There is unmet need for additional biomarkers to better select patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that are likely to benefit from immunotherapy in order to improve patient outcomes, reduce patient toxicity, and relieve the growing burden of healthcare costs. In this issue of the JCI, Hayashi and colleagues evaluated soluble forms of the immune checkpoint molecules PD-L1, PD-1, and CTLA-4 in the plasma of patients with advanced NSCLC who had been treated with anti-PD-1/L1 therapy. The findings suggest that these soluble immune-checkpoint factors may provide a complementary biomarker to PD-L1 IHC, although application into the clinic may not be straightforward.


Aaron C. Tan, Sarah L. Cook, Mustafa Khasraw


Download this citation for these citation managers:

Or, download this citation in these formats:

If you experience problems using these citation formats, send us feedback.