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Cancer immunotherapy targeting the TIGIT/PVR pathway is currently facing challenges. KIR2DL5, a member of the human killer cell, immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family, has recently been identified as another binding partner for PVR. The biology and therapeutic potential of the KIR2DL5/PVR pathway are largely unknown. Here we report that KIR2DL5 was predominantly expressed on human NK cells with mature phenotype and cytolytic function and that it bound to PVR without competition with the other 3 known PVR receptors. The interaction between KIR2DL5 on NK cells and PVR on target cells induced inhibitory synapse formation, whereas new monoclonal antibodies blocking the KIR2DL5-PVR interaction robustly augmented the NK cytotoxicity against PVR+ human tumors. Mechanistically, both intracellular ITIM and ITSM of KIR2DL5 underwent tyrosine phosphorylation after engagement, which was essential for KIR2DL5-mediated NK suppression by recruiting SHP-1 and/or SHP-2. Subsequently, ITIM/SHP-1/SHP-2 and ITSM/SHP-1 downregulated the downstream Vav1/ERK1/2/p90RSK/NF-κB signaling. KIR2DL5+ immune cells infiltrated in various types of PVR+ human cancers. Markedly, the KIR2DL5 blockade reduced tumor growth and improved overall survival across multiple NK cell–based humanized tumor models. Thus, our results revealed functional mechanisms of KIR2DL5-mediated NK cell immune evasion, demonstrated blockade of the KIR2DL5/PVR axis as a therapy for human cancers, and provided an underlying mechanism for the clinical failure of anti-TIGIT therapies.
Xiaoxin Ren, Mou Peng, Peng Xing, Yao Wei, Phillip M. Galbo Jr., Devin Corrigan, Hao Wang, Yingzhen Su, Xiaoshen Dong, Qizhe Sun, Yixian Li, Xiaoyu Zhang, Winfried Edelmann, Deyou Zheng, Xingxing Zang
Total views: 3971
Background Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is an aggressive subtype, the presence of which changes the prognosis and management of metastatic prostate cancer.Methods We performed analytical validation of a Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) multiplex RNA qPCR assay to identify the limit of quantification (LOQ) in cell lines, synthetic cDNA, and patient samples. We next profiled 116 longitudinal samples from a prospectively collected institutional cohort of 17 patients with metastatic prostate cancer (7 NEPC, 10 adenocarcinoma) as well as 265 samples from 139 patients enrolled in 3 adenocarcinoma phase II trials of androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSIs). We assessed a NEPC liquid biomarker via the presence of neuroendocrine markers and the absence of androgen receptor (AR) target genes.Results Using the analytical validation LOQ, liquid biomarker NEPC detection in the longitudinal cohort had a per-sample sensitivity of 51.35% and a specificity of 91.14%. However, when we incorporated the serial information from multiple liquid biopsies per patient, a unique aspect of this study, the per-patient predictions were 100% accurate, with a receiver-operating-curve (ROC) AUC of 1. In the adenocarcinoma ARSI trials, the presence of neuroendocrine markers, even while AR target gene expression was retained, was a strong negative prognostic factor.Conclusion Our analytically validated CTC biomarker can detect NEPC with high diagnostic accuracy when leveraging serial samples that are only feasible using liquid biopsies. Patients with expression of NE genes while retaining AR-target gene expression may indicate the transition to neuroendocrine differentiation, with clinical characteristics consistent with this phenotype.Funding NIH (DP2 OD030734, 1UH2CA260389, R01CA247479, and P30 CA014520), Department of Defense (PC190039 and PC200334), and Prostate Cancer Foundation (Movember Foundation — PCF Challenge Award).
