Nephrophilic autoantibodies dominate the seroprofile in lupus, but their fine specificities remain ill defined. We constructed a multiplexed proteome microarray bearing about 30 antigens known to be expressed in the glomerular milieu and used it to study serum autoantibodies in lupus. Compared with normal serum, serum from B6.Sle1.lpr lupus mice (C57BL/6 mice homozygous for the NZM2410/NZW allele of Sle1 as well as the FASlpr defect) exhibited high levels of IgG and IgM antiglomerular as well as anti–double-stranded DNA/chromatin Abs and variable levels of Abs to α-actinin, aggrecan, collagen, entactin, fibrinogen, hemocyanin, heparan sulphate, laminin, myosin, proteoglycans, and histones. The use of these glomerular proteome arrays also revealed 5 distinct clusters of IgG autoreactivity in the sera of lupus patients. Whereas 2 of these IgG reactivity clusters (DNA/chromatin/glomeruli and laminin/myosin/Matrigel/vimentin/heparan sulphate) showed association with disease activity, the other 3 reactivity clusters (histones, vitronectin/collagen/chondroitin sulphate, and entactin/fibrinogen/hyaluronic acid) did not. Human lupus sera also displayed 2 distinct IgM autoantibody clusters, one reactive to DNA and the other apparently polyreactive. Interestingly, the presence of IgM polyreactivity in patient sera was associated with reduced disease severity. Hence, the glomerular proteome array promises to be a powerful analytical tool for uncovering novel autoantibody disease associations and for distinguishing patients at high risk for end-organ disease.
Quan Li Zhen, Chun Xie, Tianfu Wu, Meggan Mackay, Cynthia Aranow, Chaim Putterman, Chandra Mohan
Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for intravenous Ig (IVIG). In this study, we used IgG passive transfer murine models of bullous pemphigoid (BP), pemphigus foliaceus (PF), and pemphigus vulgaris (PV) to test the hypothesis that the effect of IVIG in autoantibody-mediated cutaneous bullous diseases is to accelerate the degradation of pathogenic IgG by saturation of the MHC-like Fc receptor neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). BP, PF, and PV are organ-specific antibody-mediated diseases in which autoantibodies target the hemidesmosomal antigen BP180 and desmosomal antigens Dsg1 and Dsg3, respectively. Antibodies against BP180, Dsg1, and Dsg3, when injected into neonatal mice, induce the BP, PF, and PV disease phenotypes, respectively. We found that FcRn-deficient mice were resistant to experimental BP, PF, and PV. Circulating levels of pathogenic IgG in FcRn-deficient mice were significantly reduced compared with those in WT mice. Administration of high-dose human IgG (HDIG) to WT mice also drastically reduced circulating pathogenic IgG levels and prevented blistering. In FcRn-deficient mice, no additional protective effect with HDIG was realized. These data demonstrate that the therapeutic efficacy of HDIG treatment in the pemphigus and pemphigoid models is dependent on FcRn. Thus, FcRn is a promising therapeutic target for treating such IgG-mediated autoimmune diseases.
Ning Li, Minglang Zhao, Julio Hilario-Vargas, Phillip Prisayanh, Simon Warren, Luis A. Diaz, Derry C. Roopenian, Zhi Liu
Th1 inflammation and remodeling characterized by tissue destruction frequently coexist in human diseases. To further understand the mechanisms of these responses, we defined the role(s) of CCR5 in the pathogenesis of IFN-γ–induced inflammation and remodeling in a murine emphysema model. IFN-γ was a potent stimulator of the CCR5 ligands macrophage inflammatory protein–1α/CCL-3 (MIP-1α/CCL-3), MIP-1β/CCL-4, and RANTES/CCL-5, among others. Antibody neutralization or null mutation of CCR5 decreased IFN-γ–induced inflammation, DNA injury, apoptosis, and alveolar remodeling. These interventions decreased the expression of select chemokines, including CCR5 ligands and MMP-9, and increased levels of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. They also decreased the expression and/or activation of Fas, FasL, TNF, caspase-3, -8, and -9, Bid, and Bax. In accordance with these findings, cigarette smoke induced pulmonary inflammation, DNA injury, apoptosis, and emphysema via an IFN-γ–dependent pathway(s), and a null mutation of CCR5 decreased these responses. These studies demonstrate that IFN-γ is a potent stimulator of CC and CXC chemokines and highlight the importance of CCR5 in the pathogenesis of IFN-γ–induced and cigarette smoke–induced inflammation, tissue remodeling, and emphysema. They also demonstrate that CCR5 is required for optimal IFN-γ stimulation of its own ligands, other chemokines, MMPs, caspases, and cell death regulators and the inhibition of antiproteases.
