Thermal stressing of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- rich culinary oils according to routine frying or cooking practices generates high levels of cytotoxic aldehydic products (predominantly trans-2-alkenals, trans,trans-alka-2,4-dienals, cis,trans-alka-2, 4-dienals, and n-alkanals), species arising from the fragmentation of conjugated hydroperoxydiene precursors. In this investigation we demonstrate that typical trans-2-alkenal compounds known to be produced from the thermally induced autoxidation of PUFAs are readily absorbed from the gut into the systemic circulation in vivo, metabolized (primarily via the addition of glutathione across their electrophilic carbon-carbon double bonds), and excreted in the urine as C-3 mercapturate conjugates in rats. Since such aldehydic products are damaging to human health, the results obtained from our investigations indicate that the dietary ingestion of thermally, autoxidatively stressed PUFA-rich culinary oils promotes the induction, development, and progression of cardiovascular diseases.
M Grootveld, M D Atherton, A N Sheerin, J Hawkes, D R Blake, T E Richens, C J Silwood, E Lynch, A W Claxson
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