Lacteals are lymphatic vessels located at the center of each intestinal villus and provide essential transport routes for lipids and other lipophilic molecules. However, it is unclear how absorbed molecules are transported through the lacteal. Here, we used reporter mice that express GFP under the control of the lymphatic-specific promoter
Kibaek Choe, Jeon Yeob Jang, Intae Park, Yeseul Kim, Soyeon Ahn, Dae-Young Park, Young-Kwon Hong, Kari Alitalo, Gou Young Koh, Pilhan Kim
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that is associated with granulomatous inflammation and the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3). We previously determined that PR3 on the surface of apoptotic neutrophils interferes with induction of antiinflammatory mechanisms following phagocytosis of these cells by macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that enzymatically active membrane-associated PR3 on apoptotic cells triggered secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including granulocyte CSF (G-CSF) and chemokines. This response required the IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling pathway and was dependent on the synthesis of NO, as macrophages from animals lacking these pathways did not exhibit a PR3-associated proinflammatory response. The PR3-induced microenvironment facilitated recruitment of inflammatory cells, such as macrophages, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), and neutrophils, which were observed in close proximity within granulomatous lesions in the lungs of GPA patients. In different murine models of apoptotic cell injection, the PR3-induced microenvironment instructed pDC-driven Th9/Th2 cell generation. Concomitant injection of anti-PR3 ANCAs with PR3-expressing apoptotic cells induced a Th17 response, revealing a GPA-specific mechanism of immune polarization. Accordingly, circulating CD4+ T cells from GPA patients had a skewed distribution of Th9/Th2/Th17. These results reveal that PR3 disrupts immune silencing associated with clearance of apoptotic neutrophils and provide insight into how PR3 and PR3-targeting ANCAs promote GPA pathophysiology.
Arnaud Millet, Katherine R. Martin, Francis Bonnefoy, Philippe Saas, Julie Mocek, Manal Alkan, Benjamin Terrier, Anja Kerstein, Nicola Tamassia, Senthil Kumaran Satyanarayanan, Amiram Ariel, Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Loïc Guillevin, Marco A. Cassatella, Antje Mueller, Nathalie Thieblemont, Peter Lamprecht, Luc Mouthon, Sylvain Perruche, Véronique Witko-Sarsat
Calcium/calcineurin signaling is critical for normal cellular physiology. Abnormalities in this pathway cause many diseases, including podocytopathy; therefore, understanding the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of calcium/calcineurin signaling is essential. Here, we showed that critical components of calcium/calcineurin signaling, including
Junnan Wu, Chunxia Zheng, Xiao Wang, Shifeng Yun, Yue Zhao, Lin Liu, Yuqiu Lu, Yuting Ye, Xiaodong Zhu, Changming Zhang, Shaolin Shi, Zhihong Liu
Polarized activation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) is crucial for maintaining adipose tissue function and mediating obesity-associated cardiovascular risk and metabolic abnormalities; however, the regulatory network of this key process is not well defined. Here, we identified a PPARγ/microRNA-223 (miR-223) regulatory axis that controls macrophage polarization by targeting distinct downstream genes to shift the cellular response to various stimuli. In BM-derived macrophages, PPARγ directly enhanced miR-223 expression upon exposure to Th2 stimuli. ChIP analysis, followed by enhancer reporter assays, revealed that this effect was mediated by PPARγ binding 3 PPARγ regulatory elements (PPREs) upstream of the pre–miR-223 coding region. Moreover, deletion of miR-223 impaired PPARγ-dependent macrophage alternative activation in cells cultured ex vivo and in mice fed a high-fat diet. We identified
Wei Ying, Alexander Tseng, Richard Cheng-An Chang, Andrew Morin, Tyler Brehm, Karen Triff, Vijayalekshmi Nair, Guoqing Zhuang, Hui Song, Srikanth Kanameni, Haiqing Wang, Michael C. Golding, Fuller W. Bazer, Robert S. Chapkin, Stephen Safe, Beiyan Zhou
Cardiomyopathy is a common human disorder that is characterized by contractile dysfunction and cardiac remodeling. Genetic mutations and altered expression of genes encoding many signaling molecules and contractile proteins are associated with cardiomyopathy; however, how cardiomyocytes sense pathophysiological stresses in order to then modulate cardiac remodeling remains poorly understood. Here, we have described a regulator in the heart that harmonizes the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and dilation. We determined that expression of the myocyte-enriched protein cardiac ISL1-interacting protein (CIP, also known as MLIP) is reduced in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. As CIP is highly conserved between human and mouse, we evaluated the effects of CIP deficiency on cardiac remodeling in mice. Deletion of the CIP-encoding gene accelerated progress from hypertrophy to heart failure in several cardiomyopathy models. Conversely, transgenic and AAV-mediated CIP overexpression prevented pathologic remodeling and preserved cardiac function. CIP deficiency combined with lamin A/C deletion resulted in severe dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac dysfunction in the absence of stress. Transcriptome analyses of CIP-deficient hearts revealed that the p53- and FOXO1-mediated gene networks related to homeostasis are disturbed upon pressure overload stress. Moreover, FOXO1 overexpression suppressed stress-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in CIP-deficient cardiomyocytes. Our studies identify CIP as a key regulator of cardiomyopathy that has potential as a therapeutic target to attenuate heart failure progression.
