Chromosomal translocation that results in fusion of the genes encoding RNA-binding protein EWS and transcription factor FLI1 (EWS-FLI1) is pathognomonic for Ewing sarcoma. EWS-FLI1 alters gene expression through mechanisms that are not completely understood. We performed RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis on primary pediatric human mesenchymal progenitor cells (pMPCs) expressing EWS-FLI1 in order to identify gene targets of this oncoprotein. We determined that long noncoding RNA-277 (Ewing sarcoma–associated transcript 1 [
Michelle Marques Howarth ... Paul Khavari, E. Alejandro Sweet-Cordero
Estrogen receptor–positive (ER+) breast cancers adapt to hormone deprivation and become resistant to antiestrogen therapy. Here, we performed deep sequencing on ER+ tumors that remained highly proliferative after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and identified a D189Y mutation in the inhibitory SH2 domain of the SRC family kinase (SFK) LYN. Evaluation of 463 breast tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed four
Luis J. Schwarz ... Ingrid M. Meszoely, Carlos L. Arteaga
Retinoid-storing hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have recently been described as a liver-resident mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) population; however, it is not clear whether these cells contribute to liver regeneration or serve as a progenitor cell population with hepatobiliary characteristics. Here, we purified HSCs with retinoid-dependent fluorescence-activated cell sorting from eGFP-expressing rats and transplanted these GFP+ HSCs into wild-type (WT) rats that had undergone partial hepatectomy in the presence of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2AAF) or retrorsine, both of which are injury models that favor stem cell–based liver repair. Transplanted HSCs contributed to liver regeneration in host animals by forming mesenchymal tissue, progenitor cells, hepatocytes, and cholangiocytes and elevated direct bilirubin levels in blood sera of GUNN rats, indicating recovery from the hepatic bilirubin–handling defect in these animals. Transplanted HSCs engrafted within the bone marrow (BM) of host animals, and HSC-derived cells were isolated from BM and successfully retransplanted into new hosts with injured liver. Cultured HSCs transiently adopted an expression profile similar to that of progenitor cells during differentiation into bile acid–synthesizing and –transporting hepatocytes, suggesting that stellate cells represent a source of liver progenitor cells. This concept connects seemingly contradictory studies that favor either progenitor cells or MSCs as important players in stem cell–based liver regeneration.
Claus Kordes, Iris Sawitza, Silke Götze, Diran Herebian, Dieter Häussinger
Acute stimulation of cardiac β-adrenoceptors is crucial to increasing cardiac function under stress; however, sustained β-adrenergic stimulation has been implicated in pathological myocardial remodeling and heart failure. Here, we have demonstrated that export of cAMP from cardiac myocytes is an intrinsic cardioprotective mechanism in response to cardiac stress. We report that infusion of cAMP into mice averted myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis in a disease model of cardiac pressure overload. The protective effect of exogenous cAMP required adenosine receptor signaling. This observation led to the identification of a potent paracrine mechanism that is dependent on secreted cAMP. Specifically, FRET-based imaging of cAMP formation in primary cells and in myocardial tissue from murine hearts revealed that cardiomyocytes depend on the transporter ABCC4 to export cAMP as an extracellular signal. Extracellular cAMP, through its metabolite adenosine, reduced cardiomyocyte cAMP formation and hypertrophy by activating A1 adenosine receptors while delivering an antifibrotic signal to cardiac fibroblasts by A2 adenosine receptor activation. Together, our data reveal a paracrine role for secreted cAMP in intercellular signaling in the myocardium, and we postulate that secreted cAMP may also constitute an important signal in other tissues.