Shuang G. Zhao, Jamie M. Sperger, Jennifer L. Schehr, Rana R. McKay, Hamid Emamekhoo, Anupama Singh, Zachery D. Schultz, Rory M. Bade, Charlotte N. Stahlfeld, Cole S. Gilsdorf, Camila I. Hernandez, Serena K. Wolfe, Richel D. Mayberry, Hannah M. Krause, Matt Bootsma, Kyle T. Helzer, Nicholas Rydzewski, Hamza Bakhtiar, Yue Shi, Grace Blitzer, Christos E. Kyriakopoulos, David Kosoff, Xiao X. Wei, John Floberg, Nan Sethakorn, Marina Sharifi, Paul M. Harari, Wei Huang, Himisha Beltran, Toni K. Choueiri, Howard I. Scher, Dana E. Rathkopf, Susan Halabi, Andrew J. Armstrong, David J. Beebe, Menggang Yu, Kaitlin E. Sundling, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Joshua M. Lang
Total views: 3092
Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug that is widely used in the treatment of various solid cancers. However, its clinical effectiveness is strongly limited by frequent severe adverse effects, in particular nephrotoxicity and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Thus, there is an urgent medical need to identify novel strategies that limit cisplatin-induced toxicity. In the present study, we show that the FDA-approved adenosine A2A receptor antagonist istradefylline (KW6002) protected from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and neuropathic pain in mice with or without tumors. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the antitumoral properties of cisplatin were not altered by istradefylline in tumor-bearing mice and could even be potentiated. Altogether, our results support the use of istradefylline as a valuable preventive approach for the clinical management of patients undergoing cisplatin treatment.
Edmone Dewaeles, Kévin Carvalho, Sandy Fellah, Jaewon Sim, Nihad Boukrout, Raphaelle Caillierez, Hariharan Ramakrishnan, Cynthia Van der Hauwaert, Jhenkruthi Vijaya Shankara, Nathalie Martin, Noura Massri, Agathe Launay, Joseph K. Folger, Clémentine de Schutter, Romain Larrue, Ingrid Loison, Marine Goujon, Matthieu Jung, Stéphanie Le Gras, Victoria Gomez-Murcia, Emilie Faivre, Julie Lemaire, Anne Garat, Nicolas Beauval, Patrice Maboudou, Viviane Gnemmi, Jean-Baptiste Gibier, Luc Buée, Corinne Abbadie, Francois Glowacki, Nicolas Pottier, Michael Perrais, Rodrigo A. Cunha, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte, Geoffroy Laumet, David Blum, Christelle Cauffiez
Total views: 2443
An effective adaptive immune response depends on the organized architecture of secondary lymphoid organs, including the lymph nodes (LNs). While the cellular composition and microanatomy of LNs under steady state are well defined, the impact of chronic tissue inflammation on the structure and function of draining LNs is incompletely understood. Here we showed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection remodeled LN architecture by increasing the number and paracortical translocation of B cells. The formation of paracortical B lymphocyte and CD35+ follicular dendritic cell clusters dispersed CCL21-producing fibroblastic reticular cells and segregated pathogen-containing myeloid cells from antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Depletion of B cells restored the chemokine and lymphoid structure and reduced bacterial burdens in LNs of the chronically infected mice. Importantly, this remodeling process impaired activation of naive CD4+ T cells in response to mycobacterial and unrelated antigens during chronic tuberculosis infection. Our studies reveal a mechanism in the regulation of LN microanatomy during inflammation and identify B cells as a critical element limiting the T cell response to persistent intracellular infection in LNs.
