To define better the role of the fibrinogen receptor in platelet physiology and to characterize it biochemically, a murine monoclonal antibody that completely blocks the binding of fibrinogen to the platelet surface was produced by the hybridoma technique with the aid of a functional screening assay. Purified F(ab')2 fragments and/or intact antibody completely blocked aggregation induced by ADP, thrombin, or epinephrine and the binding of radiolabeled fibrinogen to platelets induced by ADP. The antibody did not block agglutination of formaldehyde-fixed platelets by ristocetin or shape change induced by either ADP or thrombin. ADP- and epinephrine-induced release of ATP was completely inhibited by the antibody, but inhibition of release induced by collagen and thrombin was dose dependent and partial. The antibody also dramatically inhibited platelet retention in glass-bead columns, platelet adhesion to glass, and clot retraction. Thus, the antibody induced a thrombasthenic-like state. Immunofluorescent studies confirmed the specificity of the antibody for normal platelets and megakaryocytes and suggested that there is a marked decrease in detectable antigen in thrombasthenic platelets. Radiolabeled antibody bound to an average of approximately 40,000 sites on normal platelets but it bound to less than 2,000 sites on the platelets of a patient with thrombasthenia. The antibody immunoprecipitated both glycoproteins IIb and IIIa, and both glycoproteins bound to an affinity column of the antibody. These studies indicate that there is probably a single anatomic site that is crucial to the binding of all fibrinogen molecules and that this site is most likely on the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex. It also suggests that the thrombasthenic phenotype can be completely accounted for on the basis of the inhibition of fibrinogen binding to platelets.
B S Coller, E I Peerschke, L E Scudder, C A Sullivan