Although a disease-modifying therapy for CLN2 disease now exists, a poor understanding of cellular pathophysiology has hampered the development of more effective and persistent therapies. Here, we investigated the nature and progression of neurological and underlying neuropathological changes in Cln2R207X mice, which carry one of the most common pathogenic mutations in human patients, but are yet to be fully characterized. Long-term electroencephalography recordings revealed progressive epileptiform abnormalities including spontaneous seizures, providing a robust and quantifiable disease-relevant phenotype. These seizures were accompanied by the loss of multiple cortical neuron populations, including those stained for interneuron markers. Further histological analysis revealed early localized microglial activation months before neuron loss started in the thalamocortical system and spinal cord, which was accompanied by astrogliosis. This pathology was more pronounced and occurred in the cortex before the thalamus or spinal cord, and differs markedly from the staging seen in mouse models of other forms of NCL. Neonatal administration of adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9)-mediated gene therapy ameliorated the seizure and gait phenotypes and prolonged the lifespan of Cln2R207X mice, attenuating most pathological changes. Our findings highlight the importance of clinically relevant outcome measures for judging pre-clinical efficacy of therapeutic interventions for CLN2 disease.
Keigo Takahashi, Elizabeth M. Eultgen, Sophie H. Wang, Nicholas R. Rensing, Hemanth R. Nelvagal, Joshua T. Dearborn, Olivier Danos, Nicholas Buss, Mark S. Sands, Michael Wong, Jonathan D. Cooper
Patients with severe COVID-19 develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that may progress to cytokine storm syndrome, organ dysfunction, and death. Considering that complement component 5a (C5a), through its cellular receptor C5aR1, has potent proinflammatory actions, and plays immunopathological roles in inflammatory diseases, we investigated whether C5a/C5aR1 pathway could be involved in COVID-19 pathophysiology. C5a/C5aR1 signaling increased locally in the lung, especially in neutrophils of critically ill COVID-19 patients compared to patients with influenza infection, as well as in the lung tissue of K18-hACE2 Tg mice (Tg mice) infected with SARS-CoV-2. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of C5aR1 signaling ameliorated lung immunopathology in Tg-infected mice. Mechanistically, we found that C5aR1 signaling drives neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)s-dependent immunopathology. These data confirm the immunopathological role of C5a/C5aR1 signaling in COVID-19 and indicate that antagonists of C5aR1 could be useful for COVID-19 treatment.
Bruna M.S. Silva, Giovanni F. Gomes, Flavio P. Veras, Seppe Cambier, Gabriel V.L. Silva, Andreza U. Quadros, Diego B. Caetité, Daniele C. Nascimento, Camila M.S. Silva, Juliana C. Costa Silva, Samara Damasceno, Ayda H. Schneider, Fabio Beretta, Sabrina S. Batah, Icaro M.S. Castro, Isadora M. Paiva, Tamara Rodrigues, Ana Salina, Ronaldo Martins, Guilherme C. Martelossi Cebinelli, Naira L. Bibo, Daniel Macedo de Melo Jorge, Helder I. Nakaya, Dario S. Zamboni, Luiz O. Leiria, Alexandre T. Fabro, José C. Alves-Filho, Eurico Arruda, Paulo Louzada-Junior, Renê D.R. Oliveira, Larissa D. Cunha, Pierre Van Mol, Lore Vanderbeke, Simon Feys, Els Wauters, Laura Brandolini, Andrea Aramini, Fernando Q. Cunha, Jörg Köhl, Marcello Allegretti, Diether Lambrechts, Joost Wauters, Paul Proost, Thiago M. Cunha
BACKGROUND. Despite guidelines promoting the prevention and aggressive treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the importance of VAP as a driver of outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients, including patients with severe COVID-19, remains unclear. We aimed to determine the contribution of unsuccessful treatment of VAP to mortality in patients with severe pneumonia. METHODS. We performed a single-center prospective cohort study of 585 mechanically ventilated patients with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure, 190 of whom had COVID-19, who underwent at least one bronchoalveolar lavage. A panel of ICU physicians adjudicated pneumonia episodes and endpoints based on clinical and microbiologic data. Given the relatively long ICU length of stay among patients with COVID-19, we developed a machine learning approach called CarpeDiem, which groups similar ICU patient-days into clinical states based on electronic health record data. RESULTS.CarpeDiem revealed that the long ICU length of stay among patients with COVID-19 is attributable to long stays in clinical states characterized primarily by respiratory failure. While VAP was not associated with mortality overall, mortality was higher in patients with one episode of unsuccessfully treated VAP compared with successfully treated VAP (76.4% versus 17.6%, P < 0.001). In all patients, including those with COVID-19, CarpeDiem demonstrated that unresolving VAP was associated with transitions to clinical states associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS. Unsuccessful treatment of VAP is associated with greater mortality. The relatively long length of stay among patients with COVID-19 is primarily due to prolonged respiratory failure, placing them at higher risk of VAP. FUNDING. U19AI135964