Yassine Sassi ... Bernhard Laggerbauer, Stefan Engelhardt
Patients with gastric and esophageal (GE) adenocarcinoma tumors in which the oncogene
Jihun Kim ... Jeeyun Lee, Adam J. Bass
Metastasis is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Not all cancer cells within a tumor are capable of metastasizing. The microRNA-200 (miR-200) family, which regulates the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, is enriched in the serum of patients with metastatic cancers. Ectopic expression of miR-200 can confer metastatic ability to poorly metastatic tumor cells in some settings. Here, we investigated whether metastatic capability could be transferred between metastatic and nonmetastatic cancer cells via extracellular vesicles. miR-200 was secreted in extracellular vesicles from metastatic murine and human breast cancer cell lines, and miR-200 levels were increased in sera of mice bearing metastatic tumors. In culture, murine and human metastatic breast cancer cell extracellular vesicles transferred miR-200 microRNAs to nonmetastatic cells, altering gene expression and promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. In murine cancer and human xenograft models, miR-200–expressing tumors and extracellular vesicles from these tumors promoted metastasis of otherwise weakly metastatic cells either nearby or at distant sites and conferred to these cells the ability to colonize distant tissues in a miR-200–dependent manner. Together, our results demonstrate that metastatic capability can be transferred by the uptake of extracellular vesicles.
Minh T.N. Le ... Leonora Balaj, Judy Lieberman
Genome-wide association studies have identified a link between genetic variation at the human chromosomal locus 1p13.3 and coronary artery disease. The gene encoding sortilin (
Martin B. Mortensen ... Anders Nykjaer, Jacob F. Bentzon
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease triggered by infection with the human gliotropic JC virus (JCV). Due to the human-selective nature of the virus, there are no animal models available to investigate JCV pathogenesis. To address this issue, we developed mice with humanized white matter by engrafting human glial progenitor cells (GPCs) into neonatal immunodeficient and myelin-deficient mice. Intracerebral delivery of JCV resulted in infection and subsequent demyelination of these chimeric mice. Human GPCs and astrocytes were infected more readily than oligodendrocytes, and viral replication was noted primarily in human astrocytes and GPCs rather than oligodendrocytes, which instead expressed early viral T antigens and exhibited apoptotic death. Engraftment of human GPCs in normally myelinated and immunodeficient mice resulted in humanized white matter that was chimeric for human astrocytes and GPCs. JCV effectively propagated in these mice, which indicates that astroglial infection is sufficient for JCV spread. Sequencing revealed progressive mutation of the JCV capsid protein VP1 after infection, suggesting that PML may evolve with active infection. These results indicate that the principal CNS targets for JCV infection are astrocytes and GPCs and that infection is associated with progressive mutation, while demyelination is a secondary occurrence, following T antigen–triggered oligodendroglial apoptosis. More broadly, this study provides a model by which to further assess the biology and treatment of human-specific gliotropic viruses.
Yoichi Kondo ... Leonid Gorelik, Steven A. Goldman
Angioplasty and stenting is the primary treatment for flow-limiting atherosclerosis; however, this strategy is limited by pathological vascular remodeling. Using a systems approach, we identified a role for the network hub gene glutathione peroxidase-1 (
Ziad A. Ali ... Thomas Quertermous, Euan A. Ashley
The liver is capable of full regeneration following several types and rounds of injury, ranging from hepatectomy to toxin-mediated damage. The source of this regenerative capacity has long been a hotly debated topic. The damage response that occurs when hepatocyte proliferation is impaired is thought to be mediated by oval/dedifferentiated progenitor cells, which replenish the hepatocyte and ductal compartments of the liver. Recently, reports have questioned whether these oval/progenitor cells truly serve as the facultative stem cell of the liver following toxin-mediated damage. In this issue of the
Christopher J. Hindley, Gianmarco Mastrogiovanni, Meritxell Huch
Innate immunity to viral infection involves induction of the type I IFN response; however, dysfunctional regulation of this pathway leads to inappropriate inflammation. Here, we evaluated a nonconsanguineous family of mixed European descent, with 4 members affected by systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including lupus, with variable clinical expression. We identified a germline dominant gain-of-function mutation in
Nadia Jeremiah ... Brigitte Bader-Meunier, Frédéric Rieux-Laucat
JC virus (JCV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease in humans. The disease, once considered fatal, is now managed with immune reconstitution therapy; however, surviving patients remain severely debilitated. Until now, there has been no animal model to study JCV in the brain, and research into treatment has relied on cell culture systems. In this issue of the
Sheila A. Haley, Walter J. Atwood
An emerging view is that breast cancer is a systemic disease that utilizes intrinsic and extrinsic tumor cell processes to support both primary tumor growth and metastatic dissemination into distal tissue. Delineation of factors involved in these processes should facilitate a better understanding for both assessing and preventing disease relapse. In this issue of the
David M. Epstein
Restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stenting (BAS) remains an unsolved clinical dilemma for patients with coronary artery disease. A better understanding of the mechanisms that drive this phenomenon is likely to lead to more effective treatments. In this issue of the
Judy B. de Haan
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm that results from clonal expansion of an Ig-secreting terminally differentiated B cell. Advanced MM is characterized by tissue damage that involves bone, kidney, and other organs and is typically associated with recurrent genetic abnormalities. IL-6 signaling via the IL-6 signal transducer GP130 has been implicated as an important driver of MM pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of constitutively active GP130 (L-GP130) in a murine retroviral transduction-transplantation model induces rapid MM development of high penetrance. L-GP130–expressing mice recapitulated all of the characteristics of human disease, including monoclonal gammopathy, BM infiltration with lytic bone lesions, and protein deposition in the kidney. Moreover, the disease was easily transplantable and allowed different therapeutic options to be evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Using this model, we determined that GP130 signaling collaborated with MYC to induce MM and was responsible and sufficient for directing the plasma cell phenotype. Accordingly, we identified
Tobias Dechow ... Florian Bassermann, Ulrich Keller
It has recently been demonstrated that memory B cells can reenter and reengage germinal center (GC) reactions, opening the possibility that multi-hit lymphomagenesis gradually occurs throughout life during successive immunological challenges. Here, we investigated this scenario in follicular lymphoma (FL), an indolent GC-derived malignancy. We developed a mouse model that recapitulates the FL hallmark t(14;18) translocation, which results in constitutive activation of antiapoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in a subset of B cells, and applied a combination of molecular and immunofluorescence approaches to track normal and t(14;18)+ memory B cells in human and BCL2-overexpressing B cells in murine lymphoid tissues. BCL2-overexpressing B cells required multiple GC transits before acquiring FL-associated developmental arrest and presenting as GC B cells with constitutive activation–induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutator activity. Moreover, multiple reentries into the GC were necessary for the progression to advanced precursor stages of FL. Together, our results demonstrate that protracted subversion of immune dynamics contributes to early dissemination and progression of t(14;18)+ precursors and shapes the systemic presentation of FL patients.
Stéphanie Sungalee ... Bertrand Nadel, Sandrine Roulland
High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is a marker commonly used to isolate stem cells, particularly breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here, we determined that ALDH1A1 activity is inhibited by acetylation of lysine 353 (K353) and that acetyltransferase P300/CBP–associated factor (PCAF) and deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) are responsible for regulating the acetylation state of ALDH1A1 K353. Evaluation of breast carcinoma tissues from patients revealed that cells with high ALDH1 activity have low ALDH1A1 acetylation and are capable of self-renewal. Acetylation of ALDH1A1 inhibited both the stem cell population and self-renewal properties in breast cancer. Moreover, NOTCH signaling activated ALDH1A1 through the induction of SIRT2, leading to ALDH1A1 deacetylation and enzymatic activation to promote breast CSCs. In breast cancer xenograft models, replacement of endogenous ALDH1A1 with an acetylation mimetic mutant inhibited tumorigenesis and tumor growth. Together, the results from our study reveal a function and mechanism of ALDH1A1 acetylation in regulating breast CSCs.
Di Zhao ... Kun-Liang Guan, Qun-Ying Lei
Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have a high incidence of early relapse and metastasis; however, the molecular basis for recurrence in these individuals remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that
Min Feng ... Dave S.B. Hoon, Qiang Yu
Infiltrating inflammatory cells are highly prevalent within the tumor microenvironment and mediate many processes associated with tumor progression; however, the contribution of specific populations remains unclear. For example, the nature and function of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) in the cancer microenvironment is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to provide a phenotypic and functional characterization of TANs in surgically resected lung cancer patients. We found that TANs constituted 5%–25% of cells isolated from the digested human lung tumors. Compared with blood neutrophils, TANs displayed an activated phenotype (CD62LloCD54hi) with a distinct repertoire of chemokine receptors that included CCR5, CCR7, CXCR3, and CXCR4. TANs produced substantial quantities of the proinflammatory factors MCP-1, IL-8, MIP-1α, and IL-6, as well as the antiinflammatory IL-1R antagonist. Functionally, both TANs and neutrophils isolated from distant nonmalignant lung tissue were able to stimulate T cell proliferation and IFN-γ release. Cross-talk between TANs and activated T cells led to substantial upregulation of CD54, CD86, OX40L, and 4-1BBL costimulatory molecules on the neutrophil surface, which bolstered T cell proliferation in a positive-feedback loop. Together our results demonstrate that in the earliest stages of lung cancer, TANs are not immunosuppressive, but rather stimulate T cell responses.
