Total respiratory, pulmonary, and chest wall flow resistances were determined by means of forced pressure and flow oscillations (3-9 cps) superimposed upon spontaneous breathing in a group of patients with varying degrees of obstructive lung disease. Increased total respiratory and pulmonary resistances were found, whereas the chest wall resistance was normal or subnormal. The total respiratory and pulmonary resistances decreased with increasing frequencies. Static compliance of the lung was measured during interrupted slow expiration, and dynamic compliance was measured during quiet and rapid spontaneous breathing. Compliance was found to be frequency-dependent. The frequency dependence of resistance and compliance are interpreted as effects of uneven distribution of the mechanical properties in the lungs. The practical application of the oscillatory technique to the measurement of flow resistance in patients with lung disease is discussed. Measurements of total respiratory resistance by the forced oscillatory technique at frequencies less than 5 cps appear to be as useful for assessing abnormalities in airway resistance as either the plethysmographic or esophageal pressure techniques.
Gunnar Grimby, Tamotsu Takishima, William Graham, Peter Macklem, Jere Mead
Usage data is cumulative from February 2023 through February 2024.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.