Catherine A. Gao, Nikolay S. Markov, Thomas Stoeger, Anna E. Pawlowski, Mengjia Kang, Prasanth Nannapaneni, Rogan A. Grant, Chiagozie Pickens, James M. Walter, Jacqueline M. Kruser, Luke V. Rasmussen, Daniel Schneider, Justin Starren, Helen K. Donnelly, Alvaro Donayre, Yuan Luo, G.R. Scott Budinger, Richard G. Wunderink, Alexander V. Misharin, Benjamin D. Singer
Seizures are a frequent complication of adult-type diffuse gliomas, and are often difficult to control with medications. Gliomas with mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDHmut) are more likely than IDH wild-type (IDHwt) gliomas to cause seizures as part of their initial clinical presentation. However, whether IDHmut is also associated with seizures during the remaining disease course, and whether IDHmut inhibitors can reduce seizure risk, are unclear. Clinical multivariable analyses showed that preoperative seizures, glioma location, extent of resection, and glioma molecular subtype (including IDHmut status) all contribute to postoperative seizure risk in adult-type diffuse glioma patients, and that postoperative seizures are often associated with tumor recurrence. Experimentally, the metabolic product of IDHmut, D-2-hydroxyglutarate, rapidly synchronizes neuronal spike firing in a seizure-like manner, but only when nonneoplastic glial cells are present. In vitro and in vivo models can recapitulate IDHmut glioma-associated seizures, and IDHmut inhibitors currently being evaluated in glioma clinical trials inhibit seizures in those models, independent of their effects on glioma growth. These data show that postoperative seizure risk in adult-type diffuse gliomas varies in large part by molecular subtype, and that IDHmut inhibitors could play a key role in mitigating such risk in IDHmut glioma patients.
Michael Drumm, Wenxia Wang, Thomas K. Sears, Kirsten Bell-Burdett, Rodrigo Javier, Kristen Y. Cotton, Brynna T. Webb, Kayla T. Byrne, Dusten Unruh, Vineeth Thirunavu, Jordain Walshon, Alicia Steffens, Kathleen McCortney, Rimas V. Lukas, Joanna J. Phillips, Esraa Mohamed, John D. Finan, Lucas Santana-Santos, Amy B. Heimberger, Colin K. Franz, Jonathan E. Kurz, Jessica W. Templer, Geoffrey T. Swanson, Craig Horbinski
BACKGOUND. Basic immune processes exhibit circadian rhythms, but it is unclear if rhythms exist in clinical endpoints like vaccine protection. Here, we examined associations between Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination timing and effectiveness. METHODS. We retrospectively analyzed a large Israeli cohort with timestamped COVID-19 vaccinations (n=1,515,754 patients over 12 years-old, 99.2% receiving BNT162b2). Endpoints included COVID-19 breakthrough infection, COVID-19 associated emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations. Our main comparison was between patients vaccinated during morning (8:00-11:59), afternoon (12:00-15:59), or evening hours (16:00-19:59). We employed Cox regression to adjust for differences in age, sex, and co-morbidities. RESULTS. Breakthrough infections differed based on vaccination time, with lowest rates associated with late morning to early afternoon, and highest rates with evening vaccination. Vaccination timing remained significant after adjustment for patient age, sex, and co-morbidities. Results were consistent in patients who received the basic two-dose series and who received booster doses. The relationship between COVID-19 immunization time and breakthrough infections was sinusoidal, consistent with a biological rhythm that modifies vaccine effectiveness by 8.6-25%. The benefits of daytime vaccination were concentrated in younger (<20 years old) and older patients (>50 years old). COVID-19 related hospitalizations varied significantly with the timing of the second booster dose, an intervention reserved for older and immunosuppressed patients (HR=0.64 morning vs. evening, 0.43-0.97 95% CI, p=0.038). CONCLUSION. We report a significant association between the time of COVID-19 vaccination and its effectiveness. This has implications for mass vaccination programs. FUNDING. National Institutes of Health.
