Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) are related X-linked disorders characterized by adrenal, gonadal, and nervous system dysfunction. While the pathologic finding common to these tissues appears to be the accumulation of excessive amounts of very long chain fatty acids, the mechanism leading to functional impairment in these tissues is unclear. Measurements of fluorescence polarization (P), using the lipid probe diphenylhexatriene, demonstrate a highly significant increase in the microviscosity of erythrocyte membranes in affected patients (P = 0.286 +/- 0.012) vs. normals (P = 0.239 +/- 0.020). Analyses of these membranes by gas-liquid chromatography revealed 1.9-, 1.6-, and 1.3-fold increases above normal values in the C25:0, C26:0, and C27:0 fatty acids, respectively. These observations are compatible with previously obtained data in animals that correlate membrane microviscosity with the number of hormone receptors in target tissues. The present data support the thesis that a decrease in responsiveness to trophic hormones in ALD and AMN is secondary to changes in the membrane microviscosity of the target tissues and suggest a mechanism by which adrenal and gonadal failure occur in such patients.
R A Knazek, W B Rizzo, J D Schulman, J R Dave