Citations to this article


Past studies have shown that freshly isolated human B cells from peripheral blood and tonsils do not express IL-6 receptors (IL-6R); however, mitogen or antigen activation of these B cells induces IL-6R and responsiveness to IL-6. In this study, we have shown that a high proportion of B cells enzymatically dissociated from human appendix, a gut-associated lymphoreticular tissue (GALT), expresses the IL-6R, and that recombinant human IL-6 induces significant increases in the number of Ig-producing cells. The recombinant human IL-6-induced increase in Ig-producing cells is restricted to the IgA isotype. Further, IgA2 is the major subclass; however, significant numbers of IgA1 producing cells are also seen. In contrast, human tonsillar and peripheral blood B cells express low levels of IL-6R, and exogenous IL-6 does not increase numbers of Ig-producing cells. When PBMC or tonsillar cells are stimulated with PWM, the former display an equal distribution of IgA1 and IgA2 secreting cells, while tonsillar B cells are mainly of the IgA1 subclass. The distribution of surface Ig-positive (sIg+) B cells in the appendix B cell population is sIgA+ greater than sIgG+ greater than sIgM+, and the sIgA+ B cells express higher levels of IL-6R when compared with sIgG+ or sIgM+ B cells. These studies show that human appendix contains B cell subsets that constitutively express IL-6R, and that a high proportion of these cells are committed to the IgA isotype. Furthermore, higher numbers of IL-6 responsive IgA2 B cells are present in the human appendix as compared to tonsils or PBMC.


K Fujihashi, J R McGhee, C Lue, K W Beagley, T Taga, T Hirano, T Kishimoto, J Mestecky, H Kiyono


Total citations by year

Year: 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 Total
Citations: 1 3 1 1 2 5 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 9 5 2 2 8 3 4 6 2 70
Citation information

Citations to this article in year 2000 (9)

Title and authors Publication Year
Induction of IgA against Haemophilus parainfluenzae Antigens in Tonsillar Mononuclear Cells from Patients with IgA Nephropathy
S Fujieda, S Suzuki, H Sunaga, H Yamamoto, M Seki, H Sugimoto, H Saito
Clinical Immunology 2000
Mucosal vaccination and immune responses in the elderly
K Fujihashi, T Koga, JR McGhee
Vaccine 2000
Human Nasopharyngeal-Associated Lymphoreticular Tissues
PN Boyaka, PF Wright, M Marinaro, H Kiyono, JE Johnson, RA Gonzales, MR Ikizler, JA Werkhaven, RJ Jackson, K Fujihashi, SD Fabio, HF Staats, JR McGhee
The American Journal of Pathology 2000
The primate appendix: A reassessment
RE Fisher
The Anatomical Record 2000
A morphological and immunohistological study of the human and rabbit appendix for comparison with the avian bursa
JF Dasso, H Obiakor, H Bach, AO Anderson, RG Mage
Developmental & Comparative Immunology 2000
Vaccines for mucosal immunity to combat emerging infectious diseases
FW van Ginkel, HH Nguyen, JR McGhee
Emerging infectious diseases 2000
Phenotypic Pattern of B cells in the Appendix: Reduced Intensity of CD 19 Expression
E Somekh, F Serour, A Gorenstein, M Vohl, D Lehman
Immunobiology 2000
Cytokines in Breast Milk from Allergic and Nonallergic Mothers
MF Böttcher, MC Jenmalm, RP Garofalo, B Björkstén
Pediatric Research 2000
Detection of IgA antibodies to cat, β-lactoglobulin, and ovalbumin allergens in human milk
R Casas, MF Böttcher, K Duchén, B Björkstén
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2000