Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The insulin-repressible FoxO transcription factors are potential mediators of the effect of insulin on HDL-C. FoxOs mediate a substantial portion of insulin-regulated transcription, and poor FoxO repression is thought to contribute to the excessive glucose production in diabetes. In this work, we show that mice with liver-specific triple FoxO knockout (L-FoxO1,3,4), which are known to have reduced hepatic glucose production, also have increased HDL-C. This was associated with decreased expression of the HDL-C clearance factors scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and hepatic lipase and defective selective uptake of HDL cholesteryl ester by the liver. The phenotype could be rescued by re-expression of SR-BI. These findings demonstrate that hepatic FoxOs are required for cholesterol homeostasis and HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport to the liver.


Samuel X. Lee, Markus Heine, Christian Schlein, Rajasekhar Ramakrishnan, Jing Liu, Gabriella Belnavis, Ido Haimi, Alexander W. Fischer, Henry N. Ginsberg, Joerg Heeren, Franz Rinninger, Rebecca A. Haeusler


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