Lina Daniel, Nayan D. Bhattacharyya, Claudio Counoupas, Yi Cai, Xinchun Chen, James A. Triccas, Warwick J. Britton, Carl G. Feng
Total views: 2415
Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children in the USA. Sixteen percent of hemispheric pediatric and young adult HGGs encode Gly34Arg/Val substitutions in the histone H3.3 (H3.3-G34R/V). The mechanisms by which H3.3-G34R/V drive malignancy and therapeutic resistance in pHGGs remain unknown. Using a syngeneic, genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) and human pHGG cells encoding H3.3-G34R, we demonstrate that this mutation led to the downregulation of DNA repair pathways. This resulted in enhanced susceptibility to DNA damage and inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR). We demonstrate that genetic instability resulting from improper DNA repair in G34R-mutant pHGG led to the accumulation of extrachromosomal DNA, which activated the cyclic GMP–AMP synthase/stimulator of IFN genes (cGAS/STING) pathway, inducing the release of immune-stimulatory cytokines. We treated H3.3-G34R pHGG–bearing mice with a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and DNA damage response inhibitors (DDRi) (i.e., the blood-brain barrier–permeable PARP inhibitor pamiparib and the cell-cycle checkpoint CHK1/2 inhibitor AZD7762), and these combinations resulted in long-term survival for approximately 50% of the mice. Moreover, the addition of a STING agonist (diABZl) enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of these treatments. Long-term survivors developed immunological memory, preventing pHGG growth upon rechallenge. These results demonstrate that DDRi and STING agonists in combination with RT induced immune-mediated therapeutic efficacy in G34-mutant pHGG.
Santiago Haase, Kaushik Banerjee, Anzar A. Mujeeb, Carson S. Hartlage, Fernando M. Núñez, Felipe J. Núñez, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Padma Kadiyala, Stephen Carney, Marcus N. Barissi, Ayman W. Taher, Emily K. Brumley, Sarah Thompson, Justin T. Dreyer, Caitlin T. Alindogan, Maria B. Garcia-Fabiani, Andrea Comba, Sriram Venneti, Visweswaran Ravikumar, Carl Koschmann, Ángel M. Carcaboso, Maria Vinci, Arvind Rao, Jennifer S. Yu, Pedro R. Lowenstein, Maria G. Castro
Total views: 2354
The stomach corpus epithelium is organized into anatomical units that consist of glands and pits. Mechanisms that control the cellular organization of corpus glands and enable their recovery upon injury are not well understood. R-spondin 3 (RSPO3) is a WNT-signaling enhancer that regulates stem cell behavior in different organs. Here, we investigated the function of RSPO3 in the corpus during homeostasis, upon chief and/or parietal cell loss, and during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Using organoid culture and conditional mouse models, we demonstrate that RSPO3 is a critical driver of secretory cell differentiation in the corpus gland toward parietal and chief cells, while its absence promoted pit cell differentiation. Acute loss of chief and parietal cells induced by high dose tamoxifen — or merely the depletion of LGR5+ chief cells — caused an upregulation of RSPO3 expression, which was required for the initiation of a coordinated regenerative response via the activation of yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling. This response enabled a rapid recovery of the injured secretory gland cells. However, in the context of chronic H. pylori infection, the R-spondin–driven regeneration was maintained long term, promoting severe glandular hyperproliferation and the development of premalignant metaplasia.
Anne-Sophie Fischer, Stefanie Müllerke, Alexander Arnold, Julian Heuberger, Hilmar Berger, Manqiang Lin, Hans-Joachim Mollenkopf, Jonas Wizenty, David Horst, Frank Tacke, Michael Sigal
Total views: 2344
BACKGROUND A pilot, single-center study showed that first-degree relatives of probands with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) cirrhosis have a high risk of advanced fibrosis. We aimed to validate these findings using 2 independent cohorts from the US and Europe.METHODS This prospective study included probands with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis, NAFLD without advanced fibrosis, and non-NAFLD, with at least 1 first-degree relative. A total of 396 first-degree relatives — 220 in a derivation cohort and 176 in a validation cohort — were enrolled in the study, and liver fibrosis was evaluated using magnetic resonance elastography and other noninvasive imaging modalities. The primary outcome was prevalence of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives.RESULTS Prevalence of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis, NAFLD without advanced fibrosis, and non-NAFLD was 15.6%, 5.9%, and 1.3%, respectively (P = 0.002), in the derivation cohort, and 14.0%, 2.6%, and 1.3%, respectively (P = 0.004), in the validation cohort. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, age of ≥50 years (adjusted OR [aOR]: 2.63, 95% CI 1.0–6.7), male sex (aOR: 3.79, 95% CI 1.6–9.2), diabetes mellitus (aOR: 3.37, 95% CI 1.3–9), and a first-degree relative with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis (aOR: 11.8, 95% CI 2.5–57) were significant predictors of presence of advanced fibrosis (all P < 0.05).CONCLUSION First-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis have significantly increased risk of advanced fibrosis. Routine screening should be done in the first-degree relatives of patients with advanced fibrosis.FUNDING Supported by NCATS (5UL1TR001442), NIDDK (U01DK061734, U01DK130190, R01DK106419, R01DK121378, R01DK124318, P30DK120515, K23DK119460), NHLBI (P01HL147835), and NIAAA (U01AA029019); Academy of Finland grant 309263; the Novo Nordisk, EVO, and Sigrid Jusélius Foundations; and the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking under grant agreement 777377. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program and the EFPIA.
