Macrophage Fc gamma receptors play a significant role in inflammation and host defense. One monocyte/macrophage Fc gamma receptor, Fc gamma RI, the binding site for monomeric IgG, appears to be especially responsive to modulatory signals by hormones and mediators. Since Factor XIIa is generated during inflammation, we studied the effect of XIIa on Fc gamma RI. Factor XIIa, in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-0.19 microM), reduced the number of monocyte binding sites for monomeric IgG up to 80% without altering the affinity of binding. Its precursor, Factor XII, and the low molecular weight fragment of XIIa, lacking most of the heavy chain region, did not reduce the expression of Fc gamma RI. Neither corn trypsin inhibitor (36 microM) nor diisopropylfluorophosphate (3.6 mM) diminished the effect of Factor XIIa on Fc gamma RI, although each completely inhibited the coagulant and amidolytic activity contained on the light chain of Factor XIIa. Protein synthesis was not a requirement for this effect of Factor XIIa, nor was internalization of Fc gamma RI necessary. In contrast to similar concentrations of IgG, Factor XIIa failed to displace significantly monomeric IgG from the monocyte surface, suggesting that Factor XIIa does not directly compete for Fc gamma RI. The data suggest that the heavy chain of XIIa, which contains domains that may have cell hormone activity, also contains a domain that regulates Fc gamma RI on monocytes. In addition to other hormones and mediators, Factor XIIa may serve a regulatory function in modulating Fc gamma receptor expression during inflammation.
P Chien, R A Pixley, L G Stumpo, R W Colman, A D Schreiber
To obtain free amino acids for protein synthesis, trophozoite stage malaria parasites feed on the cytoplasm of host erythrocytes and degrade hemoglobin within an acid food vacuole. The food vacuole appears to be analogous to the secondary lysosomes of mammalian cells. To determine the enzymatic mechanism of hemoglobin degradation, we incubated trophozoite-infected erythrocytes with peptide inhibitors of different classes of proteinases. Leupeptin and L-transepoxy-succinyl-leucyl-amido-(4-guanidino)-butane (E-64), two peptide inhibitors of cysteine proteinases, inhibited the proteolysis of globin and caused the accumulation of undegraded erythrocyte cytoplasm in parasite food vacuoles, suggesting that a food vacuole cysteine proteinase is necessary for hemoglobin degradation. Proteinase assays of trophozoites demonstrated cysteine proteinase activity with a pH optimum similar to that of the food vacuole and the substrate specificity of lysosomal cathepsin L. We also identified an Mr 28,000 proteinase that was trophozoite stage-specific and was inhibited by leupeptin and E-64. We conclude that the Mr 28,000 cysteine proteinase has a critical, perhaps rate-limiting, role in hemoglobin degradation within the food vacuole of Plasmodium falciparum. Specific inhibitors of this enzyme might provide new means of antimalarial chemotherapy.
P J Rosenthal, J H McKerrow, M Aikawa, H Nagasawa, J H Leech
Dicarboxylic acids are prominent features of several diseases, including Reye's syndrome. Long-chain dicarboxylic acids have profound effects on the function and structure of isolated mitochondria, suggesting that they could contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction in Reye's syndrome. Binding of fatty acids to albumin and the intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins is important in regulating the transport and metabolism of fatty acids and protects against the toxic effects of unbound fatty acids. We studied the binding of dicarboxylic acids to defatted albumin using equilibrium dialysis to assess to what extent dicarboxylic acids are likely to be bound in the plasma of patients. Dicarboxylic acids bind weakly to albumin in a molar ratio of 3.8, 4.2, 1.6, 0.8, and 0.7 to 1 for octadecanedioic, hexadecanedioic, tetradecanedioic, dodecanedioic, and decanedioic acid, respectively. The dissociation constants for long-chain dicarboxylic acids are 100-1,000-fold larger than those of comparable monocarboxylic acids. Oleate competes with dicarboxylic acid and reduces the moles of dicarboxylic acid bound per mol of albumin to less than 1. Octanoate inhibits dicarboxylic acid binding. Our observations indicate that in Reye's syndrome, substantial concentrations of dicarboxylic acids of patients may be free and potentially toxic to mitochondria and other cellular processes.
