Resident microbiota activate regulatory cells that modulate intestinal inflammation and promote and maintain intestinal homeostasis. IL-10 is a key mediator of immune regulatory function. Our studies described the functional importance and mechanisms by which gut microbiota and specific microbial components influenced the development of intestinal IL-10-producing B cells. We used fecal transplant to germ-free (GF) Il10+/EGFP reporter and Il10-/- mice to demonstrate that microbiota from specific pathogen-free mice primarily stimulated IL-10-producing colon-specific B cells and T regulatory-1 cells in ex-GF mice. IL-10 in turn down-regulated microbiota-activated mucosal inflammatory cytokines. TLR2/9 ligands and enteric bacterial lysates preferentially induced IL-10 production and regulatory capacity of intestinal B cells. Analysis of Il10+/EGFP mice crossed with additional gene-deficient strains and B cell co-transfer studies demonstrated that microbiota-induced IL-10-producing intestinal B cells ameliorated chronic T cell-mediated colitis in a TLR2, MyD88 and PI3K-dependent fashion. In vitro studies implicated PI3Kp110δ and AKT downstream signaling. These studies demonstrated that resident enteric bacteria activated intestinal IL-10-producing B cells through TLR2, MyD88 and PI3K pathways. These B cells reduced colonic T cell activation and maintained mucosal homeostasis in response to intestinal microbiota.
Yoshiyuki Mishima, Akihiko Oka, Bo Liu, Jeremy W. Herzog, Chang Soo Eun, Ting-Jia Fan, Emily Bulik-Sullivan, Ian M. Carroll, Jonathan J. Hansen, Liang Chen, Justin E. Wilson, Nancy C. Fisher, Jenny P. Y. Ting, Tomonori Nochi, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia, Christopher L. Karp, R. Balfour Sartor
Impaired intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) function with loss of desmosomal junctional protein desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While previous studies have reported that glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes IEB function, the mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that GDNF is involved in the loss of DSG2, resulting in impaired IEB function as seen in IBD. In the inflamed intestine of patients with IBD, there was a decrease in GDNF concentrations accompanied by a loss of DSG2, changes of the intermediate filament system, and increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and cytokeratins. DSG2-deficient and RET-deficient Caco2 cells revealed that GDNF specifically recruits DSG2 to the cell borders, resulting in increased DSG2-mediated intercellular adhesion via the RET receptor. Challenge of Caco2 cells and enteroids with proinflammatory cytokines as well as dextran sulfate sodium–induced (DSS-induced) colitis in C57Bl/6 mice led to impaired IEB function with reduced DSG2 mediated by p38 MAPK–dependent phosphorylation of cytokeratins. GDNF blocked all inflammation-induced changes in the IEB. GDNF attenuates inflammation-induced impairment of IEB function caused by the loss of DSG2 through p38 MAPK–dependent phosphorylation of cytokeratin. The reduced GDNF in patients with IBD indicates a disease-relevant contribution to the development of IEB dysfunction.
Michael Meir, Natalie Burkard, Hanna Ungewiß, Markus Diefenbacher, Sven Flemming, Felix Kannapin, Christoph-Thomas Germer, Matthias Schweinlin, Marco Metzger, Jens Waschke, Nicolas Schlegel
Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) total knockout and myeloid knockout (MKO) mice develop Crohn’s-like intestinal inflammation when fed cholate-containing high fat diet (CCHF). We demonstrated that CCHF impaired intestinal barrier function and increased translocation of endotoxin, initiating TLR/MyD88-dependent inflammation in Cox2 KO but not WT mice. Cox2 MKO increased pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-activated macrophages, and in the intestinal tissue and plasma upon CCHF challenge. Cox2 MKO also reduced inflammation resolving lipoxin A4 (LXA4) in intestinal tissue, while administration of an LXA4 analog rescued disease in Cox2 MKO mice fed CCHF. The apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) mimetic 4F mitigated disease in both the Cox2 MKO/CCHF and piroxicam-accelerated Il10-/- models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and reduced elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in tissue and plasma. APOA1 mimetic Tg6F therapy was also effective in reducing intestinal inflammation in the Cox2 MKO/CCHF model. We further demonstrated that APOA1 mimetic peptides: i) inhibited LPS and oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (oxPAPC) dependent pro-inflammatory responses in human macrophages and intestinal epithelium; and ii) directly cleared pro-inflammatory lipids from mouse intestinal tissue and plasma. Our results support a causal role for pro-inflammatory and inflammation resolving lipids in IBD pathology and a translational potential for APOA1 mimetic peptides for the treatment of IBD.