Nobuharu Tamaki, Noora Ahlholm, Panu K. Luukkonen, Kimmo Porthan, Suzanne R. Sharpton, Veeral Ajmera, Yuko Kono, Shravan Dave, Aijaz Ahmed, Vinay Sundaram, Michael J. Wilkinson, Heather Patton, Hersh Gupta, Vanessa Cervantes, Christie Hernandez, Scarlett J. Lopez, Ria Loomba, Amanda Baumgartner, Lisa Richards, Perttu E.T. Arkkila, Katriina Nemes, Helena Isoniemi, Hannele Yki-Järvinen, Rohit Loomba
Total views: 2249
Mutations in nuclear envelope proteins (NEPs) cause devastating genetic diseases, known as envelopathies, that primarily affect the heart and skeletal muscle. A mutation in the NEP LEM domain–containing protein 2 (LEMD2) causes severe cardiomyopathy in humans. However, the roles of LEMD2 in the heart and the pathological mechanisms responsible for its association with cardiac disease are unknown. We generated knockin (KI) mice carrying the human c.T38>G Lemd2 mutation, which causes a missense amino acid exchange (p.L13>R) in the LEM domain of the protein. These mice represent a preclinical model that phenocopies the human disease, as they developed severe dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac fibrosis leading to premature death. At the cellular level, KI/KI cardiomyocytes exhibited disorganization of the transcriptionally silent heterochromatin associated with the nuclear envelope. Moreover, mice with cardiac-specific deletion of Lemd2 also died shortly after birth due to heart abnormalities. Cardiomyocytes lacking Lemd2 displayed nuclear envelope deformations and extensive DNA damage and apoptosis linked to p53 activation. Importantly, cardiomyocyte-specific Lemd2 gene therapy via adeno-associated virus rescued cardiac function in KI/KI mice. Together, our results reveal the essentiality of LEMD2 for genome stability and cardiac function and unveil its mechanistic association with human disease.
Xurde M. Caravia, Andres Ramirez-Martinez, Peiheng Gan, Feng Wang, John R. McAnally, Lin Xu, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Ning Liu, Eric N. Olson
Total views: 2126
During cutaneous tick attachment, the feeding cavity becomes a site of transmission for tick salivary compounds and tick-borne pathogens. However, the immunological consequences of tick feeding for human skin remain unclear. Here, we assessed human skin and blood samples upon tick bite and developed a human skin explant model mimicking Ixodes ricinus bites and tick-borne pathogen infection. Following tick attachment, we observed rapidly occurring patterns of immunomodulation, including increases in neutrophils and cutaneous B and T cells. T cells upregulated tissue residency markers, while lymphocytic cytokine production was impaired. In early stages of Borrelia burgdorferi model infections, we detected strain-specific immune responses and close spatial relationships between macrophages and spirochetes. Preincubation of spirochetes with tick salivary gland extracts hampered accumulation of immune cells and increased spirochete loads. Collectively, we showed that tick feeding exerts profound changes on the skin immune network that interfere with the primary response against tick-borne pathogens.
