To assess the relative contributions of encainide and its putatively active metabolites, O-demethyl encainide (ODE) and 3 methoxy-O-demethyl encainide (3MODE), to the drug's pharmacologic effects, we compared intravenous infusions and sustained oral therapy in two phenotypically distinct groups of patients, extensive and poor metabolizers of encainide. Unlike poor metabolizers, extensive metabolizers had appreciable quantities of both metabolites detectable in plasma and had fourfold shorter elimination half-lives for encainide. By quantitating electrocardiogram intervals, arrhythmia frequency, and plasma concentrations, we found that, in poor metabolizers, arrhythmia suppression and ventricular complex (QRS) prolongation were correlated positively with encainide concentrations (r greater than or equal to 0.570, P less than 0.014). In these two subjects, antiarrhythmic concentrations of encainide (greater than 265 ng/ml) were at least fivefold higher than those sustained in the six extensive metabolizers during steady state oral therapy. In extensive metabolizers, encainide concentrations were uncorrelated with effects. Arrhythmia suppression and QRS prolongation in extensive metabolizers correlated best with ODE (r greater than or equal to 0.816, P less than 0.001); QTc change correlated positively with both 3MODE and ODE. Arrhythmia suppression paralleled QRS prolongation; the relationship between them appeared similar in both phenotypic groups. In most patients, extensive metabolizers, encainide effects during oral therapy are mediated by metabolites, probably ODE.
E L Carey Jr, H J Duff, D M Roden, R K Primm, G R Wilkinson, T Wang, J A Oates, R L Woosley
Usage data is cumulative from September 2022 through September 2023.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.