There is growing evidence that the altered production and/or spatiotemporal distribution of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species creates oxidative and/or nitrosative stresses in the failing heart and vascular tree, which contribute to the abnormal cardiac and vascular phenotypes that characterize the failing cardiovascular system. These derangements at the integrated system level can be interpreted at the cellular and molecular levels in terms of adverse effects on signaling elements in the heart, vasculature, and blood that subserve cardiac and vascular homeostasis.
Joshua M. Hare, Jonathan S. Stamler
Consequences of NO/redox disequilibrium in the cardiovascular system – congestive HF phenotype. The balance between nitric oxide (NOS and hemoglobin–based activities) and superoxide/ROS production (oxidase activity) plays a pivotal role in cell/organ function at key sites in the cardiovascular system, including the heart (