Guy Hazan, Or A. Duek, Hillel Alapi, Huram Mok, Alexander T. Ganninger, Elaine M. Ostendorf, Carrie Gierasch, Gabriel Chodick, David Greenberg, Jeffrey A. Haspel
Senescent vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) accumulate in the vasculature with age and tissue damage, and secrete factors that promote atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and disease. Here, we report increased levels and activity of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), a serine protease, in senescent VSMCs. Analysis of the conditioned media from senescent VSMCs revealed a unique senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) signature comprising many complement and coagulation factors; silencing or inhibiting DPP4 reduced these factors and increased cell death. Serum samples from persons with high risk for cardiovascular disease contained high levels of DPP4-regulated complement and coagulation factors. Importantly, DPP4 inhibition reduced senescent cell burden and coagulation and improved plaque stability, while single-cell resolution of senescent VSMCs reflected the senomorphic and senolytic effects of DPP4 inhibition in murine atherosclerosis. We propose that DPP4-regulated factors could be exploited therapeutically to reduce senescent cell function, reverse senohemostasis, and improve vascular disease.
Allison B. Herman, Dimitrios Tsitsipatis, Carlos Anerillas, Krystyna Mazan-Mamczarz, Angelica E. Carr, Jordan M. Gregg, Mingyi Wang, Jing Zhang, Marc Michel, Charnae' Henry-Smith, Sophia C. Harris, Rachel Munk, Jennifer L Martindale, Yulan Piao, Jinshui Fan, Julie A. Mattison, Supriyo De, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Robert W. Maul, Toshiko Tanaka, Ann Z. Moore, Megan E. DeMouth, Simone Sidoli, Luigi Ferrucci, Yie Liu, Rafael de Cabo, Edward G. Lakatta, Myriam Gorospe
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a devastating disease with substantial morbidity and mortality. The genetic basis of susceptibility to HSV in neonates remains undefined. We investigated a male infant with neonatal skin/eye/mouth (SEM) HSV1 disease who had complete recovery after acyclovir but developed HSV1 encephalitis at 1 year of age. Immune work up showed an anergic peripheral blood monocyte cytokine (PBMC) response to TLR3 stimulation but no other TLRs. Exome sequencing identified rare missense variants in IRF7 and UNC93B1. PBMC single cell RNA sequencing done during childhood revealed decreased expression of several innate immune genes and a repressed TLR3 pathway signature at baseline in several immune cell populations, including CD14 monocytes. Functional studies in fibroblasts and THP-1 showed that both variants individually suppressed TLR3-driven IRF3 promoter activity and type I interferon response in vitro. Furthermore, fibroblasts expressing the IRF7 and UNC93B1 variants had higher intracellular viral titers with blunting of the type I interferon response upon HSV1 challenge. This study reports an infant with recurrent HSV1 disease complicated by encephalitis associated with deleterious variants in IRF7 and UNC93B1 genes. Our results suggest that TLR3 pathway mutations may predispose neonates to recurrent severe HSV.
