Chronic unresolved inflammation contributes to the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a disorder characterized by lipotoxicity, fibrosis, and progressive liver dysfunction. In this issue of the JCI, Han et al. report that maresin 1 (MaR1), a proresolving lipid mediator, mitigates NASH by reprograming macrophages to an antiinflammatory phenotype. Mechanistically, they identified retinoic acid–related orphan receptor α (RORα) as both a target and autocrine regulator of MaR1 production. Because NASH is associated with many widely occurring metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes, identification of this endogenous protective pathway could have broad therapeutic implications.
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