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Past studies have shown that freshly isolated human B cells from peripheral blood and tonsils do not express IL-6 receptors (IL-6R); however, mitogen or antigen activation of these B cells induces IL-6R and responsiveness to IL-6. In this study, we have shown that a high proportion of B cells enzymatically dissociated from human appendix, a gut-associated lymphoreticular tissue (GALT), expresses the IL-6R, and that recombinant human IL-6 induces significant increases in the number of Ig-producing cells. The recombinant human IL-6-induced increase in Ig-producing cells is restricted to the IgA isotype. Further, IgA2 is the major subclass; however, significant numbers of IgA1 producing cells are also seen. In contrast, human tonsillar and peripheral blood B cells express low levels of IL-6R, and exogenous IL-6 does not increase numbers of Ig-producing cells. When PBMC or tonsillar cells are stimulated with PWM, the former display an equal distribution of IgA1 and IgA2 secreting cells, while tonsillar B cells are mainly of the IgA1 subclass. The distribution of surface Ig-positive (sIg+) B cells in the appendix B cell population is sIgA+ greater than sIgG+ greater than sIgM+, and the sIgA+ B cells express higher levels of IL-6R when compared with sIgG+ or sIgM+ B cells. These studies show that human appendix contains B cell subsets that constitutively express IL-6R, and that a high proportion of these cells are committed to the IgA isotype. Furthermore, higher numbers of IL-6 responsive IgA2 B cells are present in the human appendix as compared to tonsils or PBMC.


K Fujihashi, J R McGhee, C Lue, K W Beagley, T Taga, T Hirano, T Kishimoto, J Mestecky, H Kiyono


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Citations to this article in year 1993 (6)

Title and authors Publication Year
Detection of abnormal peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine networks in human IgA nephropathy
MP de Caestecker, M Bottomley, BA Telfer, IV Hutchinson, BM Vose, FW Ballardie
Kidney International 1993
Do Human Peyer's Patches Contribute to the Intestinal Intraepithelial gamma/delta T-Cell Population?
IN Farstad, TS Halstensen, O Fausa, P Brandtzaeg
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 1993
Gingival mononuclear cells from chronic inflammatory periodontal tissues produce interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-6 but not IL-2 and IL-4
K Fujihashi, KW Beagley, Y Kono, WK Aicher, M Yamamoto, S DiFabio, J Xu-Amano, JR McGhee, H Kiyono
The American Journal of Pathology 1993
Expression of interleukin-6 by intestinal enterocytes
SC Jones, LK Trejdosiewicz, RE Banks, PD Howdle, AT Axon, MF Dixon, JT Whicher
Journal of clinical pathology 1993
Enhancing effect of cholera toxin on interleukin-6 secretion by IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells: mode of action and augmenting effect of inflammatory cytokines
DW McGee, CO Elson, JR McGhee
Infection and immunity 1993
Helper T cell subsets for immunoglobulin A responses: oral immunization with tetanus toxoid and cholera toxin as adjuvant selectively induces Th2 cells in mucosa associated tissues
J Xu-Amano, H Kiyono, RJ Jackson, HF Staats, K Fujihashi, PD Burrows, CO Elson, S Pillai, JR McGhee
Journal of Experimental Medicine 1993