Johanna Strobl, Verena Mündler, Sophie Müller, Anna Gindl, Sara Berent, Anna-Margarita Schötta, Lisa Kleissl, Clement Staud, Anna Redl, Luisa Unterluggauer, Ana E. Aguilar González, Sophie T. Weninger, Denise Atzmüller, Romana Klasinc, Gerold Stanek, Mateusz Markowicz, Hannes Stockinger, Georg Stary
Total views: 1950
Increasing evidence has pointed to the important function of T cells in controlling immune homeostasis and pathogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI), although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, a broad analysis of immune markers in 283 patients revealed significant CD69 overexpression on Tregs after MI. Our results in mice showed that CD69 expression on Tregs increased survival after left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Cd69–/– mice developed strong IL-17+ γδT cell responses after ischemia that increased myocardial inflammation and, consequently, worsened cardiac function. CD69+ Tregs, by induction of AhR-dependent CD39 ectonucleotidase activity, induced apoptosis and decreased IL-17A production in γδT cells. Adoptive transfer of CD69+ Tregs into Cd69–/– mice after LAD ligation reduced IL-17+ γδT cell recruitment, thus increasing survival. Consistently, clinical data from 2 independent cohorts of patients indicated that increased CD69 expression in peripheral blood cells after acute MI was associated with a lower risk of rehospitalization for heart failure (HF) after 2.5 years of follow-up. This result remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, and traditional cardiac damage biomarkers. Our data highlight CD69 expression on Tregs as a potential prognostic factor and a therapeutic option to prevent HF after MI.
Rafael Blanco-Domínguez, Hortensia de la Fuente, Cristina Rodríguez, Laura Martín-Aguado, Raquel Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa Jiménez-Alejandre, Iker Rodríguez-Arabaolaza, Andrea Curtabbi, Marcos M. García-Guimaraes, Alberto Vera, Fernando Rivero, Javier Cuesta, Luis J. Jiménez-Borreguero, Alberto Cecconi, Albert Duran-Cambra, Manel Taurón, Judith Alonso, Héctor Bueno, María Villalba-Orero, Jose Antonio Enríquez, Simon C. Robson, Fernando Alfonso, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, José Martínez-González, Pilar Martín
Total views: 1939
The extrinsic and autonomic nervous system intricately controls the major functions of the gastrointestinal tract through the enteric nervous system; these include motor, secretory, sensory, storage, and excretory functions. Disorders of the nervous system affecting gastrointestinal tract function manifest primarily as abnormalities in motor (rather than secretory) functions. Common gastrointestinal symptoms in neurologic disorders include sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, constipation, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence. Diseases of the entire neural axis ranging from the cerebral hemispheres to the peripheral autonomic nerves can result in gastrointestinal motility disorders. The most common neurologic diseases affecting gastrointestinal function are stroke, parkinsonism, multiple sclerosis, and diabetic neuropathy. Diagnosis involves identification of the neurologic disease and its distribution, and documentation of segmental gut dysfunction, typically using noninvasive imaging, transit measurements, or intraluminal measurements of pressure activity and coordination of motility. Apart from treatment of the underlying neurologic disease, management focuses on restoration of normal hydration and nutrition and pharmacologic treatment of the gut neuromuscular disorder.
Total views: 1056
Mitochondrial dysfunction and cell senescence are hallmarks of aging and are closely interconnected. Mitochondrial dysfunction, operationally defined as a decreased respiratory capacity per mitochondrion together with a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, typically accompanied by increased production of oxygen free radicals, is a cause and a consequence of cellular senescence and figures prominently in multiple feedback loops that induce and maintain the senescent phenotype. Here, we summarize pathways that cause mitochondrial dysfunction in senescence and aging and discuss the major consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction and how these consequences contribute to senescence and aging. We also highlight the potential of senescence-associated mitochondrial dysfunction as an antiaging and antisenescence intervention target, proposing the combination of multiple interventions converging onto mitochondrial dysfunction as novel, potent senolytics.
