Organ transplantation is now a preferred treatment for end-stage organ failure. Among the challenges for ensuring excellent clinical outcomes for transplant recipients is good initial allograft function at the time of organ implantation. This is determined in part by the functional status of the donor and donor organ, functional status of the recipient, and conduct of the operative procedure. Despite optimization of these variables, organ transplantation is still often plagued by substantial initial dysfunction, variably referred to as slow or delayed graft function, or in the most extreme cases, primary graft nonfunction necessitating urgent regrafting. In this issue of the JCI, Nakamura, Kageyama, Ito, Hirao, and colleagues investigate a potential role for the recipient’s microbiome in determining graft function after liver transplantation and demonstrate the benefits of antibiotic pretreatment in both a mouse model and in human patients.


Jonathan S. Bromberg, Joseph R. Scalea, Emmanuel F. Mongodin


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