β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) relax airway smooth muscle and bronchodilate, but chronic β-agonist treatment in asthma causes increased sensitivity to airway constriction (hyperreactivity) and is associated with exacerbations. This paradox was explored using mice with ablated βAR genes (βAR–/–) and transgenic mice overexpressing airway smooth muscle β2AR (β2AR-OE) representing two extremes: absence and persistent activity of airway βAR. Unexpectedly, βAR–/– mice, lacking these bronchodilating receptors, had markedly decreased bronchoconstrictive responses to methacholine and other Gq-coupled receptor agonists. In contrast, β2AR-OE mice had enhanced constrictive responses. Contraction to permeabilization with β-escin was unaltered by gene ablation or overexpression. Inositol phosphate accumulation by Gq-coupled M3-muscarinic, thromboxane-A2, and 5-HT2 receptors was desensitized in airway smooth muscle cells from βAR–/– mice and sensitized in cells from β2AR-OE mice. Thus, βAR antithetically regulates constrictive signals, affecting bronchomotor tone/reactivity by additional means other than direct dilatation. Studies of signaling elements in these pathways revealed the nodal point of this cross talk as phospholipase C-β1, whose expression was altered by βAR in a direction and magnitude consistent with the physiologic and cellular responses. These results establish a mechanism of the β-agonist paradox and identify a potential asthma modifier gene (phospholipase C-β1), which may also be a therapeutic target in asthma when chronic β-agonists are required.
Dennis W. McGraw, Khalid F. Almoosa, Richard J. Paul, Brian K. Kobilka, Stephen B. Liggett
Strategies to stimulate endogenous surfactant production require a detailed understanding of the regulation of lipogenesis in alveolar type II cells. We developed culture conditions in which keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) stimulates fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis. KGF stimulated acetate incorporation into phosphatidylcholine, disaturated phosphatidylcholin, and phosphatidylglycerol more than 5% rat serum alone. To determine the mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes and transport proteins, we analyzed gene expression by oligonucleotide microarrays. KGF increased the mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and epidermal fatty acid–binding protein more than rat serum alone. In addition, KGF increased the mRNA levels of the transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and C/EBPδ as well as SREBP-1c (ADD-1), but not PPARγ. These changes in C/EBPα and C/EBPδ were confirmed by in situ hybridization. SCD-1 was also found to be highly expressed in alveolar type II cells in vivo. Furthermore, KGF increased protein levels of fatty acid synthase, C/EBPα, C/EBPδ, SREBP-1, epidermal fatty acid–binding protein, and SCD. Finally, the liver X receptor agonist T0901317 increased acetate incorporation and SREBP-1 but not SREBP-2 protein levels. In summary, KGF stimulates lipogenesis in type II cells by a coordinated expression of lipogenic enzymes and transport proteins regulated by C/EBP isoforms and SREBP-1c.
Robert J. Mason, Tianli Pan, Karen E. Edeen, Larry D. Nielsen, Feijie Zhang, Malinda Longphre, Michael R. Eckart, Steven Neben
The pulmonary collectins, surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D), have been reported to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS), opsonize microorganisms, and enhance the clearance of lung pathogens. In this study, we examined the effect of SP-A and SP-D on the growth and viability of Gram-negative bacteria. The pulmonary clearance of Escherichia coli K12 was reduced in SP-A–null mice and was increased in SP-D–overexpressing mice, compared with strain-matched wild-type controls. Purified SP-A and SP-D inhibited bacterial synthetic functions of several, but not all, strains of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes. In general, rough E. coli strains were more susceptible than smooth strains, and collectin-mediated growth inhibition was partially blocked by coincubation with rough LPS vesicles. Although both SP-A and SP-D agglutinated E. coli K12 in a calcium-dependent manner, microbial growth inhibition was independent of bacterial aggregation. At least part of the antimicrobial activity of SP-A and SP-D was localized to their C-terminal domains using truncated recombinant proteins. Incubation of E. coli K12 with SP-A or SP-D increased bacterial permeability. Deletion of the E. coli OmpA gene from a collectin-resistant smooth E. coli strain enhanced SP-A and SP-D–mediated growth inhibition. These data indicate that SP-A and SP-D are antimicrobial proteins that directly inhibit the proliferation of Gram-negative bacteria in a macrophage- and aggregation-independent manner by increasing the permeability of the microbial cell membrane.
Huixing Wu, Alexander Kuzmenko, Sijue Wan, Lyndsay Schaffer, Alison Weiss, James H. Fisher, Kwang Sik Kim, Francis X. McCormack
Neurogenic inflammation is believed to originate with the antidromic release of substance P, and of other neurokinins encoded by the preprotachykinin A (PPT-A) gene, from unmyelinated nerve fibers (C-fibers) following noxious stimuli. Consistent with this concept, we show here that selective sensory-fiber denervation with capsaicin and targeted deletion of the PPT-A gene protect murine lungs against both immune complex–mediated and stretch-mediated injuries. Reconstitution of PPT-A gene–deleted mice with WT bone marrow does not abrogate this protection, demonstrating a critical role for PPT-A gene expression by sensory neurons in pulmonary inflammation. Surprisingly, reconstitution of WT mice with PPT-A gene–deficient bone marrow also confers protection against pulmonary injury, revealing that PPT-A gene expression in hemopoietic cells has a previously unanticipated essential role in tissue injury. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a critical synergy between capsaicin-sensitive sensory fibers and hemopoietic cells in neurokinin-mediated inflammation and suggest that such synergy may be the basis for a stereotypical mechanism of response to injury in the respiratory tract.
Mara Chavolla-Calderón, Meggan K. Bayer, J. Julio Pérez Fontán