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BACKGROUND The heterogeneity of tinnitus is thought to underlie the lack of objective diagnostic measures.METHODS Longitudinal data from 20,349 participants of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) cohort from 2008 to 2018 were used to understand the dynamics of transition between occasional and constant tinnitus. The second part of the study included electrophysiological data from 405 participants of the Swedish Tinnitus Outreach Project (STOP) cohort.RESULTS We determined that with increasing frequency of the occasional perception of self-reported tinnitus, the odds of reporting constant tinnitus after 2 years increases from 5.62 (95% CI, 4.83–6.55) for previous tinnitus (sometimes) to 29.74 (4.82–6.55) for previous tinnitus (often). When previous tinnitus was reported to be constant, the odds of reporting it as constant after 2 years rose to 603.02 (524.74–692.98), suggesting that once transitioned to constant tinnitus, the likelihood of tinnitus to persist was much greater. Auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) from subjects reporting nontinnitus (controls), occasional tinnitus, and constant tinnitus show that wave V latency increased in constant tinnitus when compared with occasional tinnitus or nontinnitus. The ABR from occasional tinnitus was indistinguishable from that of the nontinnitus controls.CONCLUSIONS Our results support the hypothesis that the transition from occasional to constant tinnitus is accompanied by neuronal changes in the midbrain leading to a persisting tinnitus, which is then less likely to remit.FUNDING This study was supported by the GENDER-Net Co-Plus Fund (GNP-182), the European Union’s Horizon 2020 grants no. 848261 (Unification of Treatments and Interventions for Tinnitus [UNITI]) and no. 722046 (European School for Interdisciplinary Tinnitus Research [ESIT]).
Niklas K. Edvall, Golbarg Mehraei, Martin Claeson, Andra Lazar, Jan Bulla, Constanze Leineweber, Inger Uhlén, Barbara Canlon, Christopher R. Cederroth
Total views: 20501
Background We report updated safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) from an ongoing phase 3 trial.Methods Adults at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection were randomized (2:1), stratified by age, to receive 2 doses of AZD1222 or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was confirmed SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase PCR–positive (RT-PCR–positive) symptomatic COVID-19 at 15 or more days after a second dose in baseline SARS-CoV-2–seronegative participants. The 21,634 and 10,816 participants were randomized to AZD1222 and placebo, respectively.Findings Data cutoff for this analysis was July 30, 2021; median follow-up from second dose was 78 and 71 days for the double-blind period (censoring at unblinding or nonstudy COVID-19 vaccination) and 201 and 82 days for the period to nonstudy COVID-19 vaccination (regardless of unblinding) in the AZD1222 and placebo groups, respectively. For the primary efficacy end point in the double-blind period (141 and 184 events; incidence rates: 39.2 and 118.8 per 1,000 person years), vaccine efficacy was 67.0% (P < 0.001). In the period to nonstudy COVID-19 vaccination, incidence of events remained consistently low and stable through 6 months in the AZD1222 group; for the primary efficacy end point (328 and 219 events; incidence rates: 36.4, 108.4) and severe/critical disease (5 and 13 events; incidence rates: 0.6, 6.4), respective vaccine efficacy estimates were 65.1% and 92.1%. AZD1222 elicited humoral immune responses over time, with waning at day 180. No emergent safety issues were seen.Conclusion AZD1222 is safe and well tolerated, demonstrating durable protection and immunogenicity with median follow-up (AZD1222 group) of 6 months.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04516746.Funding AstraZeneca; US government.
