NAD+ precursor treatment after primary breast tumor removal increases animal survival.
(A) NAM treatment enhanced the NAD+/NADH ratio in cultured 4T1 murine breast carcinoma cells. NAD+/NADH levels were measured after 2 days of cell treatment with 10 mM NAM in complete medium. **P < 0.01, unpaired 2-tailed Student’s t test. n = 2 independent experiments. (B) Weight of 4T1 mammary fat pad tumors from untreated BALB/c mice. Tumors were surgically removed when their volume reached 300 mm3. Data show tumor weight distribution at time of surgery and randomization into groups (n = 8), before treatment was initiated. Boxes denote interquartile range; lines within boxes denote median; whiskers denote minima and maxima. P = 0.7480, unpaired 2-tailed Student’s t test. (C) Kaplan-Meier curves comparing survival of NAM-treated and untreated BALB/c mice after surgical removal of 4T1 mammary fat pad tumors. Mice were untreated or treated with 1% NAM in the drinking water after tumor removal (assigned as day 0). n = 8 per group. P = 0.0386, log-rank test.