Satomi Miwa, Sonu Kashyap, Eduardo Chini, Thomas von Zglinicki
Total views: 800
SARS-CoV-2–infected individuals may suffer a multi–organ system disorder known as “long COVID” or post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). There are no standard treatments, the pathophysiology is unknown, and incidence varies by clinical phenotype. Acute COVID-19 correlates with biomarkers of systemic inflammation, hypercoagulability, and comorbidities that are less prominent in PASC. Macrovessel thrombosis, a hallmark of acute COVID-19, is less frequent in PASC. Female sex at birth is associated with reduced risk for acute COVID-19 progression, but with increased risk of PASC. Persistent microvascular endotheliopathy associated with cryptic SARS-CoV-2 tissue reservoirs has been implicated in PASC pathology. Autoantibodies, localized inflammation, and reactivation of latent pathogens may also be involved, potentially leading to microvascular thrombosis, as documented in multiple PASC tissues. Diagnostic assays illuminating possible therapeutic targets are discussed.
Jasimuddin Ahamed, Jeffrey Laurence
Total views: 748
Cellular senescence is a hallmark of aging defined by stable exit from the cell cycle in response to cellular damage and stress. Senescent cells (SnCs) can develop a characteristic pathogenic senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that drives secondary senescence and disrupts tissue homeostasis, resulting in loss of tissue repair and regeneration. The use of transgenic mouse models in which SnCs can be genetically ablated has established a key role for SnCs in driving aging and age-related disease. Importantly, senotherapeutics have been developed to pharmacologically eliminate SnCs, termed senolytics, or suppress the SASP and other markers of senescence, termed senomorphics. Based on extensive preclinical studies as well as small clinical trials demonstrating the benefits of senotherapeutics, multiple clinical trials are under way. This Review discusses the role of SnCs in aging and age-related diseases, strategies to target SnCs, approaches to discover and develop senotherapeutics, and preclinical and clinical advances of senolytics.
Lei Zhang, Louise E. Pitcher, Matthew J. Yousefzadeh, Laura J. Niedernhofer, Paul D. Robbins, Yi Zhu
Total views: 744
Macrophages exposed to inflammatory stimuli including LPS undergo metabolic reprogramming to facilitate macrophage effector function. This metabolic reprogramming supports phagocytic function, cytokine release, and ROS production that are critical to protective inflammatory responses. The Krebs cycle is a central metabolic pathway within all mammalian cell types. In activated macrophages, distinct breaks in the Krebs cycle regulate macrophage effector function through the accumulation of several metabolites that were recently shown to have signaling roles in immunity. One metabolite that accumulates in macrophages because of the disturbance in the Krebs cycle is itaconate, which is derived from cis-aconitate by the enzyme cis-aconitate decarboxylase (ACOD1), encoded by immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1). This Review focuses on itaconate’s emergence as a key immunometabolite with diverse roles in immunity and inflammation. These roles include inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (which controls levels of succinate, a metabolite with multiple roles in inflammation), inhibition of glycolysis at multiple levels (which will limit inflammation), activation of the antiinflammatory transcription factors Nrf2 and ATF3, and inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Itaconate and its derivatives have antiinflammatory effects in preclinical models of sepsis, viral infections, psoriasis, gout, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and pulmonary fibrosis, pointing to possible itaconate-based therapeutics for a range of inflammatory diseases. This intriguing metabolite continues to yield fascinating insights into the role of metabolic reprogramming in host defense and inflammation.
Christian G. Peace, Luke A.J. O’Neill
Total views: 666
Vaccination affords protection from disease by activating pathogen-specific immune cells and facilitating the development of persistent immunologic memory toward the vaccine-specific pathogen. Current vaccine regimens are often based on the efficiency of the acute immune response, and not necessarily on the generation of memory cells, in part because the mechanisms underlying the development of efficient immune memory remain incompletely understood. This Review describes recent advances in defining memory T cell metabolism and how metabolism of these cells might be altered in patients affected by mitochondrial diseases or metabolic syndrome, who show higher susceptibility to recurrent infections and higher rates of vaccine failure. It discusses how this new understanding could add to the way we think about immunologic memory, vaccine development, and cancer immunotherapy.