Magdalena E. Sobieszczyk, Jill Maaske, Ann R. Falsey, Stephanie Sproule, Merlin L. Robb, Robert W. Frenck Jr., Hong-Van Tieu, Kenneth H. Mayer, Lawrence Corey, Kathleen M. Neuzil, Tina Tong, Margaret Brewinski Isaacs, Holly Janes, Himanshu Bansal, Lindsay M. Edwards, Justin A. Green, Elizabeth J. Kelly, Kathryn Shoemaker, Therese Takas, Tom White, Prakash Bhuyan, Tonya Villafana, and Ian Hirsch, on behalf of the AstraZeneca AZD1222 Clinical Study Group
Total views: 6846
Mitohormesis defines the increase in fitness mediated by adaptive responses to mild mitochondrial stress. Tetracyclines inhibit not only bacterial but also mitochondrial translation, thus imposing a low level of mitochondrial stress on eukaryotic cells. We demonstrate in cell and germ-free mouse models that tetracyclines induce a mild adaptive mitochondrial stress response (MSR), involving both the ATF4-mediated integrative stress response and type I interferon (IFN) signaling. To overcome the interferences of tetracyclines with the host microbiome, we identify tetracycline derivatives that have minimal antimicrobial activity, yet retain full capacity to induce the MSR, such as the lead compound, 9-tert-butyl doxycycline (9-TB). The MSR induced by doxycycline (Dox) and 9-TB improves survival and disease tolerance against lethal influenza virus (IFV) infection when given preventively. 9-TB, unlike Dox, did not affect the gut microbiome and also showed encouraging results against IFV when given in a therapeutic setting. Tolerance to IFV infection is associated with the induction of genes involved in lung epithelial cell and cilia function, and with downregulation of inflammatory and immune gene sets in lungs, liver, and kidneys. Mitohormesis induced by non-antimicrobial tetracyclines and the ensuing IFN response may dampen excessive inflammation and tissue damage during viral infections, opening innovative therapeutic avenues.
Adrienne Mottis, Terytty Y. Li, Gaby El Alam, Alexis Rapin, Elena Katsyuba, David Liaskos, Davide D’Amico, Nicola L. Harris, Mark C. Grier, Laurent Mouchiroud, Mark L. Nelson, Johan Auwerx
Total views: 2752
Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a major neurotoxicity affecting more than 50% of cancer survivors. The underpinning mechanisms are mostly unknown, and there are no FDA-approved interventions. Sphingolipidomic analysis of mouse prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, key sites of cognitive function, revealed that cisplatin increased levels of the potent signaling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and led to cognitive impairment. At the biochemical level, S1P induced mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain–containing protein 3 inflammasomes, and increased IL-1β formation. These events were attenuated by systemic administration of the functional S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) antagonist FTY720, which also attenuated cognitive impairment without adversely affecting locomotor activity. Similar attenuation was observed with ozanimod, another FDA-approved functional S1PR1 antagonist. Mice with astrocyte-specific deletion of S1pr1 lost their ability to respond to FTY720, implicating involvement of astrocytic S1PR1. Remarkably, our pharmacological and genetic approaches, coupled with computational modeling studies, revealed that cisplatin increased S1P production by activating TLR4. Collectively, our results identify the molecular mechanisms engaged by the S1P/S1PR1 axis in CRCI and establish S1PR1 antagonism as an approach to target CRCI with therapeutics that have fast-track clinical application.
Silvia Squillace, Michael L. Niehoff, Timothy M. Doyle, Michael Green, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Christopher K. Arnatt, Sarah Spiegel, Susan A. Farr, Daniela Salvemini
Total views: 2551
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are age-related myeloid neoplasms with increased risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The mechanisms of transformation of MDS to AML are poorly understood, especially in relation to the aging microenvironment. We previously established an mDia1/miR-146a double knockout (DKO) mouse model phenocopying MDS. These mice develop age-related pancytopenia with oversecretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we found that most of the DKO mice underwent leukemic transformation at 12–14 months of age. These mice showed myeloblast replacement of fibrotic bone marrow and widespread leukemic infiltration. Strikingly, depletion of IL-6 in these mice largely rescued the leukemic transformation and markedly extended survival. Single-cell RNA sequencing analyses revealed that DKO leukemic mice had increased monocytic blasts that were reduced with IL-6 knockout. We further revealed that the levels of surface and soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) in the bone marrow were significantly increased in high-risk MDS patients. Similarly, IL-6R was also highly expressed in older DKO mice. Blocking of IL-6 signaling significantly ameliorated AML progression in the DKO model and clonogenicity of CD34-positive cells from MDS patients. Our study establishes a mouse model of progression of age-related MDS to AML and indicates the clinical significance of targeting IL-6 signaling in treating high-risk MDS.
