Joshua P. Thaler, Chun-Xia Yi, Ellen A. Schur, Stephan J. Guyenet, Bang H. Hwang, Marcelo O. Dietrich, Xiaolin Zhao, David A. Sarruf, Vitaly Izgur, Kenneth R. Maravilla, Hong T. Nguyen, Jonathan D. Fischer, Miles E. Matsen, Brent E. Wisse, Gregory J. Morton, Tamas L. Horvath, Denis G. Baskin, Matthias H. Tschöp, Michael W. Schwartz
Time course of hypothalamic inflammation after the onset of HFD feeding.
(A and B) Quantification of mRNA encoding proinflammatory cytokines (Il1b, Il6, Tnfa) and NF-κB pathway genes (Nfkbia, Ikbkb) in (A) hypothalamus and (B) liver of rats fed either standard chow (white bars) or HFD (gray bars) for 20 weeks (n = 6/group). *P < 0.05 versus chow-fed controls. (C–E) Effect of 4 weeks of HFD feeding (gray bars) on proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in rat (C) hypothalamus, (D) liver, and (E) white adipose tissue compared with that in chow-fed controls (white bars) (n = 6/group). *P < 0.05 versus chow-fed controls. (F) Total weight gain (black bars), fat mass gain (white bars), and (G) average (avg) daily food intake (kcal/d) of rats (n = 6/group) fed chow for 2 weeks or HFD for up to 28 days. *P < 0.05 versus chow-fed controls. (H) Comparison of daily food intake (kcal) in rats (n = 6/group) fed chow (gray) or HFD (black) for 14 days. *P < 0.05 versus chow-fed controls. (I) Time course of induction of mRNA encoding inflammatory mediators, including proinflammatory cytokine (Il1b, Il6, Tnfa), cytokine pathway (Socs3), and NF-κB pathway (Nfkbia, Ikbkb, Ikbke) gene expression in the hypothalamus of rats fed chow or HFD for up to 28 days (n = 6/group). All mRNA species were quantified relative to 18S and Gapdh housekeeping gene expression (by ΔΔCT method) and presented as fold change relative to chow-fed controls [fold chow]. The dashed line in I represents the level of expression equal to chow-fed controls. *P < 0.05 versus chow.