In striking contrast to HIV infection, natural SIV infection of African nonhuman primates is asymptomatic and usually does not induce significant CD4+ T cell depletion despite high levels of virus replication. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the remarkable difference in infection outcome between natural and nonnatural HIV/SIV hosts. These advances include the identification of limited immune activation as a key factor protecting natural SIV hosts from AIDS and the discovery of low CC chemokine receptor 5 expression on CD4+ T cells as a specific and consistent immunologic feature in these animals. Further elucidation of the pathways by which the differences in immune activation between natural and nonnatural hosts are manifest holds promise for the design of novel therapeutic approaches to HIV infection.
Guido Silvestri, Mirko Paiardini, Ivona Pandrea, Michael M. Lederman, Donald L. Sodora
Usage data is cumulative from April 2020 through April 2021.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.