Mammalian renal proximal tubules reabsorb large amounts of chloride. Mechanisms of the transcellular chloride transport are poorly understood. To determine whether KCl co-transport exists in the basolateral membrane of mammalian renal proximal tubule, isolated rabbit proximal straight tubules (S2 segment) were perfused in vitro, and intracellular activities of potassium and chloride (aKi, aCli) were measured by double-barreled ion-selective microelectrodes. aCli did not change when basolateral membrane voltage was altered by application of a direct current through perfusion pipette. aCli changes in response to bath chloride elimination were not affected by current application as well, indicating that the basolateral chloride transport is electroneutral. An increase in potassium concentration of the bath fluid from 5 to 20 mM reversibly increased aCli by 10 mM. This response of aCli to a change in the bath potassium concentration was also observed when luminal chloride was removed, or ambient sodium was totally removed. aKi significantly decreased by 5 mM when chloride was removed from the bath. These data demonstrate the existence of an electroneutral Na+-independent KCl co-transport in the basolateral membrane of the rabbit proximal tubule. Calculated electrochemical driving force was favorable for the movement of KCl from the cell to the peritubular fluid.