Zhan-Peng Huang, Masaharu Kataoka, Jinghai Chen, Gengze Wu, Jian Ding, Mao Nie, Zhiqiang Lin, Jianming Liu, Xiaoyun Hu, Lixin Ma, Bin Zhou, Hiroko Wakimoto, Chunyu Zeng, Jan Kyselovic, Zhong-Liang Deng, Christine E. Seidman, J.G. Seidman, William T. Pu, Da-Zhi Wang
IgG molecules exert both pro- and antiinflammatory effector functions based on the composition of the fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain glycan. Sialylated IgG Fc domains have antiinflammatory properties that are attributed to their ability to increase the activation threshold of innate effector cells to immune complexes by stimulating the upregulation of the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB). Here, we report that IgG Fc sialylation of human monoclonal IgG1 molecules impairs their efficacy to induce complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CDC). Fc sialylation of a CD20-targeting antibody had no impact on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and did not change the affinity of the antibody for activating Fcγ receptors. In contrast, the presence of sialic acid abrogated the increased binding of C1q to Fc-galactosylated IgG1 and resulted in decreased levels of C3b deposition on the cell surface. Similar to monoclonal antibodies, sialic acid inhibited the increased C1q binding to galactosylated Fc fragments in human polyclonal IgG. In sera derived from patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system in which humoral immune responses mediate tissue damage, induction of IgG Fc sialylation was associated with clinical disease remission. Thus, impairment of CDC represents an FcγR-independent mechanism by which Fc-sialylated glycovariants might limit proinflammatory IgG effector functions.
Isaak Quast, Christian W. Keller, Michael A. Maurer, John P. Giddens, Björn Tackenberg, Lai-Xi Wang, Christian Münz, Falk Nimmerjahn, Marinos C. Dalakas, Jan D. Lünemann
IL-17–producing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells) have well-described pathogenic roles in tissue inflammation and autoimmune diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); however, the involvement of IL-21 in these processes has remained controversial. While IL-21 is an essential autocrine amplification factor for differentiation of Th17 cells, the loss of IL-21 or IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) does not protect mice from actively induced EAE. Here, we utilized a transgenic EAE mouse model, in which T and B cells overexpress receptors for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (referred to as 2D2xTH mice), and demonstrated that IL-21 is critical for the development of a variant form of spontaneous EAE in these animals.
Youjin Lee, Meike Mitsdoerffer, Sheng Xiao, Guangxiang Gu, Raymond A. Sobel, Vijay K. Kuchroo
Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy remains one of the most common and preventable causes of fetal growth restriction (FGR), a condition in which a fetus is unable to achieve its genetically determined potential size. Even though epidemiologic evidence clearly links maternal cigarette smoking with FGR, insight into the molecular mechanisms of cigarette smoke–induced FGR is lacking. Here, we performed transcriptional profiling of placentas obtained from smoking mothers who delivered growth-restricted infants and identified secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1), an extracellular antagonist of endogenous WNT signaling, as a candidate molecule. sFRP1 mRNA and protein levels were markedly upregulated (~10 fold) in placentas from smoking mothers compared with those from nonsmokers. In pregnant mice, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sFRP1 led to FGR, increased karyorrhexis in the junctional zone, and decreased proliferation of labyrinthine trophoblasts. Consistent with our hypothesis that placental WNT signaling is suppressed in maternal smokers, we found that exposure to carbon monoxide analogs led to reduced WNT signaling, increased
Alice Wang, Zsuzsanna K. Zsengellér, Jonathan L. Hecht, Roberto Buccafusca, Suzanne D. Burke, Augustine Rajakumar, Emily Weingart, Paul B. Yu, Saira Salahuddin, S. Ananth Karumanchi
Alterations in insulin granule exocytosis and endocytosis are paramount to pancreatic β cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Here, using temporally controlled gene ablation specifically in β cells in mice, we identified an essential role of dynamin 2 GTPase in preserving normal biphasic insulin secretion and blood glucose homeostasis. Dynamin 2 deletion in β cells caused glucose intolerance and substantial reduction of the second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, mutant β cells still maintained abundant insulin granules, with no signs of cell surface expansion. Compared with control β cells, real-time capacitance measurements demonstrated that exocytosis-endocytosis coupling was less efficient but not abolished; clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) was severely impaired at the step of membrane fission, which resulted in accumulation of clathrin-coated endocytic intermediates on the plasma membrane. Moreover, dynamin 2 ablation in β cells led to striking reorganization and enhancement of actin filaments, and insulin granule recruitment and mobilization were impaired at the later stage of GSIS. Together, our results demonstrate that dynamin 2 regulates insulin secretory capacity and dynamics in vivo through a mechanism depending on CME and F-actin remodeling. Moreover, this study indicates a potential pathophysiological link between endocytosis and diabetes mellitus.