Evgeniy B. Eruslanov ... Steven M. Albelda, Sunil Singhal
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the most common cause of congenital viral infections and a major source of morbidity and mortality after organ transplantation. NK cells are pivotal effector cells in the innate defense against CMV. Recently, hallmarks of adaptive responses, such as memory-like features, have been recognized in NK cells. HCMV infection elicits the expansion of an NK cell subset carrying an activating receptor heterodimer, comprising CD94 and NKG2C (CD94/NKG2C), a response that resembles the clonal expansion of adaptive immune cells. Here, we determined that expansion of this NKG2C+ subset and general NK cell recovery rely on signals derived from CD14+ monocytes. In a coculture system, a subset of CD14+ cells with inflammatory monocyte features produced IL-12 in response to HCMV-infected fibroblasts, and neutralization of IL-12 in this model substantially reduced CD25 upregulation and NKG2C+ subset expansion. Finally, blockade of CD94/NKG2C on NK cells or silencing of the cognate ligand HLA-E in infected fibroblasts greatly impaired expansion of NKG2C+ NK cells. Together, our results reveal that IL-12, CD14+ cells, and the CD94/NKG2C/HLA-E axis are critical for the expansion of NKG2C+ NK cells in response to HCMV infection. Moreover, strategies targeting the NKG2C+ NK cell subset have the potential to be exploited in NK cell–based intervention strategies against viral infections and cancer.
Alexander Rölle ... Hartmut Hengel, Adelheid Cerwenka
Increased synthesis of cervical hyaluronan (HA) from early to late pregnancy has long been proposed to play an essential role in disorganization of the collagen-rich extracellular matrix to allow for maximal compliance and dilation of the cervix during the birth process. Here, we show that HA is not essential for increased cervical distensibility during late pregnancy. Rather, cervicovaginal HA plays an unanticipated important role in epithelial barrier protection of the lower reproductive tract. Specifically, HA depletion in the cervix and vagina resulted in inappropriate differentiation of epithelial cells, increased epithelial and mucosal permeability, and strikingly increased preterm birth rates in a mouse model of ascending vaginal infection. Collectively, these findings revealed that although HA is not obligatory for cervical compliance, it is crucial for maintaining an epithelial and mucosal barrier to limit pathogen infiltration of the lower reproductive tract during pregnancy and thereby is protective against infection-mediated preterm birth.
Yucel Akgul, R. Ann Word, Laura M. Ensign, Yu Yamaguchi, John Lydon, Justin Hanes, Mala Mahendroo
Memory B cells are a dynamic subset of the mature B cell population that in some cases can reenter germinal centers (GCs) in response to iterative infections. Such a reactivation can lead to accumulation of genetic lesions in these cells, potentially from repetitive activation of the B cell mutator enzyme AID. Normal memory B cells do not survive repeated reentries into GCs. In this issue, Sungalee et al. demonstrate that memory B cells harboring the oncogenic
Srividya Swaminathan, Markus Müschen
The most severe form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease occurs in patients with mutations in the gene (
Yiqiang Cai ... Barbara E. Ehrlich, Stefan Somlo
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal fibrotic lung disorder with no effective medical treatments available. The generation of myofibroblasts, which are critical for fibrogenesis, requires both a mechanical signal and activated TGF-β; however, it is not clear how fibroblasts sense and transmit the mechanical signal(s) that promote differentiation into myofibroblasts. As transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels are activated in response to changes in plasma membrane stretch/matrix stiffness, we investigated whether TRPV4 contributes to generation of myofibroblasts and/or experimental lung fibrosis. We determined that TRPV4 activity is upregulated in lung fibroblasts derived from patients with IPF. Moreover, TRPV4-deficient mice were protected from fibrosis. Furthermore, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV4 function abrogated myofibroblast differentiation, which was restored by TRPV4 reintroduction. TRPV4 channel activity was elevated when cells were plated on matrices of increasing stiffness or on fibrotic lung tissue, and matrix stiffness–dependent myofibroblast differentiation was reduced in response to TRVP4 inhibition. TRPV4 activity modulated TGF-β1–dependent actions in a SMAD-independent manner, enhanced actomyosin remodeling, and increased nuclear translocation of the α-SMA transcription coactivator (MRTF-A). Together, these data indicate that TRPV4 activity mediates pulmonary fibrogenesis and suggest that manipulation of TRPV4 channel activity has potential as a therapeutic approach for fibrotic diseases.