Bing Ma, Min-Jong Kang, Chun Geun Lee, Svetlana Chapoval, Wei Liu, Qingsheng Chen, Anthony J. Coyle, José M. Lora, Dominic Picarella, Robert J. Homer, Jack A. Elias
The respiratory tract is a primary site of infection and exposure to environmental antigens and an important site of memory T cell localization. We analyzed the migration and retention of naive and activated CD8+ T cells within the noninflamed lungs and quantitated the partitioning of adoptively transferred T cells between the pulmonary vascular and interstitial compartments. Activated but not naive T cells were retained within the lungs for a prolonged period. Effector CD8+ T cells preferentially egressed from the pulmonary vascular compartment into the noninflamed pulmonary interstitium. T cell retention within the lung vasculature was leukocyte function antigen-1 dependent, while the egress of effector T cells from the vascular to the interstitium functions through a pertussis toxin–sensitive (PTX-sensitive) mechanism driven in part by constitutive CC chemokine ligand 5 expression in the lungs. These results document a novel mechanism of adhesion receptor– and pulmonary chemokine–dependent regulation of the migration of activated CD8+ T cells into an important nonlymphoid peripheral site (i.e., the normal/noninflamed lung).
Elena Galkina, Jayant Thatte, Vrushali Dabak, Mark B. Williams, Klaus Ley, Thomas J. Braciale
Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAgs) constitute the targets of the graft-versus-leukemia response after HLA-identical allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Here, we have used genetic linkage analysis to identify a novel mHAg, designated lymphoid-restricted histocompatibility antigen–1 (LRH-1), which is encoded by the P2X5 gene and elicited an allogeneic CTL response in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia after donor lymphocyte infusion. We demonstrate that immunogenicity for LRH-1 is due to differential protein expression in recipient and donor cells as a consequence of a homozygous frameshift polymorphism in the donor. Tetramer analysis showed that emergence of LRH-1–specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow correlated with complete remission of chronic myeloid leukemia. Furthermore, the restricted expression of LRH-1 in hematopoietic cells including leukemic CD34+ progenitor cells provides evidence of a role for LRH-1–specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in selective graft-versus-leukemia reactivity in the absence of severe graft-versus-host disease. These findings illustrate that the P2X5-encoded mHAg LRH-1 could be an attractive target for specific immunotherapy to treat hematological malignancies recurring after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Björn de Rijke, Agnes van Horssen-Zoetbrood, Jeffrey M. Beekman, Britt Otterud, Frans Maas, Rob Woestenenk, Michel Kester, Mark Leppert, Anton V. Schattenberg, Theo de Witte, Elly van de Wiel-van Kemenade, Harry Dolstra
Homeostatic proliferation of T cells leads to the generation of effector/memory cells, which have the potential to cause harm to the host. The role of Tregs in the control of homeostatic proliferation is unclear. In this study we utilized mice that either harbor or lack Tregs as recipients of monoclonal or polyclonal T cells. We observed that while Tregs completely prevented cell division of T cells displaying low affinity for self ligands, they had a less marked, albeit significant, effect on cell cycle entry of T cells displaying higher affinity. The presence of Tregs resulted in a lower accumulation of T cells, enhanced apoptosis, and impaired differentiation to a cytokine-producing state. We conclude that Tregs play a major role in the control of homeostatic proliferation.
Shiqian Shen, Yi Ding, Carlos E. Tadokoro, Danyvid Olivares-Villagómez, Marlin Camps-Ramírez, Maria A. Curotto de Lafaille, Juan J. Lafaille
The marked proliferation of activated CD8+ T cells is pathognomonic of EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM), common in young adults. Since the diversity and size of the memory CD8+ T cell population increase with age, we questioned whether IM was mediated by the reactivation of memory CD8+ T cells specific to previously encountered pathogens but cross-reactive with EBV. Of 8 HLA-A2+ IM patients, 5 had activated T cells specific to another common virus, as evidenced by a significantly higher number of peripheral blood influenza A virus M158–66–specific T cells compared with healthy immune donors. Two patients with an augmented M1 response had tetramer-defined cross-reactive cells recognizing influenza M1 and EBV-BMLF1280–288, which accounted for up to one-third of their BMLF1-specific population and likely contributed to a skewed M1-specific T cell receptor repertoire. These epitopes, with only 33% sequence similarity, mediated differential effects on the function of the cross-reactive T cells, which may contribute to alterations in disease outcome. EBV could potentially encode an extensive pool of T cell epitopes that activate other cross-reactive memory T cells. Our results support the concept that cross-reactive memory CD8+ T cells activated by EBV contribute to the characteristic lymphoproliferation of IM.