David Meriwether, Dawoud Sulaiman, Carmen Volpe, Anna Dorfman, Victor Grijalva, Nasrin Dorreh, R. Sergio Solorzano-Vargas, Jiafang Wang, Ellen O’Connor, Jeremy Papesh, Muriel Larauche, Hannah Trost, Mayakonda N. Palgunachari, G.M. Anantharamaiah, Harvey R. Herschman, Martin G. Martin, Alan M. Fogelman, Srinivasa T. Reddy
The gut microbiota is crucial for our health, and well-balanced interactions between the host’s immune system and the microbiota are essential to prevent chronic intestinal inflammation, as observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). A variant in protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is associated with reduced risk of developing IBD, but promotes the onset of autoimmune disorders. While the role of PTPN22 in modulating molecular pathways involved in IBD pathogenesis is well studied, its impact on shaping the intestinal microbiota has not been addressed in depth. Here, we demonstrate that mice carrying the PTPN22 variant (619W mice) were protected from acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis, but suffered from pronounced inflammation upon chronic DSS treatment. The basal microbiota composition was distinct between genotypes, and DSS-induced dysbiosis was milder in 619W mice than in WT littermates. Transfer of microbiota from 619W mice after the first DSS cycle into treatment-naive 619W mice promoted colitis, indicating that changes in microbial composition enhanced chronic colitis in those animals. This indicates that presence of the PTPN22 variant affects intestinal inflammation by modulating the host’s response to the intestinal microbiota.
Marianne R. Spalinger, Thomas S.B. Schmidt, Marlene Schwarzfischer, Larissa Hering, Kirstin Atrott, Silvia Lang, Claudia Gottier, Annelies Geirnaert, Christophe Lacroix, Xuezhi Dai, David J. Rawlings, Andrew C. Chan, Christian von Mering, Gerhard Rogler, Michael Scharl
It remains unknown what causes inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including signaling networks perpetuating chronic gastrointestinal inflammation in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), in humans. According to an analysis of up to 500 patients with IBD and 100 controls, we report that key transcripts of the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) pathway are accumulated in inflamed colon tissues of severe CD and UC patients not responding to either immunosuppressive/corticosteroid, anti-TNF, or anti-α4β7 therapies. High expression of both IL7R and IL-7R signaling signature in the colon before treatment is strongly associated with nonresponsiveness to anti-TNF therapy. While in mice IL-7 is known to play a role in systemic inflammation, we found that in humans IL-7 also controlled α4β7 integrin expression and imprinted gut-homing specificity on T cells. IL-7R blockade reduced human T cell homing to the gut and colonic inflammation in vivo in humanized mouse models, and altered effector T cells in colon explants from UC patients grown ex vivo. Our findings show that failure of current treatments for CD and UC is strongly associated with an overexpressed IL-7R signaling pathway and point to IL-7R as a relevant therapeutic target and potential biomarker to fill an unmet need in clinical IBD detection and treatment.
Lyssia Belarif, Richard Danger, Laetitia Kermarrec, Véronique Nerrière-Daguin, Sabrina Pengam, Tony Durand, Caroline Mary, Elise Kerdreux, Vanessa Gauttier, Aneta Kucik, Virginie Thepenier, Jerome C. Martin, Christie Chang, Adeeb Rahman, Nina Salabert-Le Guen, Cécile Braudeau, Ahmed Abidi, Grégoire David, Florent Malard, Celine Takoudju, Bernard Martinet, Nathalie Gérard, Isabelle Neveu, Michel Neunlist, Emmanuel Coron, Thomas T. MacDonald, Pierre Desreumaux, Hoa-Le Mai, Stephanie Le Bas-Bernardet, Jean-François Mosnier, Miriam Merad, Régis Josien, Sophie Brouard, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Gilles Blancho, Arnaud Bourreille, Philippe Naveilhan, Bernard Vanhove, Nicolas Poirier
The impact of food antigens on intestinal homeostasis and immune function is poorly understood. Here, we explored the impact of dietary antigens on the phenotype and fate of intestinal T cells. Physiological uptake of dietary proteins generated a highly activated CD44+Helios+CD4+ T cell population predominantly in Peyer patches. These cells are distinct from regulatory T cells and develop independently of the microbiota. Alimentation with a protein-free, elemental diet led to an atrophic small intestine with low numbers of activated T cells, including Tfh cells and decreased amounts of intestinal IgA and IL-10. Food-activated CD44+Helios+CD4+ T cells in the Peyer patches are controlled by the immune checkpoint molecule PD-1. Blocking the PD-1 pathway rescued these T cells from apoptosis and triggered proinflammatory cytokine production, which in IL-10–deficient mice was associated with intestinal inflammation. In support of these findings, our study of patients with Crohn’s disease revealed significantly reduced frequencies of apoptotic CD4+ T cells in Peyer patches as compared with healthy controls. These results suggest that apoptosis of diet-activated T cells is a hallmark of the healthy intestine.