Shaik O. Rahaman ... Daniel J. Tschumperlin, Mitchell A. Olman
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are a heterogeneous set of cancers that are defined by the absence of hormone receptor expression and
Thanh U. Barbie ... David A. Barbie, William E. Gillanders
The bile acid–responsive G protein–coupled receptor TGR5 is involved in several metabolic processes, and recent studies suggest that TGR5 activation may promote pathways that are protective against diet-induced diabetes. Here, we investigated the role of macrophage-specific TGR5 signaling in protecting adipose tissue from inflammation and associated insulin resistance. Examination of adipose tissue from obese mice lacking macrophage
Alessia Perino ... Roberto Pellicciari, Kristina Schoonjans
Many patients who undergo general anesthesia and surgery experience cognitive dysfunction, particularly memory deficits that can persist for days to months. The mechanisms underlying this postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the adult brain remain poorly understood. Depression of brain function during anesthesia is attributed primarily to increased activity of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs), and it is assumed that once the anesthetic drug is eliminated, the activity of GABAARs rapidly returns to baseline and these receptors no longer impair memory. Here, using a murine model, we found that a single in vivo treatment with the injectable anesthetic etomidate increased a tonic inhibitory current generated by α5 subunit–containing GABAARs (α5GABAARs) and cell-surface expression of α5GABAARs for at least 1 week. The sustained increase in α5GABAAR activity impaired memory performance and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Inhibition of α5GABAARs completely reversed the memory deficits after anesthesia. Similarly, the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane triggered a persistent increase in tonic current and cell-surface expression of α5GABAARs. Thus, α5GABAAR function does not return to baseline after the anesthetic is eliminated, suggesting a mechanism to account for persistent memory deficits after general anesthesia.
Agnieszka A. Zurek ... Eric W.R. Salter, Beverley A. Orser
Heterotrimers composed of B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1), and caspase recruitment domain–containing (CARD) family adaptors play a role in NF-κB activation and have been shown to be involved in both the innate and the adaptive arms of immunity in murine models. Moreover, individuals with inherited defects of MALT1, CARD9, and CARD11 present with immunological and clinical phenotypes. Here, we characterized a case of autosomal-recessive, complete BCL10 deficiency in a child with a broad immunodeficiency, including defects of both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic immunity. The patient died at 3 years of age and was homozygous for a loss-of-expression, loss-of-function
Juan Manuel Torres ... Jean-Laurent Casanova, Rebeca Pérez de Diego
Autophagy allows cells to adapt to changes in their environment by coordinating the degradation and recycling of cellular components and organelles to maintain homeostasis. Lysosomes are organelles critical for terminating autophagy via their fusion with mature autophagosomes to generate autolysosomes that degrade autophagic materials; therefore, maintenance of the lysosomal population is essential for autophagy-dependent cellular clearance. Here, we have demonstrated that the two most common autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia gene products, the SPG15 protein spastizin and the SPG11 protein spatacsin, are pivotal for autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), a pathway that generates new lysosomes. Lysosomal targeting of spastizin required an intact FYVE domain, which binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Loss of spastizin or spatacsin resulted in depletion of free lysosomes, which are competent to fuse with autophagosomes, and an accumulation of autolysosomes, reflecting a failure in ALR. Moreover, spastizin and spatacsin were essential components for the initiation of lysosomal tubulation. Together, these results link dysfunction of the autophagy/lysosomal biogenesis machinery to neurodegeneration.