Yang Mei, Kehan Ren, Yijie Liu, Annabel Ma, Zongjun Xia, Xu Han, Ermin Li, Hamza Tariq, Haiyan Bao, Xinshu Xie, Cheng Zou, Dingxiao Zhang, Zhaofeng Li, Lili Dong, Amit Verma, Xinyan Lu, Yasmin Abaza, Jessica K. Altman, Madina Sukhanova, Jing Yang, Peng Ji
Total views: 2225
The in vivo persistence of adoptively transferred T cells is predictive of antitumor response. Identifying functional properties of infused T cells that lead to in vivo persistence and tumor eradication has remained elusive. We profiled CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells as the infusion products used to treat large B cell lymphomas using high-throughput single-cell technologies based on time-lapse imaging microscopy in nanowell grids (TIMING), which integrates killing, cytokine secretion, and transcriptional profiling. Our results show that the directional migration of CD19-specific CAR T cells is correlated with multifunctionality. We showed that CD2 on T cells is associated with directional migration and that the interaction between CD2 on T cells and CD58 on lymphoma cells accelerates killing and serial killing. Consistent with this, we observed that elevated CD58 expression on pretreatment tumor samples in patients with relapsed or refractory large B cell lymphomas treated with CD19-specific CAR T cell therapy was associated with complete clinical response and survival. These results highlight the importance of studying dynamic T cell–tumor cell interactions in identifying optimal antitumor responses.
Gabrielle Romain, Paolo Strati, Ali Rezvan, Mohsen Fathi, Irfan N. Bandey, Jay R T. Adolacion, Darren Heeke, Ivan Liadi, Mario L. Marques-Piubelli, Luisa M. Solis, Ankit Mahendra, Francisco Vega, Laurence J.N. Cooper, Harjeet Singh, Mike Mattie, Adrian Bot, Sattva S. Neelapu, Navin Varadarajan
Total views: 2221
In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), combination therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) aim to improve the achievement of deep molecular remission that would allow therapy discontinuation. IFN-α is one promising candidate, as it has long-lasting effects on both malignant and immune cells. In connection with a multicenter clinical trial combining dasatinib with IFN-α in 40 patients with chronic-phase CML (NordCML007, NCT01725204), we performed immune monitoring with single-cell RNA and T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing (n = 4, 12 samples), bulk TCRβ sequencing (n = 13, 26 samples), flow cytometry (n = 40, 106 samples), cytokine analyses (n = 17, 80 samples), and ex vivo functional studies (n = 39, 80 samples). Dasatinib drove the immune repertoire toward terminally differentiated NK and CD8+ T cells with dampened functional capabilities. Patients with dasatinib-associated pleural effusions had increased numbers of CD8+ recently activated effector memory T (Temra) cells. In vitro, dasatinib prevented CD3-induced cell death by blocking TCR signaling. The addition of IFN-α reversed the terminally differentiated phenotypes and increased the number of costimulatory intercellular interactions and the number of unique putative epitope-specific TCR clusters. In vitro IFN-α had costimulatory effects on TCR signaling. Our work supports the combination of IFN-α with TKI therapy, as IFN-α broadens the immune repertoire and restores immunological function.
