The IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) shows significant homology with the IL-4R, and CD4+ Th2 cells are an important source of IL-21. Here we examined whether the IL-21R regulates the development of Th2 responses in vivo. To do this, we infected IL-21R–/– mice with the Th2-inducing pathogens Schistosoma mansoni and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and examined the influence of IL-21R deficiency on the development of Th2-dependent pathology. We showed that granulomatous inflammation and liver fibrosis were significantly reduced in S. mansoni–infected IL-21R–/– mice and in IL-21R+/+ mice treated with soluble IL-21R–Fc (sIL-21R–Fc). The impaired granulomatous response was also associated with a marked reduction in Th2 cytokine expression and function, as evidenced by the attenuated IL-4, IL-13, AMCase, Ym1, and FIZZ1 (also referred to as RELMα) responses in the tissues. A similarly impaired Th2 response was observed following N. brasiliensis infection. In vitro, IL-21 significantly augmented IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα1 expression in macrophages, resulting in increased FIZZ1 mRNA and arginase-1 activity following stimulation with IL-4 and IL-13. As such, these data identify the IL-21R as an important amplifier of alternative macrophage activation. Collectively, these results illustrate an essential function for the IL-21R in the development of pathogen-induced Th2 responses, which may have relevance in therapies for both inflammatory and chronic fibrotic diseases.
John Pesce, Mallika Kaviratne, Thirumalai R. Ramalingam, Robert W. Thompson, Joseph F. Urban, Allen W. Cheever, Deborah A. Young, Mary Collins, Michael J. Grusby, Thomas A. Wynn
IL-21 and IL-21R expression during highly polarized Th1 and Th2 immune responses.