We and others have shown that an increased extracellular concentration of adenosine mediates the antiinflammatory effects of methotrexate and sulfasalazine both in vitro and in vivo, but the mechanism by which these drugs increase extracellular adenosine remains unclear. The results of the experiments reported here provide three distinct lines of evidence that adenosine results from the ecto-5'-nucleotidase- mediated conversion of adenine nucleotides to adenosine. First, pretreatment of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) with methotrexate increases extracellular adenosine after exposure of the pretreated cells to activated neutrophils; the ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor alpha, beta-methylene adenosine-5'-diphosphate (APCP) abrogates completely the increase in extracellular adenosine. Second, there is no methotrexate-mediated increase in extracellular adenosine concentration in the supernate of cells deficient in ecto-5'-nucleotidase, but there is a marked increase in extracellular adenosine concentration in the supernates of these cells after transfection and surface expression of the enzyme. Finally, as we have shown previously, adenosine mediates the antiinflammatory effects of methotrexate and sulfasalazine in the murine air pouch model of inflammation, and injection of APCP, the ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor, abrogates completely the increase in adenosine and the decrement in inflammation in this in vivo model. These results not only show that ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity is a critical mediator of methotrexate- and sulfasalazine-induced antiinflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo but also indicate that adenine nucleotides, released from cells, are the source of extracellular adenosine.
L Morabito, M C Montesinos, D M Schreibman, L Balter, L F Thompson, R Resta, G Carlin, M A Huie, B N Cronstein
Usage data is cumulative from January 2019 through January 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.