Citations to this article


Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a protein hormone implicated in the development of septic shock and other pathologic states. However, complexities inherent in detecting TNF synthesis by individual tissues have left the precise origins of this protein undefined. In addition, the possibility that localized TNF production may contribute to the pathogenesis of organ-specific diseases such as type I diabetes has not been explored in vivo. We have developed a transgenic mouse line bearing a reporter gene construct in which the TNF coding sequence and introns are replaced by a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) coding sequence. In normal transgenic animals, CAT activity is expressed only in the thymus. When endotoxin is administered to the animals, CAT activity is also evident in kidney, heart, islets of Langerhans, spleen, lung, fallopian tubes, and uterus, but not in other organs. The biosynthesis of CAT in vivo correlated with tissue capacity to secrete TNF in vitro. Thus, TNF was secreted by all the tissues that expressed CAT, including lung, spleen, thymus, uterus/fallopian tubes, pancreatic islets, renal glomeruli, and cultured cardiac cells after exposure to endotoxin.


B P Giroir, J H Johnson, T Brown, G L Allen, B Beutler


Total citations by year

Year: 2015 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 Total
Citations: 2 2 1 3 5 4 5 3 5 5 4 3 7 6 11 9 2 6 9 8 6 6 112
Citation information

Citations to this article (113)

Title and authors Publication Year
Current challenges in understanding immune cell functions during septic syndromes
Z Franks, MK Carlisle, MT Rondina
BMC Immunology 2015
Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation: A novel potential therapeutic target?
M Ren, X Li, L Hao, J Zhong
Annals of Medicine 2015
Current Status and Practical Use of Effluent Biomarkers in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
DL Barreto, RT Krediet
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2013
TLR2 stimulation induces cardiac inflammation but not cardiac depression in vivo
O Boehm, P Knuefermann, J Plueck, M Schwederski, H Ehrentraut, S Kebir, R Lohner, M Velten, S Morath, A Koch, K Zacharowski, C Grohé, A Hoeft, G Baumgarten, R Meyer
Journal of Inflammation 2013
Structural Changes of the Heart During Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock :
L Smeding, FB Plötz, AB Groeneveld, MC Kneyber
Shock 2012
Dexamethasone Pretreatment Attenuates Lung and Kidney Injury in Cholestatic Rats Induced by Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion
L Zhou, X Yao, Y Chen
Inflammation 2011
Tacrolimus modulates liver and pancreas nitric oxide synthetase and heme-oxygenase isoforms and cytokine production after endotoxemia
JM Balibrea, MC García-Martín, S Cuesta-Sancho, Y Olmedilla, J Arias-Díaz, E Fernández-Sevilla, E Vara, JL Balibrea
Nitric Oxide 2011
Fetal and Neonatal Physiology
LH Johnson, VK Bhutani
Fetal and Neonatal Physiology 2011
Proinflammatory cytokines in heart failure: double-edged swords
M Hedayat, MJ Mahmoudi, NR Rose, N Rezaei
Heart Failure Reviews 2010
Tumor necrosis factor-α decreases sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase expressions via the promoter methylation in cardiomyocytes*
YH Kao, YC Chen, CC Cheng, TI Lee, YJ Chen, SA Chen
Critical Care Medicine 2010
Emerging Role for TNF-α in Erectile Dysfunction
FS Carneiro, RC Webb, RC Tostes
The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2010
Protective role of Ipomoea obscura (L.) on cyclophosphamide-induced uro- and nephrotoxicities by modulating antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels
TP Hamsa, G Kuttan
Inflammopharmacology 2010
Differential regulation of TNF receptors by vagal nerve stimulation protects heart against acute ischemic injury
RG Katare, M Ando, Y Kakinuma, M Arikawa, F Yamasaki, T Sato
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 2010
Role of apoptosis in cardiovascular disease
Y Lee, ÅB Gustafsson
Apoptosis 2009
Influence of innate cytokine production capacity on clinical manifestation and severity of pediatric meningococcal disease
T Sprong, J der Ven-Jongekrijg, C Neeleman, JW van der Meer, M Deuren
Critical Care Medicine 2009
Plasma concentrations of TNF-α and its soluble receptors sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 in patients with coronary artery disease
K Safranow, V Dziedziejko, R Rzeuski, E Czyżycka, A Wojtarowicz, A Bińczak-Kuleta, K Jakubowska, M Olszewska, A Ciechanowicz, Z Kornacewicz-Jach, B Machaliński, A Pawlik, D Chlubek
Tissue Antigens 2009
Gene-expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in sepsis*
BM Tang, AS McLean, IW Dawes, SJ Huang, RC Lin
Critical Care Medicine 2009
Cytokines and acute heart failure
D Chen, C Assad-Kottner, C Orrego, G Torre-Amione
Critical Care Medicine 2008
Biology of TNFα and IL-10, and their imbalance in heart failure
K Kaur, S Dhingra, J Slezak, AK Sharma, A Bajaj, PK Singal
Heart Failure Reviews 2008
Bacterial DNA induces myocardial inflammation and reduces cardiomyocyte contractility: role of Toll-like receptor 9
P Knuefermann, M Schwederski, M Velten, P Krings, H Ehrentraut, M Rudiger, O Boehm, K Fink, U Dreiner, C Grohe, A Hoeft, G Baumgarten, A Koch, K Zacharowski, R Meyer
Cardiovascular Research 2008
Cytokines, interstitial collagen and ventricular remodelling in dilated cardiomyopathy
P Timonen, J Magga, J Risteli, K Punnonen, E Vanninen, A Turpeinen, P Tuomainen, J Kuusisto, O Vuolteenaho, K Peuhkurinen
International Journal of Cardiology 2008
Augmentor of Liver Regeneration Ameliorates Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Injury After Rat Liver Transplantation
FW Long, SY Liang, ZJ Liu, Y Chen, ZD Tu, YJ Shi, J Bao, J Gong
Transplantation Proceedings 2008
Interferon-gamma induces chronic active myocarditis and cardiomyopathy in transgenic mice
K Reifenberg, HA Lehr, M Torzewski, G Steige, E Wiese, I Küpper, C Becker, S Ott, P Nusser, KI Yamamura, G Rechtsteiner, T Warger, A Pautz, H Kleinert, A Schmidt, B Pieske, P Wenzel, T Münzel, J Löhler
The American Journal of Pathology 2007
Insights from knock-out models concerning postischemic release of TNFα from isolated mouse hearts
JC Reil, S Gilles, S Zahler, A Brandl, H Drexler, L Hültner, LM Matrisian, U Welsch, BF Becker
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 2007
Functions of TNF and its Receptors in Renal Disease: Distinct Roles in Inflammatory Tissue Injury and Immune Regulation
V Vielhauer, TN Mayadas
Seminars in Nephrology 2007