Alexander Visekruna, Sabrina Hartmann, Yasmina Rodriguez Sillke, Rainer Glauben, Florence Fischer, Hartmann Raifer, Hans Mollenkopf, Wilhelm Bertrams, Bernd Schmeck, Matthias Klein, Axel Pagenstecher, Michael Lohoff, Ralf Jacob, Oliver Pabst, Paul William Bland, Maik Luu, Rossana Romero, Britta Siegmund, Krishnaraj Rajalingam, Ulrich Steinhoff
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are emerging as attractive drug targets by virtue of their prevalence in various diseases including cancer. Drug development targeting IDPs is challenging because they have dynamical structure features and conventional drug design is not applicable. NUPR1 is an IDP playing an important role in pancreatic cancer. We previously reported that Trifluoperazine (TFP), an antipsychotic agent, was capable of binding to NUPR1 and inhibiting tumors growth. Unfortunately, TFP showed strong central nervous system side-effects. In this work, we undertook a multidisciplinary approach to optimize TFP, based on the synergy of computer modeling, chemical synthesis, and a variety of biophysical, biochemical and biological evaluations. A family of TFP-derived compounds was produced and the most active one, named ZZW-115, showed a dose-dependent tumor regression with no neurological effects and induced cell death mainly by necroptosis. This study opens a new perspective for drug development against IDPs, demonstrating the possibility of successful ligand-based drug design for such challenging targets.
Patricia Santofimia-Castaño, Yi Xia, Wenjun Lan, Zhengwei Zhou, Can Huang, Ling Peng, Philippe Soubeyran, Adrian Velazquez-Campoy, Olga Abian, Bruno Rizzuti, Jose L. Neira, Juan Iovanna
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) that affects multiple organs. GVHD-associated intestinal damage can be separated into two distinct phases, initiation and propagation, which correspond to conditioning-induced damage and effector T cell activation and infiltration, respectively. Substantial evidence indicates that intestinal damage induced by pretransplant conditioning is a key driver of GVHD initiation. Here, we aimed to determine the impact of dysregulated intestinal permeability on the subsequent GVHD propagation phase. The initiation phase of GVHD was unchanged in mice lacking long MLCK (MLCK210), an established regulator of epithelial tight junction permeability. However, MLCK210-deficient mice were protected from sustained barrier loss and exhibited limited GVHD propagation, as indicated by reduced histopathology, fewer CD8+ effector T cells in the gut, and improved overall survival. Consistent with these findings, intestinal epithelial MLCK210 expression and enzymatic activity were similarly increased in human and mouse GVHD biopsies. Intestinal epithelial barrier loss mediated by MLCK210 is therefore a key driver of the GVHD propagation. These data suggest that inhibition of MLCK210-dependent barrier regulation may be an effective approach to limiting GVHD progression.
Sam C. Nalle, Li Zuo, Ma. Lora Drizella M. Ong, Gurminder Singh, Alicia M. Worthylake, Wangsun Choi, Mario Cabrero Manresa, Anna P. Southworth, Karen L. Edelblum, Gregory J. Baker, Nora E. Joseph, Peter A. Savage, Jerrold R. Turner
In the stomach, chronic inflammation causes metaplasia and creates a favorable environment for the evolution of gastric cancer. Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that repress proinflammatory stimuli but their role in the stomach is unknown. In this study, we show that endogenous glucocorticoids are required to maintain gastric homeostasis. Removal of circulating glucocorticoids in mice by adrenalectomy resulted in the rapid onset of spontaneous gastric inflammation, oxyntic atrophy, and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), a precursor of gastric cancer. SPEM and oxyntic atrophy occurred independently of lymphocytes. However, depletion of monocytes and macrophages by clodronate treatment or inhibition of gastric monocyte infiltration using the Cx3cr1 knockout mouse model prevented SPEM development. Our results highlight the requirement for endogenous glucocorticoid signaling within the stomach to prevent spontaneous gastric inflammation and metaplasia and suggest that glucocorticoid deficiency may lead to gastric cancer development.
Jonathan T. Busada, Sivapriya Ramamoorthy, Derek W. Cain, Xiaojiang Xu, Donald N. Cook, John A. Cidlowski
Neutrophil (PMN) infiltration of the intestinal mucosa is a hallmark of tissue injury associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The pathological effects of PMNs are largely attributed to the release of soluble mediators and reactive oxygen species (ROS). We identified what we believe is a new, ROS-independent mechanism whereby activated tissue-infiltrating PMNs release microparticles armed with proinflammatory microRNAs (miR-23a and miR-155). Using IBD clinical samples, and in vitro and in vivo injury models, we show that PMN-derived miR-23a and miR-155 promote accumulation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) by inducing lamin B1–dependent replication fork collapse and inhibition of homologous recombination (HR) by targeting HR-regulator RAD51. DSB accumulation in injured epithelium led to impaired colonic healing and genomic instability. Targeted inhibition of miR-23a and miR-155 in cultured intestinal epithelial cells and in acutely injured mucosa decreased the detrimental effects of PMNs and enhanced tissue healing responses, suggesting that this approach can be used in therapies aimed at resolution of inflammation, in wound healing, and potentially to prevent neoplasia.
Veronika Butin-Israeli, Triet M. Bui, Hannah L. Wiesolek, Lorraine Mascarenhas, Joseph J. Lee, Lindsey C. Mehl, Kaitlyn R. Knutson, Stephen A. Adam, Robert D. Goldman, Arthur Beyder, Lisa Wiesmuller, Stephen B. Hanauer, Ronen Sumagin