Jani Huuhtanen, Mette Ilander, Bhagwan Yadav, Olli M.J. Dufva, Hanna Lähteenmäki, Tiina Kasanen, Jay Klievink, Ulla Olsson-Strömberg, Jesper Stentoft, Johan Richter, Perttu Koskenvesa, Martin Höglund, Stina Söderlund, Arta Dreimane, Kimmo Porkka, Tobias Gedde-Dahl, Björn T. Gjertsen, Leif Stenke, Kristina Myhr-Eriksson, Berit Markevärn, Anna Lübking, Andreja Dimitrijevic, Lene Udby, Ole Weis Bjerrum, Henrik Hjorth-Hansen, Satu Mustjoki
Total views: 2046
Respiratory viruses such as influenza do not typically cause viremia; however, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in the blood of COVID-19 patients with mild and severe symptoms. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in blood raises questions about its role in pathogenesis as well as transfusion safety concerns. Blood donor reports of symptoms or a diagnosis of COVID-19 after donation (post-donation information, PDI) preceded or coincided with increased general population COVID-19 mortality. Plasma samples from 2,250 blood donors who reported possible COVID-19–related PDI were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Detection of RNAemia peaked at 9%–15% of PDI donors in late 2020 to early 2021 and fell to approximately 4% after implementation of widespread vaccination in the population. RNAemic donors were 1.2- to 1.4-fold more likely to report cough or shortness of breath and 1.8-fold more likely to report change in taste or smell compared with infected donors without detectable RNAemia. No infectious virus was detected in plasma from RNAemic donors; inoculation of permissive cell lines produced less than 0.7–7 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL and in susceptible mice less than 100 PFU/mL in RNA-positive plasma based on limits of detection in these models. These findings suggest that blood transfusions are highly unlikely to transmit SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Paula Saá, Rebecca V. Fink, Sonia Bakkour, Jing Jin, Graham Simmons, Marcus O. Muench, Hina Dawar, Clara Di Germanio, Alvin J. Hui, David J. Wright, David E. Krysztof, Steven H. Kleinman, Angela Cheung, Theresa Nester, Debra A. Kessler, Rebecca L. Townsend, Bryan R. Spencer, Hany Kamel, Jacquelyn M. Vannoy, Honey Dave, Michael P. Busch, Susan L. Stramer, Mars Stone, Rachael P. Jackman, Philip J. Norris, for the NHLBI Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-IV-Pediatric (REDS-IV-P)
Total views: 1971
Epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts uniquely express ERN2/IRE1β, a paralogue of the most evolutionarily conserved endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, ERN1/IRE1α. How ERN2 functions at the host-environment interface and why a second paralogue evolved remain incompletely understood. Using conventionally raised and germ-free Ern2–/– mice, we found that ERN2 was required for microbiota-induced goblet cell maturation and mucus barrier assembly in the colon. This occurred only after colonization of the alimentary tract with normal gut microflora, which induced Ern2 expression. ERN2 acted by splicing Xbp1 mRNA to expand ER function and prevent ER stress in goblet cells. Although ERN1 can also splice Xbp1 mRNA, it did not act redundantly to ERN2 in this context. By regulating assembly of the colon mucus layer, ERN2 further shaped the composition of the gut microbiota. Mice lacking Ern2 had a dysbiotic microbial community that failed to induce goblet cell development and increased susceptibility to colitis when transferred into germ-free WT mice. These results show that ERN2 evolved at mucosal surfaces to mediate crosstalk between gut microbes and the colonic epithelium required for normal homeostasis and host defense.
Michael J. Grey, Heidi De Luca, Doyle V. Ward, Irini A.M. Kreulen, Katlynn Bugda Gwilt, Sage E. Foley, Jay R. Thiagarajah, Beth A. McCormick, Jerrold R. Turner, Wayne I. Lencer
Total views: 1800
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by widespread pain and tenderness, and patients typically experience fatigue and emotional distress. The etiology and pathophysiology of fibromyalgia are not fully explained and there are no effective drug treatments. Here we show that IgG from FMS patients produced sensory hypersensitivity by sensitizing nociceptive neurons. Mice treated with IgG from FMS patients displayed increased sensitivity to noxious mechanical and cold stimulation, and nociceptive fibers in skin-nerve preparations from mice treated with FMS IgG displayed an increased responsiveness to cold and mechanical stimulation. These mice also displayed reduced locomotor activity, reduced paw grip strength, and a loss of intraepidermal innervation. In contrast, transfer of IgG-depleted serum from FMS patients or IgG from healthy control subjects had no effect. Patient IgG did not activate naive sensory neurons directly. IgG from FMS patients labeled satellite glial cells and neurons in vivo and in vitro, as well as myelinated fiber tracts and a small number of macrophages and endothelial cells in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG), but no cells in the spinal cord. Furthermore, FMS IgG bound to human DRG. Our results demonstrate that IgG from FMS patients produces painful sensory hypersensitivities by sensitizing peripheral nociceptive afferents and suggest that therapies reducing patient IgG titers may be effective for fibromyalgia.
