Standard abbreviations

Revised January 7, 2011

View PDF version of standard abbreviations

A

A, ampere(s)

Å, angstrom unit(s)

aa, amino acid(s)

Ab, antibody

ABC, ATP-binding cassette

AChR, acetylcholine receptor

ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone

AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

α-SMA, α–smooth muscle actin

ALS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

AMP, adenosine monophosphate (ADP, ATP)

AMPK, AMP kinase

Ang I, angiotensin I (Ang II)

ANOVA, analysis of variance

APC, antigen-presenting cell

apo, apolipoprotein (apoB, apoE)

ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase (AMPase, ADPase)

AU, arbitrary unit(s)

AUC, area under the curve

B

BAC, bacterial artificial chromosome

BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage [fluid]

BBB, blood-brain barrier

β-gal, β-galactosidase

β2m, β2 microglobulin

bFGF, basic FGF

BM, bone marrow

BMI, body mass index

BMP, bone morphogenetic protein

bp, base pairs

BP, blood pressure

bpm, beat(s) per minute

BrdU, bromodeoxyuridine

BSA, bovine serum albumin

BSE, bovine spongiform encephalopathy

BTU, British thermal unit(s)

BW, body weight

C

°C, degrees Celsius

cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cGMP)

CCL, CC chemokine ligand

CCR, CC chemokine receptor

cDNA, complementary DNA

CDP, cytosine diphosphate

C/EBP, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein

CF, cystic fibrosis

CFA, complete Freund's adjuvant

CFC, colony-forming cell

CFSE, carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester

CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

CFU, colony-forming units

ChIP, chromatin immunoprecipitation

CHO, Chinese hamster ovary

Ci, curie(s)

CI, confidence interval

cM, centimorgans

CMP, cytidine monophosphate (CDP, CTP)

CMV, cytomegalovirus

CNRS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique

CNS, central nervous system

CoA, coenzyme A

COX, cyclooxygenase

cpm, count(s) per minute

CSA, colony-stimulating activity

CSF, colony-stimulating factor

Ct, threshold cycle

CT, computed tomography

CTL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte

CXCL, CXC chemokine ligand

CXCR, CXC chemokine receptor

D

d, day(s)

d, density

3D, 3-dimensional

Da, dalton(s)

DAB, 3,3′-diaminobenzidine

DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole

DC, dendritic cell

DEAE, diethylaminoethyl

∆ (delta), change in, change of

DFG, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium

DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide

DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid

dpc, day(s) post coitum

dP/dt, first derivative of pressure measured over time

dP/dV, pressure per unit change in volume

dpm, disintegration(s) per minute

dsDNA, double-stranded DNA

dsRNA, double-stranded RNA

DTT, dithiothreitol

E

E1, embryonic day 1 (E2, E3)

EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

EBV, Epstein-Barr virus

EC, endothelial cell

ECG, electrocardiogram, electrocardiography

ECL, enhanced chemiluminescence

ECM, extracellular matrix

E. coli, Escherichia coli

ED50, 50% effective dose

EDTA, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid

EEG, electroencephalogram

EGF, epidermal growth factor

EGFP, enhanced GFP

EGFR, EGF receptor

EGTA, ethyleneglycol-bis-(β-aminoethylether)-N,N,N,N′-tetraacetic acid

ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EM, electron microscopy

EMSA, electrophoretic mobility shift assay

eNOS, endothelial NOS

ER, endoplasmic reticulum

ERK, extracellular signal–regulated kinase

ES, embryonic stem [cell]

F

°F, degrees Fahrenheit

FACS, fluorescence-activated cell sorting

F-actin, filamentous actin

FasL, Fas ligand

FBS, fetal bovine serum

Fc, crystallizable fragment [of immunoglobulin molecule]

FCS, fetal calf serum

FDA, Food and Drug Administration

FFA, free fatty acid

FGF, fibroblast growth factor

FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization

FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate

Fox, Forkhead box

ft, foot, feet

G

g, gram(s)

g, units of gravity

GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid

GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GC, germinal center

G-CSF, granulocyte CSF

GFP, green fluorescent protein

GFR, glomerular filtration rate

GLUT, glucose transporter

GM-CFU, granulocyte-macrophage CFU

GM-CSA, granulocyte-macrophage CSA

GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage CSF

gmol–1, molar mass

GMP, guanosine monophosphate (GDP, GTP)

GPCR, G protein–coupled receptor

Gy, gray(s)

H

h, hour(s)

HA, hemagglutinin

HBSS, Hank's balanced salt solution

HCV, hepatitis C virus (HAV, HBV, HDV)

HDL, high-density lipoprotein

H&E, hematoxylin and eosin

HEPES, N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N′-2-ethanesulfonic acid

HGF, hepatocyte growth factor

HIF, hypoxia-inducible factor

HIV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1, HIV-2)

HLA, human leukocyte antigen

HMG, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl

HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography

HRP, horseradish peroxidase

HSA, human serum albumin

HSC, hematopoietic stem cell

hsp, heat shock protein

HUVEC, human umbilical vein endothelial cell

I

i, electric current

IACUC, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

IB, immunoblot

IC50, 50% inhibitory concentration

ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule

ICOS, inducible costimulatory molecule

i.c.v., intracerebroventricular(ly)

ID50, 50% infective dose

IDDM, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

IDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein

IFN, interferon

Ig, immunoglobulin (IgE, IgG)

IGF, insulin-like growth factor

IκB, inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBα, IκBβ)

IL, interleukin (IL-12)

i.m., intramuscular(ly)

i.n., intranasal(ly)

in., inch(es)

iNOS, inducible NOS

INSERM, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale

i.p., intraperitoneal(ly)

IP, immunoprecipitate, immunoprecipitated, immunoprecipitation

iPS, induced pluripotent stem [cell]

