylcholine release increased when the inhibitory M2 receptors were blocked using atropine (10(-)5 M) and decreased when these receptors were stimulated using methacholine (10(-)5 M). Acetylcholine release was increased by viral infection and by treatment with IFN-gamma (300 U/ml). In these cells, atropine did not further potentiate, nor did methacholine inhibit, acetylcholine release, suggesting decreased inhibitory M2 receptor function and/or expression. Using a competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method, we demonstrated that M2 receptor gene expression was decreased by more that an order of magnitude both by virus infection and by treatment with IFN. Thus, viral infections may increase vagally mediated bronchoconstriction both by directly inhibiting M2 receptor gene expression and by causing release of IFN-gamma which inhibits M2 receptor gene expression.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disorder mediated by antibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) resulting in a functional nAChR loss. To analyze the molecular mechanisms involved at the muscular target site, we studied the expression of nAChR subunits in muscle biopsy specimens from MG patients. By using quantitative PCR with an internal standard for each subunit, we found that the levels of beta-, delta-, and epsilon-subunit mRNA coding for the adult nAChR were increased in severely affected MG patients, matching our previous data on the alpha-subunit. Messenger levels were highly variable in MG patients but not in controls, pointing to individual factors involved in the regulation of nAChR genes. The fetal subunit (gamma-chain) transcripts were almost undetectable in the extrajunctional region of MG muscle, suggesting that gene regulation in MG differs from that in the denervation model, in which nAChR gamma-subunit mRNA is reexpressed. Nicotinic AChR loss mediated by monoclonal anti-nAChR antibodies in both the TE671 muscle cell line and cultured normal human myotubes induces a similar increase in beta- alphand delta-subunit mRNA levels, suggesting the existence of a new muscular signaling pathway system coupled to nAChR internalization and independent of muscle electrical activity. These data demonstrate the existence of a compensatory mechanism regulating the expression of the genes coding for the adult nAChR in patients with MG.
Copyright © 2014 American Society for Clinical Investigation