Andreas Goebel, Emerson Krock, Clive Gentry, Mathilde R. Israel, Alexandra Jurczak, Carlos Morado Urbina, Katalin Sandor, Nisha Vastani, Margot Maurer, Ulku Cuhadar, Serena Sensi, Yuki Nomura, Joana Menezes, Azar Baharpoor, Louisa Brieskorn, Angelica Sandström, Jeanette Tour, Diana Kadetoff, Lisbet Haglund, Eva Kosek, Stuart Bevan, Camilla I. Svensson, David A. Andersson
Total views: 1766
SARS-CoV-2–infected individuals may suffer a multi–organ system disorder known as “long COVID” or post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). There are no standard treatments, the pathophysiology is unknown, and incidence varies by clinical phenotype. Acute COVID-19 correlates with biomarkers of systemic inflammation, hypercoagulability, and comorbidities that are less prominent in PASC. Macrovessel thrombosis, a hallmark of acute COVID-19, is less frequent in PASC. Female sex at birth is associated with reduced risk for acute COVID-19 progression, but with increased risk of PASC. Persistent microvascular endotheliopathy associated with cryptic SARS-CoV-2 tissue reservoirs has been implicated in PASC pathology. Autoantibodies, localized inflammation, and reactivation of latent pathogens may also be involved, potentially leading to microvascular thrombosis, as documented in multiple PASC tissues. Diagnostic assays illuminating possible therapeutic targets are discussed.
Jasimuddin Ahamed, Jeffrey Laurence
Total views: 8865
Aging and metabolism are inextricably linked, and many age-related changes in body composition, including increased central adiposity and sarcopenia, have underpinnings in fundamental aging processes. These age-related changes are further exacerbated by a sedentary lifestyle and can be in part prevented by maintenance of activity with aging. Here we explore the age-related changes seen in individual metabolic tissues — adipose, muscle, and liver — as well as globally in older adults. We also discuss the available evidence for therapeutic interventions such as caloric restriction, resistance training, and senolytic and senomorphic drugs to maintain healthy metabolism with aging, focusing on data from human studies.
Allyson K. Palmer, Michael D. Jensen
Total views: 2723
Hematopoietic stem cells, regulated by their microenvironment (or “niche”), sustain the production of mature blood and immune cells. Leukemia cells remodel the microenvironment to enhance their survival, which is accompanied by the loss of support for normal hematopoiesis in hematologic malignancies. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication in physiological and pathological conditions, and deciphering their functions in cell-cell interactions in the ecosystem can highlight potential therapeutic targets. In this Review, we illustrate the utility of EVs derived from various cell types, focusing on the biological molecules they contain and the behavioral alterations they can induce in recipient cells. We also discuss the potential for clinical application in hematologic malignancies, including EV-based therapeutic regimens, drug delivery via EVs, and the use of EVs (or their cargoes) as biomarkers.
