Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the gradual loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in association with aggregation of α-synuclein. Oxidative damage has been widely implicated in this disease, though the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that preferential accumulation of peroxidized phospholipids and loss of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) were responsible for vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and progressive motor dysfunctions in a mouse model of PD. We also established a mechanism wherein iron-induced dopamine oxidation modified GPX4, thereby rendering it amenable to degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In conclusion, this study unraveled what we believe to be a novel pathway for dopaminergic neuron degeneration during PD pathogenesis, driven by dopamine-induced loss of antioxidant GPX4 activity.
Jie Sun, Xiao-Min Lin, Dan-Hua Lu, Meng Wang, Kun Li, Sheng-Rong Li, Zheng-Qiu Li, Cheng-Jun Zhu, Zhi-Min Zhang, Chang-Yu Yan, Ming-Hai Pan, Hai-Biao Gong, Jing-Cheng Feng, Yun-Feng Cao, Feng Huang, Wan-Yang Sun, Hiroshi Kurihara, Yi-Fang Li, Wen-Jun Duan, Gen-Long Jiao, Li Zhang, Rong-Rong He
GPX4 is indispensable for maintaining resistance to ferroptosis-associated lipid peroxidation.