Megan H. Tucker, Wei Yu, Heather L. Menden, Sheng Xia, Carl F. Schreck, Margaret I. Gibson, Daniel A. Louiselle, Tomi Pastinen, Nikita Raje, Venkatesh Sampath
HSV-2 coinfection is associated with increased HIV-1 viral loads and expanded tissue reservoirs, but the mechanisms are not well-defined. HSV-2 recurrences result in an influx of activated CD4+ T cells to sites of viral replication and an increase in activated CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. We hypothesized that HSV-2 induces changes in these cells that facilitate HIV-1 reactivation and replication and tested this hypothesis in human CD4+ T cells and 2D10 cells, a model of HIV-1 latency. HSV-2 promoted latency reversal in HSV-2 infected and bystander 2D10 cells. Bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing studies of activated primary human CD4+ T cells identified decreased expression of HIV-1 restriction factors and increased expression of transcripts including MALAT1 that could drive HIV replication in both the HSV-2-infected and bystander cells. Transfection of 2D10 cells with VP16, an HSV-2 protein that regulates transcription, significantly upregulated MALAT1 expression, decreased trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 protein, and triggered HIV latency reversal. Knockout of MALAT1 from 2D10 cells abrogated the response to VP16 and reduced the response to HSV-2 infection. These results demonstrate that HSV-2 contributes to HIV-1 reactivation through diverse mechanisms including upregulation of MALAT1 to release epigenetic silencing.
Carl A. Pierce, Lip Nam Loh, Holly R. Steach, Natalia Cheshenko, Paula Preston-Hurlburt, Fengrui Zhang, Stephanie Stransky, Leah Kravets, Simone Sidoli, William M. Philbrick, Michel N. Nassar, Smita Krishnaswamy, Kevan C. Herold, Betsy C. Herold
Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is a disorder of bone metabolism that affects virtually all patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes including fractures, cardiovascular events and death. In the present study, we showed that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α), a transcription factor mostly expressed in the liver, is also expressed in bone, and that osseous HNF4α expression was dramatically reduced in patients and mice with ROD. Osteoblast-specific deletion of Hnf4α resulted in impaired osteogenesis in cells and mice. Using multi-omics analyses of bones and cells lacking or overexpressing Hnf4α1 and Hnf4α2, we showed that HNF4α2 is the main osseous Hnf4α isoform that regulates osteogenesis, cell metabolism, and cell death. As a result, osteoblast-specific overexpression of Hnf4α2 prevented bone loss in mice with CKD. Our results showed that HNF4α2 is a transcriptional regulator of osteogenesis, implicated in the development of ROD.
Marta Martinez-Calle, Guillaume Courbon, Bridget Hunt-Tobey, Connor Francis, Jadeah J. Spindler, Xueyan Wang, Luciene M. dos Reis, Carolina Steller Wagner Martins, Isidro B. Salusky, Hartmut H. Malluche, Thomas L. Nickolas, Rosa M.A. Moyses, Aline Martin, Valentin David
Characterized by the accumulation of somatic mutations in blood cell lineages, clonal hematopoiesis (CH) of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is frequent in ageing, involves expansion of mutated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSC/Ps) that leads to an increased risk of hematologic malignancy. However, risk factors that contribute to CHIP-associated CH are poorly understood. Obesity induces a pro-inflammatory state and fatty bone marrow (FBM), which may influence CHIP-associated pathologies. We analyzed exome sequencing and clinical data from 47,466 individuals with validated CHIP in UK Biobank. CHIP was present in 5.8% of the study population and was associated with a significant increase in waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Mouse models of obesity and CHIP driven by heterozygosity of Tet2, Dnmt3a, Asxl1 and Jak2 resulted in exacerbated expansion of mutant HSC/Ps due in part to excessive inflammation. Our results show that obesity is highly associated with CHIP and a pro-inflammatory state can potentiate progression of CHIP to more significant hematologic neoplasia. Calcium channel blocker, nifedipine or SKF-96365, either alone or in combination with metformin, MCC950 or anakinra (IL-1 receptor antagonist), suppressed the growth of mutant CHIP cells and partially restored normal hematopoiesis. Targeting CHIP mutant cells with these drugs could be a potential therapeutic approach to treat CH and its associated abnormalities in obese individuals.
Santhosh Kumar Pasupuleti, Baskar Ramdas, Sarah S. Burns, Lakshmi Reddy Palam, Rahul Kanumuri, Ramesh Kumar, Taruni R. Pandhiri, Utpal Dave, Nanda Kumar Yellapu, Xinyu Zhou, Chi Zhang, George E. Sandusky, Zhi Yu, Michael C. Honigberg, Alexander G. Bick, Gabriel K. Griffin, Abhishek Niroula, Benjamin L. Ebert, Sophie Paczesny, Pradeep Natarajan, Reuben Kapur
No posts were found with this tag.