Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) have long been noted to contribute to liver regeneration after liver injury. In normal liver, the major cellular source of HGF is the hepatic stellate cell, but after liver injury, HGF expression has been thought to increase markedly in proliferating LSECs. However, emerging data suggest that even after injury, LSEC expression of HGF does not increase greatly. In contrast, bone marrow progenitor cells of LSECs (BM SPCs), which are rich in HGF, are recruited to the liver after injury. This Review examines liver regeneration from the perspective that BM SPCs that have been recruited to the liver, rather than mature LSECs, drive liver regeneration.
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