Jaerak Chang, Seongju Lee, Craig Blackstone
Atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy are closely linked; however, the mechanisms that guide the progression of AD to allergic inflammatory responses at other mucosal surfaces, including the gastrointestinal tract, are not well understood. Here, we determined that exposure of mice that have been epicutaneously sensitized with thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and antigen to repeated oral doses of the same antigen induced acute diarrhea and anaphylaxis. In this model, loss of TSLP signaling specifically in DCs led to loss of induced allergic diarrhea through lack of sensitization. While TSLP responses were not required during oral allergen challenge, CD4+ T cells were required and transferred disease when introduced into naive hosts. In addition, oral exposure to the antigen prior to skin sensitization blocked development of allergic disease. Finally, mice lacking the receptor for IL-25 failed to develop acute diarrhea and anaphylaxis, highlighting a role for IL-25 in the initiation of type 2 immunity in the intestine. These results demonstrate a role for TSLP and IL-25 in the atopic march from skin sensitization to food allergic responses and provide a model system for the generation of potential therapeutic interventions.
Hongwei Han, Tennille D. Thelen, Michael R. Comeau, Steven F. Ziegler
Growing evidence supports a link between inflammation and cancer; however, mediators of the transition between inflammation and carcinogenesis remain incompletely understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase (SPL) irreversibly degrades the bioactive sphingolipid S1P and is highly expressed in enterocytes but downregulated in colon cancer. Here, we investigated the role of SPL in colitis-associated cancer (CAC). We generated mice with intestinal epithelium-specific
Emilie Degagné ... Yasmin Ahmedi, Julie D. Saba
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum disorders affect approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. However, the drivers of progressive steatohepatitis remain incompletely defined. Ketogenesis can dispose of much of the fat that enters the liver, and dysfunction in this pathway could promote the development of NAFLD. Here, we evaluated mice lacking mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase (HMGCS2) to determine the role of ketogenesis in preventing diet-induced steatohepatitis. Antisense oligonucleotide–induced loss of HMGCS2 in chow-fed adult mice caused mild hyperglycemia, increased hepatic gluconeogenesis from pyruvate, and augmented production of hundreds of hepatic metabolites, a suite of which indicated activation of the de novo lipogenesis pathway. High-fat diet feeding of mice with insufficient ketogenesis resulted in extensive hepatocyte injury and inflammation, decreased glycemia, deranged hepatic TCA cycle intermediate concentrations, and impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis due to sequestration of free coenzyme A (CoASH). Supplementation of the CoASH precursors pantothenic acid and cysteine normalized TCA intermediates and gluconeogenesis in the livers of ketogenesis-insufficient animals. Together, these findings indicate that ketogenesis is a critical regulator of hepatic acyl-CoA metabolism, glucose metabolism, and TCA cycle function in the absorptive state and suggest that ketogenesis may modulate fatty liver disease.
David G. Cotter ... Gary J. Patti, Peter A. Crawford
CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have potent antitumor activity and therefore are leading candidates for use in tumor immunotherapy. The application of CTLs for clinical use has been limited by the susceptibility of ex vivo–expanded CTLs to become dysfunctional in response to immunosuppressive microenvironments. Here, we developed a microRNA-targeting (miRNA-targeting) approach that augments CTL cytotoxicity and preserves immunocompetence. Specifically, we screened for miRNAs that modulate cytotoxicity and identified miR-23a as a strong functional repressor of the transcription factor BLIMP-1, which promotes CTL cytotoxicity and effector cell differentiation. In a cohort of advanced lung cancer patients, miR-23a was upregulated in tumor-infiltrating CTLs, and expression correlated with impaired antitumor potential of patient CTLs. We determined that tumor-derived TGF-β directly suppresses CTL immune function by elevating miR-23a and downregulating BLIMP-1. Functional blocking of miR-23a in human CTLs enhanced granzyme B expression, and in mice with established tumors, immunotherapy with just a small number of tumor-specific CTLs in which miR-23a was inhibited robustly hindered tumor progression. Together, our findings provide a miRNA-based strategy that subverts the immunosuppression of CTLs that is often observed during adoptive cell transfer tumor immunotherapy and identify a TGF-β–mediated tumor immune-evasion pathway.