IR, insulin receptor

IRB, institutional review board

IRS, IR substrate

IU, international unit(s)

i.v., intravenous(ly)

J

JAK, Janus kinase

JNK, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase

K

°K, degrees Kelvin

kb, kilobases

kcal, kilocalorie(s)

KD, dissociation constant

kDa, kilodalton(s)

KI, inhibition constant

Km, Michaelis-Menten constant

KO, knockout

L

l, liter(s)

LD50, 50% lethal dose

LDL, low-density lipoprotein

LN, lymph node

lod, log odds ratio

LPS, lipopolysaccharide

LUC, luciferase

LV, left ventricle, left ventricular

M

m, meter(s)

M, molar

mAb, monoclonal Ab

MALDI, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization

MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase

Mb, megabase

M-CSF, macrophage CSF

MD, muscular dystrophy

2-ME, 2-mercaptoethanol

MEK, MAPK kinase

MEM, Eagle minimal essential medium

mEq, milliequivalent

MFI, mean fluorescence intensity

MHC, major histocompatibility complex

min, minute(s)

mmHg, millimeter(s) of mercury

MMP, matrix metalloproteinase

mo, month(s)

MOI, multiplicities of infection

mol, mole(s)

MOPS, 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid

Mr, relative molecular mass

MRI, magnetic resonance imaging

mRNA, messenger RNA

ms, millisecond(s)

MS, multiple sclerosis

mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin

MW, molecular weight

N

n, number in group

N, normal [solution]

N, total sample size

NA, not applicable

NAD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADH, reduced NAD

NADPH, reduced NAD phosphate

NF-κB, nuclear factor κB

NIDDK, National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases

NIDDM, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

NIH, National Institutes of Health

NK, natural killer

NKT, natural killer T [cell]

NMDA, N-methyl-d-aspartate

NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance

no., number

NO, nitric oxide

NOD, nonobese diabetic

NOR, nonobese resistant

NOS, NO synthase

NP-40, Nonidet P-40

NS, not significant

NSAID, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug

nt, nucleotide(s)

O

OCT, optimal cutting temperature [compound]

OD, optical density

ORF, open reading frame

osm, osmole(s)

OVA, ovalbumin

P

P, phosphate (PO4)

P, probability

P1, postnatal day (P1, P2, P3)

PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

PAR, protease-activated receptor

PAS, periodic acid–Schiff

PBL, peripheral blood leukocyte

PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell

PBS, phosphate-buffered saline

PCR, polymerase chain reaction

PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor

PDGFR, PDGF receptor

PE, phycoerythrin

PECAM, platelet–endothelial cell adhesion molecule

PET, positron emission tomography

PFA, paraformaldehyde

PFU, plaque-forming unit(s)

pg, picogram(s)

PG, prostaglandin

pH, hydrogen ion concentration

pI, isoelectric point

PI3K, phosphatidylinositol-3′-kinase

PIPES, piperazine-N,N′-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid)

PKC, protein kinase C (PKA, PKB)

PLC, phospholipase C

PMA, phorbol myristate acetate

PMSF, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride

PPAR, peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPARγ)

psi, pound(s) per square inch

PVDF, polyvinylidene diflouride

R

r, correlation coefficient

RA, rheumatoid arthritis

rad, radiation-absorbed dose

RAG, recombination-activating gene

RANK, receptor activator of NF-κB

RANKL, RANK ligand

RANTES, regulated on activation, T cell expressed, and secreted

rbc, red blood cell(s)

RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism

RIA, radioimmunoassay

RLU, relative light unit(s)

RNA, ribonucleic acid

RNAi, RNA interference

ROS, reactive oxygen species

rpm, revolution(s) per minute

RPMI, Roswell Park Memorial Institute [medium]

rRNA, ribosomal RNA

RT, reverse transcriptase

RU, resonance unit(s)

RV, right ventricle, right ventricular

S

s, second(s)

SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome

s.c., subcutaneous(ly)

SCF, stem cell factor

SCID, severe combined immunodeficiency disease

SD, standard deviation

SDS, sodium dodecylsulfate

SEM, standard error of the mean

SH2, Src homology 2

shRNA, short hairpin RNA

siRNA, small, interfering RNA

SIV, simian immunodeficiency virus

SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus

SMA, smooth muscle actin

SMC, smooth muscle cell

SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism

SOCS, suppressor of cytokine signaling

SOD, superoxide dismutase

SREBP, sterol regulatory element–binding protein

SSC, standard saline citrate

STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription

T

t, time

t1/2, half-life

TBS, triethanolamine-buffered saline

TCA, tricarboxylic acid

TCR, T cell receptor

Tg, transgene, transgenic

TGase, transglutaminase

TGF, transforming growth factor

Th, T helper [cell] (Th1, Th2)

TLC, thin-layer chromatography

TLR, Toll-like receptor

TNF, tumor necrosis factor

TOF, time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF)

TPA, tissue plasminogen activator

Treg, regulatory T cell

Tris, tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane

TRITC, tetrarhodamine isothiocyanate

TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling

TXA, thromboxane A

U

U, unit(s)

UCD, University of California, Davis

UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles

UCSD, University of California, San Diego

UCSF, University of California, San Francisco

UMP, uridine monophosphate (UDP, UTP)

UV, ultraviolet

V

V, volt(s)

VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule

VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor

VEGFR, VEGF receptor

VLDL, very low-density lipoprotein

Vmax, maximum velocity

vol, volume

VSMC, vascular smooth muscle cell

vWF, von Willebrand factor

W

W, watt(s) [voltampere(s)]

wbc, white blood cell(s)

WHO, World Health Organization

wk, week(s)

wt, weight

WT, wild-type

Y

yr, year(s)

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