HIV-1 disease is associated with pathological effects on T-cell production, destruction, and distribution. Using the deuterated (2H) glucose method for endogenous labeling, we have analyzed host factors that influence T-cell turnover in HIV-1–uninfected and –infected humans. In untreated HIV-1 disease, the average half life of circulating T cells was diminished without compensatory increases in cell production. Within 12 weeks of the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the absolute production rates of circulating T cells increased, and normal half-lives and production rates were restored by 12–36 months. Interpatient heterogeneity in the absolute degree of turnover correlated with the relative proportion of naive- and memory/effector-phenotype T cells in each of the CD4+ and CD8+ populations. The half-lives of naive-phenotype T cells ranged from 116–365 days (fractional replacement rates of 0.19–0.60% per day), whereas memory/effector-phenotype T cells persisted with half-lives from 22–79 days (fractional replacement rates of 0.87–3.14% per day). Naive-phenotype T cells were more abundant, and the half-life of total T cells was prolonged in individuals with abundant thymic tissue, as assessed by computed tomography. Such interpatient variation in T-cell kinetics may be reflective of differences in functional immune reconstitution after treatment for HIV-1 disease.
Joseph M. McCune, Mary Beth Hanley, Denise Cesar, Robert Halvorsen, Rebecca Hoh, Diane Schmidt, Eric Wieder, Steven Deeks, Scott Siler, Richard Neese, Marc Hellerstein
Usage data is cumulative from May 2020 through May 2021.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.