Obesity is closely associated with the metabolic syndrome, a combination of disorders including insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. A role for local glucocorticoid reamplification in obesity and the metabolic syndrome has been suggested. The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) regenerates active cortisol from inactive 11-keto forms, and aP2-HSD1 mice with relative transgenic overexpression of this enzyme in fat cells develop visceral obesity with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we report that aP2-HSD1 mice also have high arterial blood pressure (BP). The mice have increased sensitivity to dietary salt and increased plasma levels of angiotensinogen, angiotensin II, and aldosterone. This hypertension is abolished by selective angiotensin II receptor AT-1 antagonist at a low dose that does not affect BP in non-Tg littermates. These findings suggest that activation of the circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) develops in aP2-HSD1 mice. The long-term hypertension is further reflected by an appreciable hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the distal tubule epithelium of the nephron, resembling salt-sensitive or angiotensin II–mediated hypertension. Taken together, our findings suggest that overexpression of 11β-HSD1 in fat is sufficient to cause salt-sensitive hypertension mediated by an activated RAS. The potential role of adipose 11β-HSD1 in mediating critical features of the metabolic syndrome extends beyond obesity and metabolic complications to include the most central cardiovascular feature of this disorder.
Hiroaki Masuzaki, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Christopher J. Kenyon, Joel K. Elmquist, Nicholas M. Morton, Janice M. Paterson, Hiroshi Shinyama, Matthew G.F. Sharp, Stewart Fleming, John J. Mullins, Jonathan R. Seckl, Jeffrey S. Flier
It has been found that 4-estren-3α,17β-diol, a synthetic ligand for the estrogen receptor (ER) or androgen receptor (AR), which does not affect classical transcription, reverses bone loss in ovariectomized females or orchidectomized males without affecting the uterus or seminal vesicles, demonstrating that the classical genotropic actions of sex steroid receptors are dispensable for their bone-protective effects, but indispensable for their effects on reproductive organs. We have now investigated the mechanism of action of this compound. We report that, identically to 17β-estradiol or dihydrotestosterone, but differently from raloxifene, estren alters the activity of Elk-1, CCAAT enhancer binding protein–β (C/EBPβ), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate–response element binding protein (CREB), or c-Jun/c-Fos by an extranuclear action of the ER or AR, resulting in activation of the Src/Shc/ERK pathway or downregulation of JNK, respectively. All of these effects are non–sex specific, require only the ligand-binding domain of the receptor, and are indispensable for the antiapoptotic action of these ligands on osteoblastic and HeLa cells. Moreover, administration of 17β-estradiol or 4-estren-3α,17β-diol to ovariectomized mice induces phosphorylation of ERKs, Elk-1, and C/EBPβ, downregulates c-Jun, and upregulates the expression of egr-1, an ERK/SRE target gene. Kinase-initiated regulation of commonly used transcription factors offers a molecular explanation for the profound skeletal effects of sex steroid receptor ligands, including synthetic ones that are devoid of classical transcriptional activity.
Stavroula Kousteni, Li Han, Jin-Ran Chen, Maria Almeida, Lilian I. Plotkin, Teresita Bellido, Stavros C. Manolagas
To elucidate the role of leptin in regulating neuroendocrine and metabolic function during an acute fast, six to eight healthy, lean men were studied under four separate conditions: a baseline fed state and three 72-hour fasting studies with administration of either placebo, low-dose recombinant-methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin), or replacement-dose r-metHuLeptin designed to maintain serum leptin at levels similar to those in the fed state. Replacement-dose r-metHuLeptin administered during fasting prevents the starvation-induced changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and, in part, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and IGF-1 binding capacity in serum. Thus, in normal men, the fall in leptin with fasting may be both necessary and sufficient for the physiologic adaptations of these axes, which require leptin levels above a certain threshold for activation. In contrast to findings in mice, fasting-induced changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, renin-aldosterone, and growth hormone–IGF-1 axes as well as fuel utilization may be independent of leptin in humans. The role of leptin in normalizing several starvation-induced neuroendocrine changes may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of eating disorders and obesity.
Jean L. Chan, Kathleen Heist, Alex M. DePaoli, Johannes D. Veldhuis, Christos S. Mantzoros
Rapid oscillations of visceral lipolysis have been reported. To examine the putative role of the CNS in oscillatory lipolysis, we tested the effects of β3-blockade on pulsatile release of FFAs. Arterial blood samples were drawn at 1-minute intervals for 120 minutes from fasted, conscious dogs (n = 7) during the infusion of saline or bupranolol (1.5 μg/kg/min), a high-affinity β3-blocker. FFA and glycerol time series were analyzed and deconvolution analysis was applied to estimate the rate of FFA release. During saline infusion FFAs and glycerol oscillated in phase at about eight pulses/hour. Deconvolution analysis showed bursts of lipolysis (nine pulses/hour) with time-dependent variation in burst frequency. Bupranolol completely removed rapid FFA and glycerol oscillations. Despite removal of lipolytic bursts, plasma FFAs (0.31 mM) and glycerol (0.06 mM) were not totally suppressed and deconvolution analysis revealed persistent non-oscillatory lipolysis (0.064 mM/min). These results show that lipolysis in the fasting state consists of an oscillatory component, which appears to be entirely dependent upon sympathetic innervation of the adipose tissue, and a non-oscillatory, constitutive component, which persists despite β3-blockade. The extinction of lipid fuel bursts by β3-blockade implies a role for the CNS in the maintenance of cyclic provision of lipid fuels.
Katrin Hücking, Marianthe Hamilton-Wessler, Martin Ellmerer, Richard N. Bergman
Shouhong Xuan, Tadahiro Kitamura, Jun Nakae, Katerina Politi, Yoshiaki Kido, Peter E. Fisher, Manrico Morroni, Saverio Cinti, Morris F. White, Pedro L. Herrera, Domenico Accili, Argiris Efstratiadis
Shoshana Yakar, Clifford J. Rosen, Wesley G. Beamer, Cheryl L. Ackert-Bicknell, Yiping Wu, Jun-Li Liu, Guck T. Ooi, Jennifer Setser, Jan Frystyk, Yves R. Boisclair, Derek LeRoith
Timothy G. Butler, Jeff Schwartz, I. Caroline McMillen
Kathrin Maedler, Pavel Sergeev, Frédéric Ris, José Oberholzer, Helen I. Joller-Jemelka, Giatgen A. Spinas, Nurit Kaiser, Philippe A. Halban, Marc Y. Donath
Lara B. Pupim, Paul J. Flakoll, John R. Brouillette, Deanna K. Levenhagen, Raymond M. Hakim, T. Alp Ikizler
Norma Fox, Greg Priestley, Thalia Papayannopoulou, Kenneth Kaushansky