Mauro Corrado, Erika L. Pearce
Total views: 626
Hematopoietic stem cells, regulated by their microenvironment (or “niche”), sustain the production of mature blood and immune cells. Leukemia cells remodel the microenvironment to enhance their survival, which is accompanied by the loss of support for normal hematopoiesis in hematologic malignancies. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication in physiological and pathological conditions, and deciphering their functions in cell-cell interactions in the ecosystem can highlight potential therapeutic targets. In this Review, we illustrate the utility of EVs derived from various cell types, focusing on the biological molecules they contain and the behavioral alterations they can induce in recipient cells. We also discuss the potential for clinical application in hematologic malignancies, including EV-based therapeutic regimens, drug delivery via EVs, and the use of EVs (or their cargoes) as biomarkers.
Guohuan Sun, Quan Gu, Junke Zheng, Hui Cheng, Tao Cheng
Total views: 607
Metabolic inhibitors have been used in oncology for decades, dating back to antimetabolites developed in the 1940s. In the past 25 years, there has been increased recognition of metabolic derangements in tumor cells leading to a resurgence of interest in targeting metabolism. More recently there has been recognition that drugs targeting tumor metabolism also affect the often acidic, hypoxic, immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) and non-tumor cell populations within it, including immune cells. Here we review small-molecule metabolic inhibitors currently in clinical development for oncology applications. For each agent, we evaluate the preclinical studies demonstrating antitumor and TME effects and review ongoing clinical trials. The goal of this Review is to provide an overview of the landscape of metabolic inhibitors in clinical development for oncology.
Kathryn M. Lemberg, Sadakatali S. Gori, Takashi Tsukamoto, Rana Rais, Barbara S. Slusher
Total views: 577
Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) are among the top contributors to disability and mortality in later life. As with many chronic conditions, aging is the single most influential factor in the development of ADRD. Even among older adults who remain free of dementia throughout their lives, cognitive decline and neurodegenerative changes are appreciable with advancing age, suggesting shared pathophysiological mechanisms. In this Review, we provide an overview of changes in cognition, brain morphology, and neuropathological protein accumulation across the lifespan in humans, with complementary and mechanistic evidence from animal models. Next, we highlight selected aging processes that are differentially regulated in neurodegenerative disease, including aberrant autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, epigenetic changes, cerebrovascular dysfunction, inflammation, and lipid dysregulation. We summarize research across clinical and translational studies to link biological aging processes to underlying ADRD pathogenesis. Targeting fundamental processes underlying biological aging may represent a yet relatively unexplored avenue to attenuate both age-related cognitive decline and ADRD. Collaboration across the fields of geroscience and neuroscience, coupled with the development of new translational animal models that more closely align with human disease processes, is necessary to advance novel therapeutic discovery in this realm.
Mitzi M. Gonzales, Valentina R. Garbarino, Erin Pollet, Juan P. Palavicini, Dean L. Kellogg Jr., Ellen Kraig, Miranda E. Orr
Total views: 557
Aging and metabolism are inextricably linked, and many age-related changes in body composition, including increased central adiposity and sarcopenia, have underpinnings in fundamental aging processes. These age-related changes are further exacerbated by a sedentary lifestyle and can be in part prevented by maintenance of activity with aging. Here we explore the age-related changes seen in individual metabolic tissues — adipose, muscle, and liver — as well as globally in older adults. We also discuss the available evidence for therapeutic interventions such as caloric restriction, resistance training, and senolytic and senomorphic drugs to maintain healthy metabolism with aging, focusing on data from human studies.
Allyson K. Palmer, Michael D. Jensen
Total views: 522