Children with focal hyperinsulinism of infancy display a dramatic, non-neoplastic clonal expansion of β cells that have undergone mitotic recombination, resulting in paternal disomy of part of chromosome 11. This disomic region contains imprinted genes, including the gene encoding the cell cycle inhibitor p57Kip2 (
Dana Avrahami, Changhong Li, Ming Yu, Yang Jiao, Jia Zhang, Ali Naji, Seyed Ziaie, Benjamin Glaser, Klaus H. Kaestner
The effector activity of antibodies is dependent on engagement with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) and activation of the associated intracellular signaling pathways. Preclinical evaluation of therapeutic humanized or chimeric mAbs to study the interactions of their Fc regions with FcγRs is hampered by substantial structural and functional FcγR diversity among species. In this report, we used mice expressing only human FcγRs to evaluate the contribution of FcγR-mediated pathways to the neutralizing activity of an anti-anthrax toxin chimeric mAb. We observed that the protective activity of this mAb was highly dependent upon FcγR engagement, with minimal protection against anthrax toxin observed in FcγR-deficient mice following mAb administration. We generated anti-anthrax toxin mAbs with specific Fc domain variants with selectively enhanced affinity for particular human FcγRs and assessed their activity in FcγR-humanized mice. We determined that Fc domain variants that were capable of selectively engaging activating FcγRs substantially enhanced the in vitro and in vivo activity of anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibodies. These findings indicate that the application of Fc domain engineering is a feasible strategy to enhance toxin-neutralizing activity and suggest that engineered antitoxin antibodies will have improved therapeutic efficacy.
Stylianos Bournazos, Siu-Kei Chow, Nareen Abboud, Arturo Casadevall, Jeffrey V. Ravetch
Aniridia is a congenital and progressive panocular condition with poor visual prognosis that is associated with brain, olfactory, and pancreatic abnormalities. Development of aniridia is linked with nonsense mutations that result in paired box 6 (
Cheryl Y. Gregory-Evans, Xia Wang, Kishor M. Wasan, Jinying Zhao, Andrew L. Metcalfe, Kevin Gregory-Evans
While murine-based systems to identify cancer-promoting agents (carcinogens) are established, models to identify compounds that promote aging (gerontogens) have not been described. For this purpose, we exploited the transcription of
Jessica A. Sorrentino, Janakiraman Krishnamurthy, Stephen Tilley, James G. Alb Jr., Christin E. Burd, Norman E. Sharpless
Malaria, which is the result of
Lander Foquet, Cornelus C. Hermsen, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Eva Van Braeckel, Karin E. Weening, Robert Sauerwein, Philip Meuleman, Geert Leroux-Roels
Heart failure in children and adults is often the consequence of myocarditis associated with Coxsackievirus (CV) infection. Upon CV infection, enteroviral protease 2A cleaves a small number of host proteins including dystrophin, which links actin filaments to the plasma membrane of muscle fiber cells (sarcolemma). It is unknown whether protease 2A–mediated cleavage of dystrophin and subsequent disruption of the sarcolemma play a role in CV-mediated myocarditis. We generated knockin mice harboring a mutation at the protease 2A cleavage site of the dystrophin gene, which prevents dystrophin cleavage following CV infection. Compared with wild-type mice, we found that mice expressing cleavage-resistant dystrophin had a decrease in sarcolemmal disruption and cardiac virus titer following CV infection. In addition, cleavage-resistant dystrophin inhibited the cardiomyopathy induced by cardiomyocyte-restricted expression of the CV protease 2A transgene. These findings indicate that protease 2A–mediated cleavage of dystrophin is critical for viral propagation, enteroviral-mediated cytopathic effects, and the development of cardiomyopathy.
Byung-Kwan Lim, Angela K. Peter, Dingding Xiong, Anna Narezkina, Aaron Yung, Nancy D. Dalton, Kyung-Kuk Hwang, Toshitaka Yajima, Ju Chen, Kirk U. Knowlton
Anti-CD20 Ab therapy has proven successful for treating B cell malignancies and a number of autoimmune diseases. However, how anti-CD20 Abs operate in vivo to mediate B cell depletion is not fully understood. In particular, the anatomical location, the type of effector cells, and the mechanism underlying anti-CD20 therapy remain uncertain. Here, we found that the liver is a major site for B cell depletion and that recirculation accounts for the decrease in B cell numbers observed in secondary lymphoid organs. Using intravital imaging, we established that, upon anti-CD20 treatment, Kupffer cells (KCs) mediate the abrupt arrest and subsequent engulfment of B cells circulating in the liver sinusoids. KCs were also effective in depleting malignant B cells in a model of spontaneous lymphoma. Our results identify Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis by KCs as a primary mechanism of anti-CD20 therapy and provide an experimental framework for optimizing the efficacy of therapeutic Abs.