J H Tonsgard, S A Mendelson, S C Meredith
The analgesia produced by combinations of low-dose naloxone with pentazocine or morphine was studied in 105 patients with moderately severe postoperative pain after standardized surgery for removal of impacted third molars. Pain intensity was quantified using a visual-analogue scale. To eliminate the release of endogenous opioids produced by the placebo component of open drug administration, all injections were made by a preprogrammed infusion pump. The analgesia produced by pentazocine, an agonist-antagonist opiate-analgesic acting predominantly at the kappa opiate receptor, was potentiated by low-dose naloxone, whereas the analgesia produced by morphine, a mu-agonist, was attenuated by low-dose naloxone. To evaluate whether similar potentiation would be present in an animal model, and specifically, in the absence of diazepam, which patients receive, we performed an analogous experiment in rats in which nociceptive threshold was determined using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal test. The results were completely analogous to the clinical results: pentazocine analgesia was potentiated by low-dose naloxone, whereas morphine analgesia was attenuated by low-dose naloxone. These data demonstrate a novel interaction between opiates, and suggest a rationale for opiate combinations to produce potent analgesia with fewer autonomic side effects and less abuse potential than presently available analgesics.
J D Levine, N C Gordon, Y O Taiwo, T J Coderre
The effects of DPI, a new inotropic agent, were compared in trabeculae carneae from control and myopathic human hearts loaded with aequorin, a bioluminescent calcium indicator that emits light when it combines with calcium, and in saponin-skinned trabeculae carneae from the same hearts. The force-pCa curves in saponin-skinned fibers and the peak force-peak Ca2+ curves in aequorin-loaded preparations were not significantly different between the control and myopathic tissues. The force-pCa curve in the skinned and aequorin-loaded preparations from the same control hearts displayed no significant shifts with the addition of DPI. In contrast, a leftward shift was present in the force-calcium relationship in the presence of DPI in aequorin-loaded and skinned muscles from myopathic hearts, indicating an increase in the sensitivity of the myofilaments to calcium. These differences in the modulation of calcium activation between myopathic and control tissues indicate that pharmacological agents may produce differential effects in normal and diseased hearts.
R J Hajjar, J K Gwathmey, G M Briggs, J P Morgan
Excessive urine calcium excretion in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria may involve a primary increase in intestinal calcium absorption, overproduction of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or a defect in renal tubular calcium reabsorption. To determine the mechanism of hypercalciuria in an animal model, hypercalciuria was selected for in rats and the most hypercalciuric animals inbred. Animals from the fourth generation were utilized to study mineral balance and intestinal transport in relation to levels of serum 1,25(OH)2D3. Both urine calcium excretion and net intestinal calcium absorption were greater in hypercalciuric males (HM) than in normocalciuric males (NM) and in hypercalciuric females (HF) than in normocalciuric females (NF). However, serum 1,25(OH)2D3 was lower in HM than in NM and not different in HF than in NF. Net calcium balance was more positive in HM than in NM and in HF than in NF. In vitro duodenal calcium net flux was correlated with serum 1,25(OH)2D3 in HM and HF and in NM and NF. However, with increasing serum 1,25(OH)2D3 there was greater calcium net flux in hypercalciuric rats than in normocalciuric controls. Hypercalciuria in this colony of hypercalciuric rats is due to a primary intestinal overabsorption of dietary calcium and not an overproduction of 1,25(OH)2D3 or a defect in the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium.
D A Bushinsky, M J Favus
Experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism of action of DPI 201-106 on human heart muscle. In both control and myopathic muscles, DPI produced concentration-dependent increases in action potential duration, resting muscle tension, peak isometric tension, and duration of isometric tension. These changes were associated with increases in resting intracellular calcium and peak calcium transients as measured by aequorin. At higher concentrations of DPI, a second delayed Ca2+ transient (L') appeared. L' was inhibited by tetrodotoxin and ryanodine, suggesting that DPI acts at both the sarcolemma and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. DPI toxicity was manifested by after-glimmers and after-contractions reflecting a Ca2+-overload state: DPI effects were mimicked by veratridine, a Na+ channel agonist, and reversed by tetrodotoxin, yohimbine, and cadmium, Na+ channel antagonists. These results suggest that DPI acts primarily as a Na+ channel agonist. DPI may produce an increase in intracellular Ca2+ by increasing intracellular Na+ and altering Na+-Ca2+ exchange across the sarcolemma. DPI may also increase intracellular Ca2+ by directly altering sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ handling.
