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Research Article

Study of brain electrolytes and organic osmolytes during correction of chronic hyponatremia. Implications for the pathogenesis of central pontine myelinolysis.

Y H Lien, J I Shapiro and L Chan

Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262.

Published July 1991

Osmotic injury induced by rapid correction of severe chronic hyponatremia has been implicated in the development of central pontine myelinolysis. Organic osmolytes known previously as "idiogenic osmoles" accumulate intracellularly to protect cells from osmotic injury. We investigated the changes of these organic osmolytes as well as electrolytes in the brain during the induction and correction of chronic hyponatremia. Using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and HPLC, we found that in rats with chronic hyponatremia (3 d, serum sodium = 109 +/- 3 meq/liter), brain concentrations of myoinositol (41%), glycerophosphorylcholine (45%), phosphocreatine/creatine (60%), glutamate (53%), glutamine (45%), and taurine (37%) were all significantly decreased compared with control values (percentage control value shown, all P less than 0.01). The contribution of measured organic osmolytes and electrolytes to the total brain osmolality change was 23 and 72%, respectively. With rapid correction by 5% NaCl infusion, significant brain dehydration and elevation of brain Na and Cl levels above the normal range occurred at 24 h. These changes were not seen with slow correction by water deprivation. Reaccumulation of most organic osmolytes except glycerophosphorylcholine is delayed during the correction of hyponatremia and is independent of the correction rate of serum sodium. It is concluded that: most of the change of brain osmolality in chronic hyponatremia can be accounted by the changes in organic osmolytes and brain electrolytes; and rapid correction of hyponatremia is associated with an overshoot of brain sodium and chloride levels along with a low organic osmolyte level. The high cerebral ion concentrations in the absence of adequate concentrations of organic osmolytes may be relevant to the development of central pontine myelinolysis.

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