Fabricio Montalvao, Zacarias Garcia, Susanna Celli, Béatrice Breart, Jacques Deguine, Nico Van Rooijen, Philippe Bousso
Recent controversies surrounding prostate cancer overtreatment emphasize the critical need to delineate the molecular features associated with progression to lethal metastatic disease. Here, we have used whole-genome sequencing and molecular pathological analyses to characterize the lethal cell clone in a patient who died of prostate cancer. We tracked the evolution of the lethal cell clone from the primary cancer to metastases through samples collected during disease progression and at the time of death. Surprisingly, these analyses revealed that the lethal clone arose from a small, relatively low-grade cancer focus in the primary tumor, and not from the bulk, higher-grade primary cancer or from a lymph node metastasis resected at prostatectomy. Despite being limited to one case, these findings highlight the potential importance of developing and implementing molecular prognostic and predictive markers, such as alterations of tumor suppressor proteins PTEN or p53, to augment current pathological evaluation and delineate clonal heterogeneity. Furthermore, this case illustrates the potential need in precision medicine to longitudinally sample metastatic lesions to capture the evolving constellation of alterations during progression. Similar comprehensive studies of additional prostate cancer cases are warranted to understand the extent to which these issues may challenge prostate cancer clinical management.
Michael C. Haffner, Timothy Mosbruger, David M. Esopi, Helen Fedor, Christopher M. Heaphy, David A. Walker, Nkosi Adejola, Meltem Gürel, Jessica Hicks, Alan K. Meeker, Marc K. Halushka, Jonathan W. Simons, William B. Isaacs, Angelo M. De Marzo, William G. Nelson, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian
Approximately 90% of patients with isolated agammaglobulinemia and failure of B cell development have mutations in genes required for signaling through the pre–B cell and B cell receptors. The nature of the gene defect in the majority of remaining patients is unknown. We recently identified 4 patients with agammaglobulinemia and markedly decreased numbers of peripheral B cells. The B cells that could be detected had an unusual phenotype characterized by the increased expression of CD19 but the absence of a B cell receptor. Genetic studies demonstrated that all 4 patients had the exact same de novo mutation in the broadly expressed transcription factor E47. The mutant protein (E555K) was stable in patient-derived EBV-transformed cell lines and cell lines transfected with expression vectors. E555K in the transfected cells localized normally to the nucleus and resulted in a dominant negative effect when bound to DNA as a homodimer with wild-type E47. Mutant E47 did permit DNA binding by a tissue-specific heterodimeric DNA-binding partner, myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD). These findings document a mutational hot-spot in E47 and represent an autosomal dominant form of agammaglobulinemia. Further, they indicate that E47 plays a critical role in enforcing the block in development of B cell precursors that lack functional antigen receptors.
Bertrand Boisson, Yong-Dong Wang, Amma Bosompem, Cindy S. Ma, Annick Lim, Tatiana Kochetkov, Stuart G. Tangye, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Mary Ellen Conley
Therapeutic drugs with ototoxic side effects cause significant hearing loss for thousands of patients annually. Two major classes of ototoxic drugs are cisplatin and the aminoglycoside antibiotics, both of which are toxic to mechanosensory hair cells, the receptor cells of the inner ear. A critical need exists for therapies that protect the inner ear without inhibiting the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs. The induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) inhibits both aminoglycoside- and cisplatin-induced hair cell death and hearing loss. We hypothesized that exposure to sound that is titrated to stress the inner ear without causing permanent damage would induce HSPs in the cochlea and inhibit ototoxic drug–induced hearing loss. We developed a sound exposure protocol that induces HSPs without causing permanent hearing loss. We used this protocol in conjunction with a newly developed mouse model of cisplatin ototoxicity and found that preconditioning mouse inner ears with sound has a robust protective effect against cisplatin-induced hearing loss and hair cell death. Sound therapy also provided protection against aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. These data indicate that sound preconditioning protects against both classes of ototoxic drugs, and they suggest that sound therapy holds promise for preventing hearing loss in patients receiving these drugs.
Soumen Roy, Matthew M. Ryals, Astrid Botty Van den Bruele, Tracy S. Fitzgerald, Lisa L. Cunningham
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