Acute renal failure (ARF), characterized by sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, conserve electrolytes, and maintain fluid balance, is a frequent clinical problem, particularly in the intensive care unit, where it is associated with a mortality of between 50% and 80%. In this review, the epidemiology and pathophysiology of ARF are discussed, including the vascular, tubular, and inflammatory perturbations. The clinical evaluation of ARF and implications for potential future therapies to decrease the high mortality are described.
Robert W. Schrier, Wei Wang, Brian Poole, Amit Mitra
Guidelines for urinary indices whereby established ARF can be distinguished from renal vasoconstriction with intact tubular function (prerenal azotemia)