The impact of diabetes on cyclic nucleotide-associated mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle protein and amino acid metabolism was assessed using epitrochlaris preparations from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. 1 nM epinephrine inhibited alanine and glutamine release from control preparations, but no inhibition was observed from diabetic preparations with <0.1 mM. 10 nM epinephrine stimulated lactate production from control muscle but stimulation in diabetic preparations was observed only at 0.1 mM. Serotonin inhibited amino acid release and stimulated lactate production equally in control and diabetic muscle. 0.1 mM epinephrine increased cyclic (c)AMP levels by 360% in control muscles, but these levels were increased only 83% in diabetic muscle. Basal-, fluoride-, and serotonin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities were equal in membrane preparations of diabetic and control muscle, but epinephrine-stimulated adenylyl cyclase was reduced by 60% in diabetic muscle. Carbamylcholine stimulation of alanine and glutamine release was blunted in diabetic preparations. Carbamylcholine increased cGMP levels in control but not in diabetic muscle. In diabetic muscle, guanylyl cyclase activity was 65% of control and the stimulation of cyclase activity by sodium azide was less in diabetic than control preparations. Added cGMP stimulated alanine and glutamine release from control, but not from diabetic muscle. These data suggest a loss of adrenergic and cholinergic responsiveness in diabetic muscle. Because amino acid release also showed a decreased responsiveness to added cAMP and cGMP, the presence of other derangements in the mechanism(s) of cyclic nucleotide regulation of muscle amino acid metabolism also seems likely.
Alan J. Garber