Guohuan Sun, Quan Gu, Junke Zheng, Hui Cheng, Tao Cheng
Total views: 1578
Germline loss-of-function mutations of the VHL tumor suppressor gene cause von Hippel–Lindau disease, which is associated with an increased risk of hemangioblastomas, clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs), and paragangliomas. This Review describes mechanisms involving the VHL gene product in oxygen sensing, protein degradation, and tumor development and current therapeutic strategies targeting these mechanisms. The VHL gene product is the substrate recognition subunit of a ubiquitin ligase that targets the α subunit of the heterodimeric hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor for proteasomal degradation when oxygen is present. This oxygen dependence stems from the requirement that HIFα be prolyl-hydroxylated on one (or both) of two conserved prolyl residues by members of the EglN (also called PHD) prolyl hydroxylase family. Deregulation of HIF, and particularly HIF2, drives the growth of VHL-defective ccRCCs. Drugs that inhibit the HIF-responsive gene product VEGF are now mainstays of ccRCC treatment. An allosteric HIF2 inhibitor was recently approved for the treatment of ccRCCs arising in the setting of VHL disease and has advanced to phase III testing for sporadic ccRCCs based on promising phase I/II data. Orally available EglN inhibitors are being tested for the treatment of anemia and ischemia. Five of these agents have been approved for the treatment of anemia in the setting of chronic kidney disease in various countries around the world.
William G. Kaelin Jr.
Total views: 1407
Over the course of a human lifespan, genome integrity erodes, leading to an increased abundance of several types of chromatin changes. The abundance of DNA lesions (chemical perturbations to nucleotides) increases with age, as does the number of genomic mutations and transcriptional disruptions caused by replication or transcription of those lesions, respectively. At the epigenetic level, precise DNA methylation patterns degrade, likely causing increasingly stochastic variations in gene expression. Similarly, the tight regulation of histone modifications begins to unravel. The genomic instability caused by these mechanisms allows transposon element reactivation and remobilization, further mutations, gene dysregulation, and cytoplasmic chromatin fragments. This cumulative genomic instability promotes cell signaling events that drive cell fate decisions and extracellular communications known to disrupt tissue homeostasis and regeneration. In this Review, we focus on age-related epigenetic changes and their interactions with age-related genomic changes that instigate these events.
Carolina Soto-Palma, Laura J. Niedernhofer, Christopher D. Faulk, Xiao Dong
Total views: 1243
The extrinsic and autonomic nervous system intricately controls the major functions of the gastrointestinal tract through the enteric nervous system; these include motor, secretory, sensory, storage, and excretory functions. Disorders of the nervous system affecting gastrointestinal tract function manifest primarily as abnormalities in motor (rather than secretory) functions. Common gastrointestinal symptoms in neurologic disorders include sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, constipation, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence. Diseases of the entire neural axis ranging from the cerebral hemispheres to the peripheral autonomic nerves can result in gastrointestinal motility disorders. The most common neurologic diseases affecting gastrointestinal function are stroke, parkinsonism, multiple sclerosis, and diabetic neuropathy. Diagnosis involves identification of the neurologic disease and its distribution, and documentation of segmental gut dysfunction, typically using noninvasive imaging, transit measurements, or intraluminal measurements of pressure activity and coordination of motility. Apart from treatment of the underlying neurologic disease, management focuses on restoration of normal hydration and nutrition and pharmacologic treatment of the gut neuromuscular disorder.
Total views: 1192
Cellular senescence is a hallmark of aging defined by stable exit from the cell cycle in response to cellular damage and stress. Senescent cells (SnCs) can develop a characteristic pathogenic senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that drives secondary senescence and disrupts tissue homeostasis, resulting in loss of tissue repair and regeneration. The use of transgenic mouse models in which SnCs can be genetically ablated has established a key role for SnCs in driving aging and age-related disease. Importantly, senotherapeutics have been developed to pharmacologically eliminate SnCs, termed senolytics, or suppress the SASP and other markers of senescence, termed senomorphics. Based on extensive preclinical studies as well as small clinical trials demonstrating the benefits of senotherapeutics, multiple clinical trials are under way. This Review discusses the role of SnCs in aging and age-related diseases, strategies to target SnCs, approaches to discover and develop senotherapeutics, and preclinical and clinical advances of senolytics.