J K Gwathmey, M T Slawsky, G M Briggs, J P Morgan
Previously we showed that hypocaloric amounts of glucose reduce leucine catabolism while an isocaloric amount of fat does not (1985. J. Clin. Invest. 76:737.). This study was designed to investigate whether the same difference exists when the entire caloric need is provided either as glucose or lipid. Rats were maintained for 3 d on total parenteral nutrition (350 cal/kg per d), after which the infusion of amino acids was discontinued and rats received the same amount of calories entirely as glucose or lipid for three more days. A third group of rats was infused with saline for 3 d. In comparison to glucose, lipid infusion resulted in higher urinary nitrogen excretion (55 +/- 3 vs. 37 +/- 2 mg N/24 h, P less than 0.05), muscle concentrations of tyrosine (95 +/- 8 vs. 42 +/- 8 microM, P less than 0.01), and leucine (168 +/- 19 vs. 84 +/- 16 microM, P less than 0.01), activity of BCKA dehydrogenase in muscle (2.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.04 nmol/mg protein per 30 min, P less than 0.05), and whole body rate of leucine oxidation (3.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.2 mumol/100 g per h, P less than 0.05). However, all these parameters were significantly lower in lipid-infused than starved rats. There was no significant difference between leucine incorporation into liver and muscle proteins of lipid and glucose-infused rats. On the other hand, starved rats showed a lower leucine incorporation into liver proteins. The data show that under conditions of adequate caloric intake lipid has an inhibitory effect on leucine catabolism but not as great as that of glucose. The mechanism of this difference may be related to a lesser inhibition of muscle protein degradation by lipid than glucose, thereby increasing the leucine pool, which in turn stimulates leucine oxidation.
J A Vazquez, H S Paul, S A Adibi
Single nephron filtration rate of albumin (SNGFRAlb) was measured in remnant nephrons of Munich-Wistar rats 4-6 wk after subtotal nephrectomy (NPX). Serial thin-section histological analysis was then conducted on the same glomeruli by light microscopy. SNGFRAlb ranged from 1 to 15 times normal. However, a direct relationship between abnormalities of structure and function was not seen, e.g. the glomeruli with the fewest structural abnormalities and marked hyperfiltration often had the highest SNGFRAlb. Moreover, the majority of glomeruli had minimal structural abnormalities. Normalization of the markedly elevated glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) in these glomeruli was accomplished by acute intravenous infusion of verapamil, which decreased SNGFRAlb by 9-83% without affecting the single nephron filtration rate of water (SNGFRH2O). 1-2 wk after subtotal NPX, all glomeruli were hyperfiltering and had elevated PGC. The fractional clearance of larger (greater than 36 A) dextrans was selectively increased in these glomeruli that lacked discernible damage by light microscopy. Verapamil normalized PGC, reduced proteinuria to 48 +/- 4% of baseline, and improved glomerular size selectivity without altering SNGFRH2O. Proteinuria after subtotal NPX thus originates largely from glomeruli with minimal structural abnormalities. The defect in size selectivity is largely attributed to the prevailing high PGC, producing large, nonselective channels on the glomerular capillary wall. The observations raise the possibility that in chronic renal diseases, the reduction in proteinuria often seen after therapeutic measures, including antihypertensive medication, may reflect their functional effect on the relatively intact glomeruli rather than their structure-sparing effect on severely damaged glomeruli, which contribute little to the proteinuria.
T Yoshioka, H Shiraga, Y Yoshida, A Fogo, A D Glick, W M Deen, J R Hoyer, I Ichikawa
Mineralocorticoid plays a role in urinary acidification and acid-base balance, but the response of the inner medulla to aldosterone has not been elucidated. A model of selective aldosterone deficiency (SAD) with hyperkalemia and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis was employed to assess segmental acidification by measuring in situ pH, titratable acidity (TA) and total ammonia (Am). Hydrogen ion secretion was also examined as a function of the increment in in situ PCO2 in the collecting duct during bicarbonate loading. SAD rats were compared to ADX controls that received adrenalectomy and chronic replacement of gluco- and mineralocorticoid and to rats with chronic metabolic acidosis induced by oral NH4Cl (CMA). Both fractional and absolute delivery of Am to the loop of Henle was lower in SAD vs. CMA rats (1.34 to 3.63 mM, P less than 0.01). Delivery of Am to the base and tip collecting duct (BCD and TCD) was also markedly lower in SAD (1.50 vs. 0.52 and 1.77 vs. 0.47 mM, respectively, P less than 0.01). Net addition of Am and net acid between BCD and TCD, observed in CMA rats, was not observed in SAD despite equivalent degrees of systemic metabolic acidosis. Similarly, the concentration gradient favoring transfer of NH3 between loop of Henle and CD was reduced in SAD. During bicarbonate loading the increment in PCO2 at BCD, TCD and in final urine was significantly lower in SAD rats than in adrenal intact bicarbonate-loaded rats. Therefore, the acidification defect in this model of SAD appears to be a result of a decrease in ammonia production and delivery to the loop of Henle, impaired transfer from loop to collecting duct and reduction in the rate of H+ secretion by the collecting duct.
T D DuBose Jr, C R Caflisch
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