Shalyn C. Clute, Levi B. Watkin, Markus Cornberg, Yuri N. Naumov, John L. Sullivan, Katherine Luzuriaga, Raymond M. Welsh, Liisa K. Selin
In this study, we investigated whether elimination of CD4+/CD25+ Tregs using the recombinant IL-2 diphtheria toxin conjugate DAB389IL-2 (also known as denileukin diftitox and ONTAK) is capable of enhancing the immunostimulatory efficacy of tumor RNA-transfected DC vaccines. We show that DAB389IL-2 is capable of selectively eliminating CD25-expressing Tregs from the PBMCs of cancer patients without inducing toxicity on other cellular subsets with intermediate or low expression of CD25. DAB389IL-2–mediated Treg depletion resulted in enhanced stimulation of proliferative and cytotoxic T cell responses in vitro but only when DAB389IL-2 was omitted during T cell priming. DAB389IL-2 significantly reduced the number of Tregs present in the peripheral blood of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients and abrogated Treg-mediated immunosuppressive activity in vivo. Moreover, DAB389IL-2–mediated elimination of Tregs followed by vaccination with RNA-transfected DCs significantly improved the stimulation of tumor-specific T cell responses in RCC patients when compared with vaccination alone. Our findings may have implications in the design of immune-based strategies that may incorporate the Treg depletion strategy to achieve potent antitumor immunity with therapeutic impact.
Jens Dannull, Zhen Su, David Rizzieri, Benjamin K. Yang, Doris Coleman, Donna Yancey, Aijing Zhang, Philipp Dahm, Nelson Chao, Eli Gilboa, Johannes Vieweg
The Th1 and Th2 T cell responses that underlie inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are likely to depend on NF-κB transcriptional activity. We explored this possibility in studies in which we determined the capacity of NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (decoy ODNs) to treat various murine models of IBD. In initial studies, we showed that i.r. (intrarectal) or i.p. administration of decoy ODNs encapsulated in a viral envelope prevented and treated a model of acute trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid–induced (TNBS-induced) colitis, as assessed by clinical course and effect on Th1 cytokine production. In further studies, we showed that NF-κB decoy ODNs were also an effective treatment of a model of chronic TNBS-colitis, inhibiting both the production of IL-23/IL-17 and the development of fibrosis that characterizes this model. Treatment of TNBS-induced inflammation by i.r. administration of NF-κB decoy ODNs did not inhibit NF-κB in extraintestinal organs and resulted in CD4+ T cell apoptosis, suggesting that such treatment is highly focused and durable. Finally, we showed that NF-κB decoy ODNs also prevented and treated oxazolone-colitis and thus affect a Th2-mediated inflammatory process. In each case, decoy administration led to inflammation-clearing effects, suggesting a therapeutic potency applicable to human IBD.
Stefan Fichtner-Feigl, Ivan J. Fuss, Jan C. Preiss, Warren Strober, Atsushi Kitani
Analysis of mononuclear cells in the adult mouse liver revealed that B cells represent as much as half of the intrahepatic lymphocyte population. Intrahepatic B cells (IHB cells) are phenotypically similar to splenic B2 cells but express lower levels of CD23 and CD21 and higher levels of CD5. IHB cells proliferate as well as splenic B cells in response to anti-IgM and LPS stimulation in vitro. VDJ gene rearrangements in IHB cells contain insertions of N,P region nucleotides characteristic of B cells maturing in the adult bone marrow rather than in the fetal liver. To evaluate whether B cells can have an impact on liver pathology, we compared CCl4-induced fibrosis development in B cell–deficient and wild-type mice. CCl4 caused similar acute liver injury in mutant and wild-type mice. However, following 6 weeks of CCl4 treatment, histochemical analyses showed markedly reduced collagen deposition in B cell–deficient as compared with wild-type mice. By analyzing mice that have normal numbers of B cells but lack either T cells or immunoglobulin in the serum, we established that B cells have an impact on fibrosis in an antibody- and T cell–independent manner.
Tatiana I. Novobrantseva, Gerard R. Majeau, Aldo Amatucci, Sophia Kogan, Ian Brenner, Stefano Casola, Mark J. Shlomchik, Victor Koteliansky, Paula S. Hochman, Alexander Ibraghimov