Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus that has recently been associated with necrotizing pneumonia. In the present study, we report that in vitro, PVL induces polymorphonuclear cell death by necrosis or by apoptosis, depending on the PVL concentration. PVL-induced apoptosis was associated with a rapid disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, suggesting that PVL-induced apoptosis is preferentially mediated by the mitochondrial pathway. Polymorphonuclear cell exposure to PVL leads to mitochondrial localization of the toxin, whereas Bax, 1 of the 2 essential proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, was still localized in the cytosol. Addition of PVL to isolated mitochondria induced the release of the apoptogenic proteins cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO. Therefore, we suggest that PVL, which belongs to the pore-forming toxin family, could act at the mitochondrion level by creating pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Furthermore, LukS-PV, 1 of the 2 components of PVL, was detected in lung sections of patients with necrotizing pneumonia together with DNA fragmentation, suggesting that PVL induces apoptosis in vivo and thereby is directly involved in the pathophysiology of necrotizing pneumonia.
Anne-Laure Genestier, Marie-Cécile Michallet, Gilles Prévost, Gregory Bellot, Lara Chalabreysse, Simone Peyrol, Françoise Thivolet, Jerome Etienne, Gérard Lina, François M. Vallette, François Vandenesch, Laurent Genestier
Usage data is cumulative from May 2019 through May 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.