Lei Zhang, Louise E. Pitcher, Matthew J. Yousefzadeh, Laura J. Niedernhofer, Paul D. Robbins, Yi Zhu
Total views: 1008
Acute COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by diverse clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal respiratory failure, and often associated with varied longer-term sequelae. Over the past 18 months, it has become apparent that inappropriate immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Researchers working at the intersection of COVID-19 and autoimmunity recently gathered at an American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association Noel R. Rose Colloquium to address the current state of knowledge regarding two important questions: Does established autoimmunity predispose to severe COVID-19? And, at the same time, can SARS-CoV-2 infection trigger de novo autoimmunity? Indeed, work to date has demonstrated that 10% to 15% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia exhibit autoantibodies against type I interferons, suggesting that preexisting autoimmunity underlies severe disease in some patients. Other studies have identified functional autoantibodies following infection with SARS-CoV-2, such as those that promote thrombosis or antagonize cytokine signaling. These autoantibodies may arise from a predominantly extrafollicular B cell response that is more prone to generating autoantibody-secreting B cells. This Review highlights the current understanding, evolving concepts, and unanswered questions provided by this unique opportunity to determine mechanisms by which a viral infection can be exacerbated by, and even trigger, autoimmunity. The potential role of autoimmunity in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 is also discussed.
Jason S. Knight, Roberto Caricchio, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Alexis J. Combes, Betty Diamond, Sharon E. Fox, David A. Hanauer, Judith A. James, Yogendra Kanthi, Virginia Ladd, Puja Mehta, Aaron M. Ring, Ignacio Sanz, Carlo Selmi, Russell P. Tracy, Paul J. Utz, Catriona A. Wagner, Julia Y. Wang, William J. McCune
Total views: 966
Macrophages exposed to inflammatory stimuli including LPS undergo metabolic reprogramming to facilitate macrophage effector function. This metabolic reprogramming supports phagocytic function, cytokine release, and ROS production that are critical to protective inflammatory responses. The Krebs cycle is a central metabolic pathway within all mammalian cell types. In activated macrophages, distinct breaks in the Krebs cycle regulate macrophage effector function through the accumulation of several metabolites that were recently shown to have signaling roles in immunity. One metabolite that accumulates in macrophages because of the disturbance in the Krebs cycle is itaconate, which is derived from cis-aconitate by the enzyme cis-aconitate decarboxylase (ACOD1), encoded by immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1). This Review focuses on itaconate’s emergence as a key immunometabolite with diverse roles in immunity and inflammation. These roles include inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (which controls levels of succinate, a metabolite with multiple roles in inflammation), inhibition of glycolysis at multiple levels (which will limit inflammation), activation of the antiinflammatory transcription factors Nrf2 and ATF3, and inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Itaconate and its derivatives have antiinflammatory effects in preclinical models of sepsis, viral infections, psoriasis, gout, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and pulmonary fibrosis, pointing to possible itaconate-based therapeutics for a range of inflammatory diseases. This intriguing metabolite continues to yield fascinating insights into the role of metabolic reprogramming in host defense and inflammation.
Christian G. Peace, Luke A.J. O’Neill
Total views: 793
Mitochondrial dysfunction and cell senescence are hallmarks of aging and are closely interconnected. Mitochondrial dysfunction, operationally defined as a decreased respiratory capacity per mitochondrion together with a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, typically accompanied by increased production of oxygen free radicals, is a cause and a consequence of cellular senescence and figures prominently in multiple feedback loops that induce and maintain the senescent phenotype. Here, we summarize pathways that cause mitochondrial dysfunction in senescence and aging and discuss the major consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction and how these consequences contribute to senescence and aging. We also highlight the potential of senescence-associated mitochondrial dysfunction as an antiaging and antisenescence intervention target, proposing the combination of multiple interventions converging onto mitochondrial dysfunction as novel, potent senolytics.
Satomi Miwa, Sonu Kashyap, Eduardo Chini, Thomas von Zglinicki
Total views: 759