Regina Lin ... Bo Zhu, Qi-Jing Li
Intracellular Mg2+ levels are strictly regulated; however, the biological importance of intracellular Mg2+ levels and the pathways that regulate them remain poorly understood. Here, we determined that intracellular Mg2+ is important in regulating both energy metabolism and tumor progression. We determined that CNNM4, a membrane protein that stimulates Mg2+ efflux, binds phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL), which is frequently overexpressed in malignant human cancers. Biochemical analyses of cultured cells revealed that PRL prevents CNNM4-dependent Mg2+ efflux and that regulation of intracellular Mg2+ levels by PRL and CNNM4 is linked to energy metabolism and AMPK/mTOR signaling. Indeed, treatment with the clinically available mTOR inhibitor rapamycin suppressed the growth of cancer cells in which PRL was overexpressed. In
Yosuke Funato, Daisuke Yamazaki, Shin Mizukami, Lisa Du, Kazuya Kikuchi, Hiroaki Miki
Follicular Tregs (Tfr cells) inhibit antibody production, whereas follicular Th cells (Tfh cells) stimulate it. Tfr cells are found in blood; however, relatively little is known about the developmental signals for these cells or their functions. Here we demonstrated that circulating Tfr and Tfh cells share properties of memory cells and are distinct from effector Tfr and Tfh cells found within lymph nodes (LNs). Circulating memory-like Tfh cells were potently reactivated by DCs, homed to germinal centers, and produced more cytokines than did effector LN Tfh cells. Circulating memory-like Tfr cells persisted for long periods of time in vivo and homed to germinal centers after reactivation. Effector LN Tfr cells suppressed Tfh cell activation and production of cytokines, including IL-21, and inhibited class switch recombination and B cell activation. The suppressive function of this population was not dependent on specific antigen. Similar to LN effector Tfr cells, circulating Tfr cells also suppressed B and Tfh cells, but with a much lower capacity. Our data indicate that circulating memory-like Tfr cells are less suppressive than LN Tfr cells and circulating memory-like Tfh cells are more potent than LN effector Tfh cells; therefore, these circulating populations can provide rapid and robust systemic B cell help during secondary antigen exposure.
Peter T. Sage, David Alvarez, Jernej Godec, Ulrich H. von Andrian, Arlene H. Sharpe
Dermal infiltration of T cells is an important step in the onset and progression of immune-mediated skin diseases such as psoriasis; however, it is not known whether epidermal factors play a primary role in the development of these diseases. Here, we determined that the prodifferentiation transcription factor grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3), which is essential during epidermal development, is dispensable for adult skin homeostasis, but required for barrier repair after adult epidermal injury. Consistent with activation of a GRHL3-regulated repair pathway in psoriasis, we found that GRHL3 is upregulated in lesional skin and binds known epidermal differentiation gene targets. Using an imiquimod-induced model of immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia, we found that mice lacking GRHL3 have an exacerbated epidermal damage response, greater sensitivity to disease induction, delayed resolution of epidermal lesions, and resistance to anti–IL-22 therapy compared with WT animals. ChIP-Seq and gene expression profiling of murine skin revealed that while GRHL3 regulates differentiation pathways both during development and during repair from immune-mediated damage, it targets distinct sets of genes in the 2 processes. In particular, GRHL3 suppressed a number of alarmin and other proinflammatory genes after immune injury. This study identifies a GRHL3-regulated epidermal barrier repair pathway that suppresses disease initiation and helps resolve existing lesions in immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia.
William M. Gordon ... Pierre F. Baldi, Bogi Andersen
Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder–associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75A161T and KRT75E337K, are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75A161T variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries.
Olivier Duverger ... Mary L. Marazita, Maria I. Morasso
Copyright © 2014 American Society for Clinical Investigation