Proposed mechanisms underlying the differential effects of fructose and glucose consumption.
Hepatic glucose metabolism is regulated by phosphofructokinase, which is inhibited by ATP and citrate when energy status is high, thus limiting hepatic uptake of dietary glucose and production of DNL substrates. The hepatic metabolism of dietary fructose is independent of energy status, resulting in unregulated hepatic fructose uptake and increased lipogenesis. The resulting increased hepatic lipid decreases apoB degradation and increases production/secretion of VLDL-TG, mainly as TG-rich VLDL1 (
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