Fan Fan, Chen Ji, Yumei Wu, Shawn M. Ferguson, Natalia Tamarina, Louis H. Philipson, Xuelin Lou
Coinhibitory receptors are critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Upregulation of these receptors on effector T cells terminates T cell responses, while their expression on Tregs promotes their suppressor function. Understanding the function of coinhibitory receptors in effector T cells and Tregs is crucial, as therapies that target coinhibitory receptors are currently at the forefront of treatment strategies for cancer and other chronic diseases. T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is a recently identified coinhibitory receptor that is found on the surface of a variety of lymphoid cells, and its role in immune regulation is just beginning to be elucidated. We examined TIGIT-mediated immune regulation in different murine cancer models and determined that TIGIT marks the most dysfunctional subset of CD8+ T cells in tumor tissue as well as tumor-tissue Tregs with a highly active and suppressive phenotype. We demonstrated that TIGIT signaling in Tregs directs their phenotype and that TIGIT primarily suppresses antitumor immunity via Tregs and not CD8+ T cells. Moreover, TIGIT+ Tregs upregulated expression of the coinhibitory receptor TIM-3 in tumor tissue, and TIM-3 and TIGIT synergized to suppress antitumor immune responses. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into how TIGIT regulates immune responses in chronic disease settings.
Sema Kurtulus, Kaori Sakuishi, Shin-Foong Ngiow, Nicole Joller, Dewar J. Tan, Michele W.L. Teng, Mark J. Smyth, Vijay K. Kuchroo, Ana C. Anderson
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women. For most patients in whom the disease is confined to the uterus, treatment results in successful remission; however, there are no curative treatments for tumors that have progressed beyond the uterus. The serine/threonine kinase LKB1 has been identified as a potent suppressor of uterine cancer, but the biological modes of action of LKB1 in this context remain incompletely understood. Here, we have shown that LKB1 suppresses tumor progression by altering gene expression in the tumor microenvironment. We determined that LKB1 inactivation results in abnormal, cell-autonomous production of the inflammatory cytokine chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) within tumors, which leads to increased recruitment of macrophages with prominent tumor-promoting activities. Inactivation of
Christopher G. Peña, Yuji Nakada, Hatice D. Saatcioglu, Gina M. Aloisio, Ileana Cuevas, Song Zhang, David S. Miller, Jayanthi S. Lea, Kwok-Kin Wong, Ralph J. DeBerardinis, Antonio L. Amelio, Rolf A. Brekken, Diego H. Castrillon
Enhancement of HIV-specific immunity is likely required to eliminate latent HIV infection. Here, we have developed an immunotherapeutic modality aimed to improve T cell–mediated clearance of HIV-1–infected cells. Specifically, we employed Dual-Affinity Re-Targeting (DART) proteins, which are bispecific, antibody-based molecules that can bind 2 distinct cell-surface molecules simultaneously. We designed DARTs with a monovalent HIV-1 envelope-binding (Env-binding) arm that was derived from broadly binding, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity–mediating antibodies known to bind to HIV-infected target cells coupled to a monovalent CD3 binding arm designed to engage cytolytic effector T cells (referred to as HIVxCD3 DARTs). Thus, these DARTs redirected polyclonal T cells to specifically engage with and kill Env-expressing cells, including CD4+ T cells infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, thereby obviating the requirement for HIV-specific immunity. Using lymphocytes from patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), we demonstrated that DARTs mediate CD8+ T cell clearance of CD4+ T cells that are superinfected with the HIV-1 strain JR-CSF or infected with autologous reservoir viruses isolated from HIV-infected–patient resting CD4+ T cells. Moreover, DARTs mediated CD8+ T cell clearance of HIV from resting CD4+ T cell cultures following induction of latent virus expression. Combined with HIV latency reversing agents, HIVxCD3 DARTs have the potential to be effective immunotherapeutic agents to clear latent HIV-1 reservoirs in HIV-infected individuals.
Julia A.M. Sung, Joy Pickeral, Liqin Liu, Sherry A. Stanfield-Oakley, Chia-Ying Kao Lam, Carolina Garrido, Justin Pollara, Celia LaBranche, Mattia Bonsignori, M. Anthony Moody, Yinhua Yang, Robert Parks, Nancie Archin, Brigitte Allard, Jennifer Kirchherr, JoAnn D. Kuruc, Cynthia L. Gay, Myron S. Cohen, Christina Ochsenbauer, Kelly Soderberg, Hua-Xin Liao, David Montefiori, Paul Moore, Syd Johnson, Scott Koenig, Barton F. Haynes, Jeffrey L. Nordstrom, David M. Margolis, Guido Ferrari
Copyright © 2015 American Society for Clinical Investigation