Coagulation Factor V is an essential component of the prothrombinase complex, which activates the zymogen prothrombin to thrombin. A patient was described who developed a Factor V inhibitor that neutralized the procoagulant activity of Factor V and resulted in a fatal hemorrhagic diathesis (Coots, M. C., A. F. Muhleman, and H. I. Glueck. 1978. Am. J. Hematol. 4:193-206). This inhibitor was shown to be an IgG antibody that bound to the light chain of Factor V. Using a series of light chain deletion mutants, we have found that this antibody binds to the second C-type domain of the light chain. Both inhibitor IgG and Fab fragments rapidly neutralized the procoagulant activity of Factor Va, implying that the neutralization resulted from specific binding to the C2 domain. We have previously demonstrated that deletion of the C2 domain results in loss of procoagulant activity, as well as loss of phosphatidylserine-specific binding. Confirming these results, both inhibitor IgG and Fab fragments interfered with phosphatidylserine-specific binding of Factor V. Conversely, preincubation of Factor Va with procoagulant phospholipids protected the cofactor from inactivation by the inhibitor. Our results suggest that this inhibitor neutralizes the procoagulant activity of Factor Va by interfering with the C2-mediated interaction with phospholipid surfaces, thereby disrupting formation of the prothrombinase complex.
T L Ortel, M A Quinn-Allen, L A Charles, D Devore-Carter, W H Kane