EGF promotes proliferation and migration of stem/progenitor cells in the normal adult brain. The effect of epidermal growth factor on neurogenesis in ischemic brain is unknown, however. Here we show that intraventricular administration of EGF and albumin augments 100-fold neuronal replacement in the injured adult mouse striatum after cerebral ischemia. Newly born immature neurons migrate into the ischemic lesion and differentiate into mature parvalbumin-expressing neurons, replacing more than 20% of the interneurons lost by 13 weeks after ischemia and representing 2% of the total BrdU-labeled cells. These data suggest that administration of EGF and albumin could be used to manipulate endogenous neurogenesis in the injured brain and to promote brain self-repair.
Tetsuyuki Teramoto, Jianhua Qiu, Jean-Christophe Plumier, Michael A. Moskowitz
Deletions in the DAP12 gene in humans result in Nasu-Hakola disease, characterized by a combination of bone fractures and psychotic symptoms similar to schizophrenia, rapidly progressing to presenile dementia. However, it is not known why these disorders develop upon deficiency in DAP12, an immunoreceptor signal activator protein initially identified in the immune system. Here we show that DAP12-deficient (DAP12–/–) mice develop an increased bone mass (osteopetrosis) and a reduction of myelin (hypomyelinosis) accentuated in the thalamus. In vitro osteoclast induction from DAP12–/– bone marrow cells yielded immature cells with attenuated bone resorption activity. Moreover, immature oligodendrocytes were arrested in the vicinity of the thalamus, suggesting that the primary defects in DAP12–/– mice are the developmental arrest of osteoclasts and oligodendrocytes. In addition, the mutant mice also showed synaptic degeneration, impaired prepulse inhibition, which is commonly observed in several neuropsychiatric diseases in humans including schizophrenia, and aberrant electrophysiological profiles in the thalami. These results provide a molecular basis for a unique combination of skeletal and psychotic characteristics of Nasu-Hakola disease as well as for schizophrenia and presenile dementia.
Tomonori Kaifu, Jin Nakahara, Masanori Inui, Kenichi Mishima, Toshihiko Momiyama, Mitsuji Kaji, Akiko Sugahara, Hisami Koito, Azusa Ujike-Asai, Akira Nakamura, Kiyoshi Kanazawa, Kyoko Tan-Takeuchi, Katsunori Iwasaki, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Akira Kudo, Michihiro Fujiwara, Hiroaki Asou, Toshiyuki Takai
Manuela Neumann, Philipp J. Kahle, Benoit I. Giasson, Laurence Ozmen, Edilio Borroni, Will Spooren, Veronika Müller, Sabine Odoy, Hideo Fujiwara, Masato Hasegawa, Takeshi Iwatsubo, John Q. Trojanowski, Hans A. Kretzschmar, Christian Haass
Felix Kreier, Eric Fliers, Peter J. Voshol, Corbert G. Van Eden, Louis M. Havekes, Andries Kalsbeek, Caroline L. Van Heijningen, Arja A. Sluiter, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Johannes A. Romijn, Hans P. Sauerwein, Ruud M. Buijs
Clyde W. Hodge, Jacob Raber, Thomas McMahon, Helen Walter, Ana Maria Sanchez-Perez, M. Foster Olive, Kristin Mehmert, A. Leslie Morrow, Robert O. Messing