IL-1 receptor antagonist–deficient (IL-1Ra–/–) mice spontaneously develop autoimmune arthritis. We demonstrate here that T cells are required for the induction of arthritis; T cell–deficient IL-1Ra–/– mice did not develop arthritis, and transfer of IL-1Ra–/– T cells induced arthritis in nu/nu mice. Development of arthritis was also markedly suppressed by TNF-α deficiency. We found that TNF-α induced OX40 expression on T cells and blocking the interaction between either CD40 and its ligand or OX40 and its ligand suppressed development of arthritis. These findings suggest that IL-1 receptor antagonist deficiency in T cells disrupts homeostasis of the immune system and that TNF-α plays an important role in activating T cells through induction of OX40.