Patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib) have hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia due to renal parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance, but lack physical features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy. PHP-Ib is thus distinct from PHP-Ia, which is caused by mutations in the GNAS exons encoding the G protein α subunit. However, an imprinted autosomal dominant form of PHP-Ib (AD-PHP-Ib) has been mapped to a region of chromosome 20q13.3 containing GNAS. Furthermore, loss of methylation at a differentially methylated region (DMR) of this locus, exon A/B, has been observed thus far in all investigated sporadic PHP-Ib cases and the affected members of multiple AD-PHP-Ib kindreds. We now report that affected members and obligate gene carriers of 12 unrelated AD-PHP-Ib kindreds and four apparently sporadic PHP-Ib patients, but not healthy controls, have a heterozygous approximately 3-kb microdeletion located approximately 220 kb centromeric of GNAS exon A/B. The deleted region, which is flanked by two direct repeats, includes three exons of STX16, the gene encoding syntaxin-16, for which no evidence of imprinting could be found. Affected individuals carrying the microdeletion show loss of exon A/B methylation but no epigenetic abnormalities at other GNAS DMRs. We therefore postulate that this microdeletion disrupts a putative cis-acting element required for methylation at exon A/B, and that this genetic defect underlies the renal PTH resistance in AD-PHP-Ib.
Murat Bastepe, Leopold F. Fröhlich, Geoffrey N. Hendy, Olafur S. Indridason, Robert G. Josse, Hiroyuki Koshiyama, Jarmo Körkkö, Jon M. Nakamoto, Arlan L. Rosenbloom, Arnold H. Slyper, Toshitsugu Sugimoto, Agathocles Tsatsoulis, John D. Crawford, Harald Jüppner